The Lower Guinean forests also known as the Lower Guinean-Congolian forests, are a region of coastal tropical moist broadleaf forest in West Africa, extending along the eastern coast of the Gulf of Guinea from eastern Benin through Nigeria and Cameroon.[1]

The Dahomey Gap, a region of savanna and dry forest in Togo and Benin, divides the Lower Guinean forests from the Upper Guinean forests to the west, which extend along the western coast of the Gulf of Guinea from Togo to Liberia and north to Guinea. To the north and northeast, the Lower Guinean forests transition to the drier inland Guinean forest–savanna mosaic and Northern Congolian forest–savanna mosaic and to the southeast are bounded by the Congolian Coastal forests, whose boundary is the Sanaga River in Cameroon.[2] The Lower Guinean forests share many biotic affinities with the Upper Guinean forests. They are collectively known as the Guinean Forests of West Africa, location is Sierra Leone.[citation needed]

The Lower Guinean forests, represent a vital ecological region in West and Central Africa. Stretching along the Gulf of Guinea coastline, these forests encompass parts of Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and smaller portions of neighboring countries.[3] The Lower Guinean forests are globally recognized as a biodiversity hotspot, characterized by their exceptional ecological significance and remarkable species diversity.[4]


The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) divides the Lower Guinean forests into a number of distinct ecoregions:

The WWF has designated two regions of the Lower Guinean forests as Global 200 priority regions for conservation. The WWF's "Coastal Congolian forests" region includes the Cross-Sanaga Bioko coastal forests, São Tomé and Príncipe moist lowland forests, and Atlantic Equatorial coastal forests ecoregions. The "Cameroon Highlands forests" Global 200 region includes the Cameroonian Highlands forests and the Mount Cameroon and Bioko montane forests ecoregions.

Geographical Features

Tropical Rainforests

These forests primarily consist of tropical rainforests, characterized by high rainfall, lush vegetation, and a wide variety of plant life. The region's rainfall is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year.[1]

Flora and Fauna

The Lower Guinean forests are recognized as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. They are home to a vast array of plant and animal species, many of which are endemic.[citation needed]

Lower Guinean forests are known for their rich botanical diversity, including numerous tree species, epiphytes, orchids, and medicinal plants. The forests support diverse wildlife, including various primates (such as chimpanzees and gorillas), big cats (like leopards and forest elephants), numerous bird species, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.[5][1]

Ecological Significance

Carbon Storage

These forests play a critical role in sequestering carbon dioxide, helping to mitigate climate change. Their extensive vegetation stores significant amounts of carbon.[6][7] One of the most pressing global environmental concerns is climate change, primarily driven by the accumulation of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere.[8] The Lower Guinean Forests emerged as a key player in mitigating this phenomenon. These forests boast a remarkable capacity for carbon storage. The extensive and diverse vegetation that thrives within this biome serves as a substantial carbon sink, effectively sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.[9]

In fact, numerous studies and scientific reports have emphasized the importance of these forests in the fight against climate change.[10] Research findings underscore that the Lower Guinean Forests store significant amounts of carbon, serving as a vital buffer against the rising levels of atmospheric CO2.[11] This sequestration function underscores the invaluable role played by these forests in supporting global efforts to reduce the impacts of climate change.

Water Regulation

The forests regulate water flow, helping to prevent flooding during heavy rains and ensuring a steady supply of freshwater to rivers and streams.[12][13] The water regulation function of the Lower Guinean Forests is another crucial aspect of their ecological significance. These forests act as natural sponges, absorbing and releasing water in a manner that benefits both the environment and human communities. During periods of heavy rainfall, they play a critical role in preventing flooding by absorbing excess water and regulating its flow.[14][15] This not only safeguards the ecosystems within the forests but also safeguards human settlements downstream from potential deluges.

However, the forests ensure a consistent supply of freshwater to the numerous rivers and streams that originate within or flow through their territory.[16] This consistent water supply is vital for sustaining the aquatic life and vegetation that depend on these water bodies, ultimately contributing to the well-being of the entire region.[17]

Habitat for Endangered Species

Several critically endangered species, including the Cross River gorilla and various species of monkeys and birds, inhabit the Lower Guinean forests.[18][19] The Lower Guinean Forests serve as a refuge for a diverse range of wildlife. Among the most emblematic inhabitants of these forests is also the Cross River gorilla, an elusive and highly endangered primate species.[20] These forests are also home to a plethora of other species, including various monkeys, birds, and numerous plants with unique ecological significance.[citation needed]

The preservation of these forests is, therefore, paramount for the continued survival of these vulnerable species. Conservation efforts in the Lower Guinean Forests are crucial to maintaining the biodiversity of the region and ensuring the protection of these species.[21]

Cultural and Indigenous Importance

These forests are often home to indigenous communities with rich cultural traditions. The forests provide resources and are central to the way of life of many local people.[22] These forests have been the cradle of diverse cultural traditions, lifestyles, and worldviews that have thrived for generations.[23] The Cultural and Indigenous Importance of the Lower Guinean Forests therefore extends beyond their ecological significance, reflecting a profound connection between the region's indigenous communities and the forest environment.[24][23] Understanding and acknowledging this cultural dimension is integral to appreciating the holistic significance of these forests.

Threats and Conservation


The Lower Guinean forests are under threat from deforestation due to logging, agriculture, mining, and infrastructure development. This threatens both biodiversity and carbon storage.[1][25] While these causes may not be limited to this region, each contributes to the ongoing degradation of this vital ecosystem.

  1. Commercial Logging: Commercial logging is a major driver of deforestation in the Lower Guinean forests.[21] Valuable timber species are harvested for export and domestic use, leading to a significant loss of forest cover.[26] Documented instances of this include the extraction of valuable hardwoods like mahogany (Swietenia spp.) and sapele (Entandrophragma cylindricum) for international markets.[27] A study by the World Resources Institute (WRI) highlighted the impact of logging in this region, revealing that it accounts for a substantial portion of deforestation.[28]
  2. Agricultural Expansion: The expansion of agriculture, including slash-and-burn farming, plays a substantial role in forest loss.[29] Local communities clear forested areas to make way for crop cultivation, particularly in areas where subsistence farming is prevalent.[30] Documented instances include cases of cocoa cultivation, oil palm plantations, and subsistence farming practices. A report from the Rainforest Foundation UK documented the expansion of cocoa farming in the Lower Guinean forests and its detrimental impact on the environment.[31]
  3. Mining Activities: Mining for valuable minerals such as gold and bauxite results in deforestation in the Lower Guinean forests.[citation needed] The extraction of these minerals leads to the clearing of large areas of forest and generates pollution, disrupting local ecosystems. Documented instances include gold mining activities in Ghana and Guinea, which have been widely reported as contributing to deforestation. The Global Forest Watch platform provides data on mining-related deforestation in these regions.[32]
  4. Infrastructure Development: The construction of roads, highways, and other infrastructure projects often necessitates clearing significant portions of forested land. As human populations continue to grow, there is a growing demand for improved transportation networks, leading to further deforestation.[33] The fragmentation of forest habitats due to infrastructure development can also isolate populations of various species, making it harder for them to thrive and migrate.

Habitat Fragmentation

Habitat fragmentation is a pressing concern in the Lower Guinean forests, threatening the integrity of this vital ecosystem. The expansion of human activities, including infrastructure development and agricultural expansion, has led to the fragmentation of forest habitats, making it increasingly challenging for wildlife to thrive, disperse, and maintain genetic diversity.[34] This phenomenon is especially relevant to the Lower Guinean forests and has far-reaching ecological consequences which include limiting the ability of wildlife to access necessary resources, find suitable mates, and maintain genetic diversity.[35] Smaller, isolated populations of species face an increased risk of inbreeding and reduced adaptive capacity. Additionally, fragmented habitats are more vulnerable to edge effects, which can include increased predation, invasive species, and altered microclimates.[36] These consequences of habitat fragmentation pose significant challenges to the conservation and long-term sustainability of the Lower Guinean forests.

Illegal Wildlife Trade

With the pervasive and destructive issue of Poaching and illegal wildlife trade, the Lower Guinean forests faces illicit activities that poses a substantial threat to the region's unique and diverse flora and fauna, including many endangered species.[25][37] The trade encompasses the illegal capture, sale, and transportation of wildlife, and it primarily targets species for bushmeat and the exotic pet trade.

  1. Bushmeat Trade: The illegal trade in bushmeat, which involves the hunting and consumption of wild animals for food, is a significant concern in the Lower Guinean forests.[38] It poses a severe threat to numerous species, including primates, duikers, and pangolins. Unsustainable hunting practices, driven by a growing demand for bushmeat, have led to declines in wildlife populations.[39][40] Local communities often rely on bushmeat as a source of protein, but the commercial bushmeat trade, which caters to urban and international markets, exacerbates the problem. This trade results in overhunting and population decline of various species.[41] Unfortunately, many of these activities remain clandestine and are difficult to monitor and control.
  2. Exotic Pet Trade: The illegal trade in exotic pets is another concerning facet of wildlife trafficking in the Lower Guinean forests. It targets a wide range of species, including parrots, reptiles, and small mammals, for the global pet trade. These animals are often captured in the wild, often causing harm to their populations. The process of capturing, transporting, and selling these creatures not only threatens their survival but can also introduce invasive species to new regions.[42] The international demand for exotic pets contributes to the persistence of this trade.
  3. Traditional Medicine and Folklore: The use of wildlife in traditional medicine and cultural practices is a lesser-known but significant driver of illegal wildlife trade in the region. Various animal parts, such as bones, skins, and organs, are sought for their perceived medicinal or spiritual properties.[43] These practices put additional pressure on wildlife populations and further fuel the illegal trade.

Climate Change

The Lower Guinean forests, like many other critical ecosystems around the world, are increasingly susceptible to the effects of climate change. These forests, known for their high levels of biodiversity and carbon storage, face a range of climate-related challenges that can disrupt their ecological balance and alter their vital functions.[44] Changing rainfall patterns and temperature variations associated with climate change can impact the health and distribution of forest ecosystems.

  1. Changing Rainfall Patterns: Climate change has led to alterations in rainfall patterns across the Lower Guinean forests. This region typically experiences a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons.[45] However, global warming is contributing to shifts in precipitation patterns, with implications for both flora and fauna. Prolonged dry seasons and more intense rainfall events can disrupt the timing of flowering and fruiting of many plant species, affecting the availability of food resources for wildlife. Changes in rainfall patterns and their impact on local ecosystems emphasize the urgent need for adaptive strategies and conservation efforts.
  2. Temperature Variations: Rising temperatures are a growing concern in the Lower Guinean forests. Increased temperatures can lead to heat stress in many plant and animal species, particularly those adapted to the relatively stable climate of these forests. Some species may find it challenging to adjust to warmer conditions, and the thermal stress can alter local species composition. Research suggests that rising temperatures in the region may also increase the prevalence of diseases that affect both wildlife and humans, highlighting the interconnectedness of climate change and biodiversity.[46]
  3. Drought and Forest Health: Drought events, which are becoming more frequent and severe due to climate change, can weaken the resilience of the Lower Guinean forests.[47] Prolonged droughts can result in reduced soil moisture, impacting tree health and potentially leading to increased tree mortality. Such changes can disrupt forest dynamics and the structure of these ecosystems. Additionally, drier conditions may make forests more susceptible to wildfires, which can be particularly destructive in tropical forests.[48]
  4. Carbon Storage and Climate Mitigation: The Lower Guinean forests play a crucial role in global carbon storage and sequestration. The carbon stored in these forests helps mitigate climate change by reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. However, the impacts of climate change, including droughts and heat stress, can compromise the ability of these forests to continue serving as effective carbon sinks.[11] Maintaining the health and resilience of these forests is essential for mitigating climate change at both local and global scales.

Conservation Efforts

Efforts are being made by conservation organizations, governments, and local communities to protect and conserve the Lower Guinean forests. Strategies include creating protected areas, promoting sustainable forestry practices, and raising awareness about the ecological and cultural value of these unique forests. Conservation initiatives aim to balance the need for economic development with the imperative to preserve this vital ecological region.[49]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Darwall, W., Polidoro, B., Smith, K., & Somda, J. (2015). Ecosystem profile guinean forests of West Africa biodiversity hotspot. Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund Report.
  2. ^ Linder, H. Peter; De Klerk, Helen M.; Born, Julia; Burgess, Neil D.; Fjeldså, Jon; Rahbek, Carsten (2012). "The partitioning of Africa: Statistically defined biogeographical regions in sub‐Saharan Africa". Journal of Biogeography. 39 (7): 1189–1205. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02728.x. S2CID 56356256.
  3. ^ "Guinean Forests of West Africa - Biodiversity Hotspots LCS ESS". Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  4. ^ Streck, Charlotte; Scholz, Sebastian M. (2006). "The Role of Forests in Global Climate Change: Whence We Come and Where We Go". International Affairs. 82 (5): 861–879. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00575.x. ISSN 0020-5850. JSTOR 3874204.
  5. ^ "Guinean Forests of West Africa - Species | CEPF". Retrieved 2023-10-09.
  6. ^ Nunes, Leonel J. R.; Meireles, Catarina I. R.; Pinto Gomes, Carlos J.; Almeida Ribeiro, Nuno M. C. (February 2020). "Forest Contribution to Climate Change Mitigation: Management Oriented to Carbon Capture and Storage". Climate. 8 (2): 21. Bibcode:2020Clim....8...21N. doi:10.3390/cli8020021. hdl:10174/29000. ISSN 2225-1154.
  7. ^ Dixon, R. K., Winjum, J. K., & Schroeder, P. E. (1993). Conservation and sequestration of carbon: the potential of forest and agroforest management practices. Global Environmental Change, 3(2), 159-173.
  8. ^ Hanaki, Keisuke; Portugal-Pereira, Joana (2018), Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Saito, Osamu; Matsuura, Masahiro (eds.), "The Effect of Biofuel Production on Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions", Biofuels and Sustainability: Holistic Perspectives for Policy-making, Science for Sustainable Societies, Tokyo: Springer Japan, pp. 53–71, doi:10.1007/978-4-431-54895-9_6, ISBN 978-4-431-54895-9, S2CID 134509304, retrieved 2023-10-20
  9. ^ Jain, P. C. (1993-06-01). "Greenhouse effect and climate change: scientific basis and overview". Renewable Energy. Solar radiation, environment and climate change. 3 (4): 403–420. doi:10.1016/0960-1481(93)90108-S. ISSN 0960-1481.
  10. ^ Bettinger, Pete (2011-03-25). "Carbon Sinks and Climate Change, Forests In The Fight Against Global Warming, by Colin A. G. Hunt: Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd., 2009, 236 pages, ISBN-13 978-1-84720-977-1". Journal of Sustainable Forestry. 30 (3): 261–262. doi:10.1080/10549811.2011.530937. ISSN 1054-9811. S2CID 88244368.
  11. ^ a b Lindsell, Jeremy A.; Klop, Erik (2013-02-01). "Spatial and temporal variation of carbon stocks in a lowland tropical forest in West Africa". Forest Ecology and Management. 289: 10–17. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.09.045. ISSN 0378-1127.
  12. ^ Blumenfeld, S., Lu, C., Christophersen, T., & Coates, D. (2009). Water, wetlands and forests. a review of ecological, economic and policy linkages. In Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity and Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Montreal and Gland. CBD Technical Series (Vol. 47, pp. 1-38).
  13. ^ Nilsson, Christer; Renöfält, Birgitta Malm (2008). "Linking Flow Regime and Water Quality in Rivers: a Challenge to Adaptive Catchment Management". Ecology and Society. 13 (2). doi:10.5751/ES-02588-130218. hdl:10535/2977. ISSN 1708-3087. JSTOR 26268001.
  14. ^ Fairhead, James; Leach, Melissa (2000). "Desiccation and Domination: Science and Struggles over Environment and Development in Colonial Guinea". The Journal of African History. 41 (1): 35–54. doi:10.1017/S0021853799007641. ISSN 0021-8537. JSTOR 183509. S2CID 154476419.
  15. ^ Bonan, Gordon B. (2008). "Forests and Climate Change: Forcings, Feedbacks, and the Climate Benefits of Forests". Science. 320 (5882): 1444–1449. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1444B. doi:10.1126/science.1155121. ISSN 0036-8075. JSTOR 20054256. PMID 18556546. S2CID 45466312.
  16. ^ Lopes, Ana Faria; Macdonald, Jacob L.; Quinteiro, Paula; Arroja, Luís; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Cunha-e-Sá, Maria A.; Dias, Ana Cláudia (2019-10-01). "Surface vs. groundwater: The effect of forest cover on the costs of drinking water". Water Resources and Economics. Payments for Forest Watershed Services. 28: 100123. doi:10.1016/j.wre.2018.06.002. hdl:10773/31081. ISSN 2212-4284. S2CID 134808989.
  17. ^ KG, Willis (2002). "Benefits and costs of forests to water supply and water quality". Social and Environmental Benefits of Forestry.
  18. ^ Oates, J. F., Bergl, R. A., & Linder, J. M. (2004). Africa's Gulf of Guinea forests: Biodiversity patterns and conservation priorities (p. 90). Washington, DC: Conservation International.
  19. ^ Mittermeier, R. A., Valladares-Pádua, C., Rylands, A. B., Eudey, A. A., Butynski, T. M., Ganzhorn, J. U., ... & Walker, S. (2006). Primates in peril: the world's 25 most endangered primates, 2004–2006. Primate Conservation, 2006(20), 1-28.
  20. ^ Parren, Marc (2004-01-01). "Guinean forests of West Africa". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  21. ^ a b c Oates, John F. (2004). Africa's Gulf of Guinea Forests: Biodiversity Patterns and Conservation Priorities. Conservation International. ISBN 978-1-881173-82-3.
  22. ^ Fairhead, J., & Leach, M. (1996). Misreading the African landscape: society and ecology in a forest-savanna mosaic (No. 90). Cambridge University Press.
  23. ^ a b Richards, Paul (1996). "Forest indigenous peoples: concept, critique and cases". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B: Biological Sciences. 104: 349–365. doi:10.1017/S0269727000006199. ISSN 2053-5910.
  24. ^ Lawson, G. W. (1996). "The Guinea–Congo lowland rain forest: an overview". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Section B: Biological Sciences. 104: 5–13. doi:10.1017/S0269727000006096. ISSN 2053-5910.
  25. ^ a b Babon, Andrea; Gowae, Gae Yansom (2013). Drivers of deforestation and forest degradation (Report). Center for International Forestry Research. pp. 1–11.
  26. ^ Darwall, W; Polidoro, B; Smith, K (2015). "Ecosystem profile guinean forests of West Africa biodiversity hotspot". Partnership Fund Report.
  27. ^ Gaoue, Orou G.; Ticktin, Tamara (2010). "Effects of Harvest of Nontimber Forest Products and Ecological Differences between Sites on the Demography of African Mahogany". Conservation Biology. 24 (2): 605–614. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2009.01345.x. ISSN 0888-8892. JSTOR 40603385. PMID 19843124. S2CID 23655825.
  28. ^ Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Castaldi, Simona; Lindsell, Jeremy A.; Coomes, David A.; Marchetti, Marco; Maesano, Mauro; Di Paola, Arianna; Paparella, Francesco; Valentini, Riccardo (2015-01-01). "The impact of selective logging and clearcutting on forest structure, tree diversity and above-ground biomass of African tropical forests". Ecological Research. 30 (1): 119–132. doi:10.1007/s11284-014-1217-3. ISSN 1440-1703. S2CID 16051448.
  29. ^ Sirois, M.-C.; Margolis, H. A.; Camiré, C. (1998-03-01). "Influence of remnant trees on nutrients and fallow biomass in slash and burn agroecosystems in Guinea". Agroforestry Systems. 40 (3): 227–246. doi:10.1023/A:1006093329468. ISSN 1572-9680. S2CID 26664067.
  30. ^ Acheampong, Emmanuel Opoku; Macgregor, Colin J.; Sloan, Sean; Sayer, Jeffrey (2019-09-01). "Deforestation is driven by agricultural expansion in Ghana's forest reserves". Scientific African. 5: e00146. Bibcode:2019SciAf...500146A. doi:10.1016/j.sciaf.2019.e00146. ISSN 2468-2276. S2CID 202911141.
  31. ^ Wessel, Marius; Quist-Wessel, P.M. Foluke (2015-12-01). "Cocoa production in West Africa, a review and analysis of recent developments". NJAS: Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences. 74–75 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1016/j.njas.2015.09.001. ISSN 1573-5214.
  32. ^ Johnson, S; Howell, J (2019). "Forest-Smart Mining: Offset Case Studies". World Bank, Washington, DC.
  33. ^ Laurance, William F.; Alonso, Alfonso; Lee, Michelle; Campbell, Patrick (2006-05-01). "Challenges for forest conservation in Gabon, Central Africa". Futures. Futures of Bioregions. 38 (4): 454–470. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2005.07.012. ISSN 0016-3287.
  34. ^ Voigt, Maria; Supriatna, Jatna; Deere, Nicolas J; Kastanya, Agustinus; Mitchell, Simon L; Rosa, Isabel M D; Santika, Truly; Siregar, Rondang; Tasirin, Johny S; Widyanto, Adi; Winarni, Nurul L; Zakaria, Zuliyanto; Mumbunan, Sonny; Davies, Zoe G; Struebig, Matthew J (2021-09-01). "Emerging threats from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Wallacea centre of endemism". Environmental Research Letters. 16 (9): 094048. Bibcode:2021ERL....16i4048V. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac15cd. ISSN 1748-9326. S2CID 237437327.
  35. ^ Bogaert, Jan; Barima, Yao S. S.; Mongo, Léon Iyongo Waya; Bamba, Issouf; Mama, Adi; Toyi, Mireille; Lafortezza, Raffaele (2011), Li, Chao; Lafortezza, Raffaele; Chen, Jiquan (eds.), "Forest Fragmentation: Causes, Ecological Impacts and Implications for Landscape Management", Landscape Ecology in Forest Management and Conservation: Challenges and Solutions for Global Change, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 273–296, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-12754-0_12, ISBN 978-3-642-12754-0, retrieved 2023-10-21
  36. ^ Freeman, Benedictus; Roehrdanz, Patrick R.; Peterson, A. Townsend (2019-03-01). "Modeling endangered mammal species distributions and forest connectivity across the humid Upper Guinea lowland rainforest of West Africa". Biodiversity and Conservation. 28 (3): 671–685. doi:10.1007/s10531-018-01684-6. ISSN 1572-9710. S2CID 59541208.
  37. ^ Mozer, Annika; Prost, Stefan (2023-12-01). "An introduction to illegal wildlife trade and its effects on biodiversity and society". Forensic Science International: Animals and Environments. 3: 100064. doi:10.1016/j.fsiae.2023.100064. ISSN 2666-9374. S2CID 257016784.
  38. ^ Duonamou, Lucie; Konate, Alexandre; Xu, Jiliang; Humle, Tatyana (2021). "Temporal evolution of bushmeat traded in High Niger National Park, Guinea, West Africa". Oryx. 55 (5): 717–724. doi:10.1017/S0030605319001443. ISSN 0030-6053. S2CID 235035532.
  39. ^ Kümpel, N. (2006). "Incentives for sustainable hunting of bushmeat in Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea". S2CID 131655857. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  40. ^ Gill, David J. C.; Fa, John E.; Rowcliffe, J. Marcus; Kümpel, Noëlle F. (2012). "Drivers of Change in Hunter Offtake and Hunting Strategies in Sendje, Equatorial Guinea". Conservation Biology. 26 (6): 1052–1060. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2012.01876.x. ISSN 0888-8892. JSTOR 23360120. PMID 22830627. S2CID 5607205.
  41. ^ Fa, J. E. (2001-01-01). "Commercial bushmeat hunting in the Monte Mitra forests, Equatorial Guinea: extent and impact". Animal Biodiversity and Conservation.
  42. ^ Carvalho, Mariana; Palmeirim, Jorge M.; Rego, Francisco C.; Sole, Nelson; Santana, Aristides; Fa, Julia E. (2014). "What motivates hunters to target exotic or endemic species on the island of São Tomé, Gulf of Guinea?". Oryx. 49 (2): 278. doi:10.1017/S0030605313000550. ISSN 0030-6053. S2CID 85794452.
  43. ^ Magassouba, F. B.; Diallo, A.; Kouyaté, M.; Mara, F.; Mara, O.; Bangoura, O.; Camara, A.; Traoré, S.; Diallo, A. K.; Zaoro, M.; Lamah, K.; Diallo, S.; Camara, G.; Traoré, S.; Kéita, A. (2007-10-08). "Ethnobotanical survey and antibacterial activity of some plants used in Guinean traditional medicine". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 114 (1): 44–53. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2007.07.009. ISSN 0378-8741. PMID 17825510.
  44. ^ Norris, K., Asase, A., Collen, B., Gockowksi, J., Mason, J., Phalan, B., & Wade, A. (2010). Biodiversity in a forest-agriculture mosaic–The changing face of West African rainforests. Biological conservation, 143(10), 2341-2350.
  45. ^ Asefi-Najafabady, S (2013). "Response of African humid tropical forests to recent rainfall anomalies". Royal Society Publishing. 368 (1625). doi:10.1098/rstb.2012.0306. PMC 3720026. PMID 23878335.
  46. ^ Maley, Jean (1989), Leinen, Margaret; Sarnthein, Michael (eds.), "Late Quaternary Climatic Changes in the African Rain Forest : Forest Refugia and the Major Role of Sea Surface Temperature Variations", Paleoclimatology and Paleometeorology: Modern and Past Patterns of Global Atmospheric Transport, NATO ASI Series, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, pp. 585–616, doi:10.1007/978-94-009-0995-3_25, ISBN 978-94-009-0995-3, retrieved 2023-10-22
  47. ^ Liu, Z (2016). "Vegetation dynamics in the upper guinean forest region of West Africa from 2001 to 2015". Remote Sensing. 9 (1): 5. Bibcode:2016RemS....9....5L. doi:10.3390/rs9010005.
  48. ^ Bongers, F.; Poorter, L.; Rompaey, R. S. A. R. Van; Parren, M. P. E. (1999). "Distribution of Twelve Moist Forest Canopy Tree Species in Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire: Response Curves to a Climatic Gradient". Journal of Vegetation Science. 10 (3): 371–382. doi:10.2307/3237066. ISSN 1100-9233. JSTOR 3237066.
  49. ^ Nasi, R., Brown, D., Wilkie, D., Bennett, E., Tutin, C., Van Tol, G., & Christophersen, T. (2008). Conservation and use of wildlife-based resources: the bushmeat crisis. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal. and Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor. Technical Series, 50.
  50. ^ Bergl, Richard A.; Oates, John F.; Fotso, Roger (2007-01-01). "Distribution and protected area coverage of endemic taxa in West Africa's Biafran forests and highlands". Biological Conservation. Conservation in Areas of High Population Density in Sub-Saharan Africa. 134 (2): 195–208. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2006.08.013. ISSN 0006-3207.
  51. ^ "Cross River National Park (Okwangwo Division)". Retrieved 2023-10-22.
  52. ^ "Tai Forest National Park - Cote D'ivoire | African World Heritage Sites". Retrieved 2023-10-22.
  53. ^ Costa, Susana; Casanova, Catarina; Lee, Phyllis (2017). "What Does Conservation Mean for Women? the Case of the Cantanhez Forest National Park". Conservation and Society. 15 (2): 168–178. doi:10.4103/cs.cs_14_91. hdl:1893/24923. ISSN 0972-4923. JSTOR 26393284.
  54. ^ Brummett, R. E. (2003). "Rivers of the Lower Guinean rainforest: Biogeography and sustainable exploitation".
  55. ^ Stupak, Inge; Lattimore, Brenna; Titus, Brian D.; Tattersall Smith, C. (2011-08-01). "Criteria and indicators for sustainable forest fuel production and harvesting: A review of current standards for sustainable forest management". Biomass and Bioenergy. PROCEEDINGS OF A WORKSHOP OF IEA BIOENERGY TASK 31 ON ‘SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY SYSTEMS FOR BIOENERGY: INTEGRATION, INNOVATION AND INFORMATION’. 35 (8): 3287–3308. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2010.11.032. ISSN 0961-9534.
  56. ^ Ite, Uwem E. (1996). "Community perceptions of the Cross River National Park, Nigeria". Environmental Conservation. 23 (4): 351–357. Bibcode:1996EnvCo..23..351I. doi:10.1017/S0376892900039217. ISSN 0376-8929. JSTOR 44519318. S2CID 85253448.
  57. ^ Fairhead, James; Leach, Melissa (1995). "Reading Forest History Backwards: The Interaction of Policy and Local Land Use in Guinea's Forest-Savanna Mosaic, 1893-1993". Environment and History. 1 (1): 55–91. doi:10.3197/096734095779522708. ISSN 0967-3407. JSTOR 20722965.