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Ludhiana district
Location in Punjab
Location in Punjab
Ludhiana district
Coordinates: 30°53′N 75°51′E / 30.883°N 75.850°E / 30.883; 75.850Coordinates: 30°53′N 75°51′E / 30.883°N 75.850°E / 30.883; 75.850
Country India
StatePunjab
HeadquartersLudhiana
Area
 • Total3,767 km2 (1,454 sq mi)
 • Rank1 (out of 23)
Population
 (2011)[1]
 • Total3,498,739
 • Rank1 (out of 23)
 • Density975/km2 (2,530/sq mi)
Languages
 • OfficialPunjabi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Sex ratio1000/873 /
Literacy73.5%
Lok Sabha constituency1
Vidhan Sabha constituency14
HDI (2006)Increase 0.761[2] (High)
Websitewww.ludhiana.nic.in
^ ‡: Population increase (2001–2011): 15%

Ludhiana district is one of the 23 districts in the Indian state of Punjab. It is Punjab's largest district by both area and population. Ludhiana, the largest city in Punjab, is the district headquarters.

The main industries are bicycle parts and hosiery. Ludhiana is a hub of ladies footwear manufacturing small scale units around 10000 units. Ludhiana is the largest city in the state. The district is made up of seven tehsils, seven sub-tehsils and twelve development blocks.[3]

Ludhiana district has the highest HDI in Punjab at 0.761 (2004 UNDP).[4]

History

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901685,038—    
1911527,575−2.58%
1921579,161+0.94%
1931687,387+1.73%
1941839,622+2.02%
1951858,487+0.22%
19611,078,269+2.31%
19711,384,957+2.53%
19811,778,689+2.53%
19912,428,382+3.16%
20013,032,831+2.25%
20113,498,739+1.44%
source:[5]

Ludhiana gets its name from the Lodhi Dynasty, which is believed to have founded the city in 1480. During the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar the area formed part of the Sarkar of Sirhind. Chakar, Talwandi Rai in 1478 AD, Raikot in 1648 AD and Jagraon in 1688 AD were founded by the Raj family of Raikot.[6]

In the latter period of Mughal rule the western part of the district was leased to the Rais of Raikot. By the early eighteenth century, they had become semi-independent of the Mughals. The villages in Ludhiana district remained independent and under the rule of local powerful village Sikh chieftains, from 1707 to 1835. In 1747 Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded and battled the imperial army near Khanna. Although the Mughals were able to stop Ahmad Shah, his subsequent invasions weakened the Mughals, which allowed the Rais to take control of Ludhiana town in 1760.[7]

During the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Ludhiana became an important British cantonment. Initially, in 1805, Ranjit Singh occupied Ludhiana. However, in 1809, the British decided to curb his advance eastward and sent troops to confront him. Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the treaty of 'perpetual friendship' with the British, which confined his activities to the right bank of the Sutlej. British troops were permanently stationed in Ludhiana and the Cis-Sutlej states came under British protection.

According to the 1941 census, Hindus numbered 172,715, or 20.98%% of the total; Muslims, 308,482, or 36.95%; and Sikhs,341,175, or 41.68%. In 1947 due to violence and strife between the communities, most of the Muslim population left for Pakistan.[8]

Geography

Ludhiana is a centrally located city of Punjab, which is on the Grand Trunk Road from Delhi to Amritsar at latitude 30.55 North and longitude 75.54 East in Northern India.

Ludhiana is the most centrally located district in the Malwa region of the state of Punjab. For administrative purposes, it has been placed in the Patiala Division. It lies between north latitude 30°-34' and 31°-01' and east longitude 75°-18' and 76°-20'.

It is bounded on the north by the Satluj River, which separates it from Jalandhar district. The river forms its northern boundary with Hoshiarpur district. On other sides it shares common boundaries with Rupnagar district in the east, Moga district in the west, and Barnala, Sangrur and Patiala districts in the south and southeast, respectively.[3]

Topography

The topography of the district is a typical representative of an alluvial plain. It owes its origin to the aggravation work of the Satluj River. The alluvium deposited by the river has been worked over by the wind, which gave rise to a number of small dunes and sand mounds. Most of these dunes have been leveled by farmers.

The district can be divided into the flood plain of the Satluj and the upland plain.

Climate

Ludhiana features a semi-arid climate under the Köppen climate classification, with three defined seasons; summer, monsoon, and winter. This climate is characterized by dryness except for a brief spell of monsoon season, a very hot summer, and a bracing winter. The cold season is from mid-November to the early part of March. The succeeding period until the end of June is the hot season. July, August and half of September constitute the southwest monsoon. The period of mid-September to about the middle of November may be termed as a post-monsoon or transitional period.

June is generally the hottest month. Hot and scorching dust-laden winds blow during the summer season. December and January are the coldest months. Ludhiana on average sees roughly 809.3 millimetres (31.86 in) of precipitation annually. The official weather station for the city is in the compound of the Civil Surgeon's Office to the west of Ludhiana. Weather records here data back to 1 August 1868.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
30.4
(86.7)
41.1
(106.0)
46.1
(115.0)
48.3
(118.9)
47.9
(118.2)
47.8
(118.0)
44.4
(111.9)
41.7
(107.1)
40.0
(104.0)
35.8
(96.4)
29.4
(84.9)
48.3
(118.9)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 23.8
(74.8)
26.9
(80.4)
32.6
(90.7)
40.7
(105.3)
43.8
(110.8)
43.5
(110.3)
37.9
(100.2)
35.8
(96.4)
35.6
(96.1)
34.7
(94.5)
30.7
(87.3)
25.1
(77.2)
44.8
(112.6)
Average high °C (°F) 18.6
(65.5)
22.2
(72.0)
27.3
(81.1)
35.0
(95.0)
38.9
(102.0)
37.9
(100.2)
34.0
(93.2)
33.1
(91.6)
33.0
(91.4)
31.9
(89.4)
27.3
(81.1)
21.6
(70.9)
30.1
(86.2)
Average low °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
8.2
(46.8)
12.3
(54.1)
17.7
(63.9)
22.9
(73.2)
25.3
(77.5)
25.8
(78.4)
25.1
(77.2)
22.8
(73.0)
16.5
(61.7)
10.7
(51.3)
6.5
(43.7)
16.6
(61.9)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 1.2
(34.2)
3.4
(38.1)
7.3
(45.1)
12.0
(53.6)
17.6
(63.7)
20.5
(68.9)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
18.8
(65.8)
12.6
(54.7)
6.0
(42.8)
2.5
(36.5)
0.8
(33.4)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
1.4
(34.5)
7.1
(44.8)
11.7
(53.1)
18.0
(64.4)
17.4
(63.3)
18.0
(64.4)
15.2
(59.4)
9.4
(48.9)
0.3
(32.5)
−1.1
(30.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 28.3
(1.11)
37.0
(1.46)
29.9
(1.18)
17.3
(0.68)
22.3
(0.88)
69.2
(2.72)
215.0
(8.46)
205.2
(8.08)
146.0
(5.75)
19.8
(0.78)
4.3
(0.17)
15.1
(0.59)
809.3
(31.86)
Average rainy days 2.2 2.7 2.4 1.7 2.0 4.3 8.4 8.6 5.0 1.0 0.6 1.0 39.9
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 63 54 46 25 23 41 67 73 65 49 49 63 51
Average dew point °C (°F) 8
(46)
12
(54)
15
(59)
16
(61)
19
(66)
23
(73)
26
(79)
26
(79)
24
(75)
19
(66)
13
(55)
10
(50)
18
(64)
Average ultraviolet index 4 5 7 8 9 9 8 7 7 6 5 4 7
Source 1: India Meteorological Department[9][10]Time and Date (dewpoints, 2005-2015)[11]
Source 2: Weather Atlas[12]


Rainfall

The rainfall in the district increases from the southwest toward the northeast. About 70% of the rainfall is received during the period of July through September. The rainfall between December and March accounts for 16% of the rainfall; the remaining 14% rainfall is received in the other months.

Pollution

Ludhiana has one of the worst air pollution problems in India, with particulate matter being over six times the World Health Organization recommended standard, making it the 13th most polluted city in the world in the year 2014.[13][14] Industrial water pollution is also of significant concern in portions of Ludhiana, notably along the Budha Dariya.[15]

Rivers and drains

The Sutlej and its tributary, the Buddha Nala, constitute the chief hydrographic features of the district. A brief description of these is as follows.

Sutlej River
originates from Lake Manasarovar in Tibet. After flowing through Himachal Pradesh, it debouches from the Shivaliks. Just about Rupnagar, 32 km east of the boundary of Samrala Tehsil, it flows due west along the top of the district for 96 km and turns, as it leaves Jagraon Tehsil, slightly north toward its junction with the Beas at Harike. It maintains an east-west direction. It can be devastating during floods. The Sutlej has experienced a westward drift during recent times. Old towns and villages, such as Bahlulpur, Machhiwara, and Kum Kalan, were built on its banks. The river has since been dammed at Bhakhra, which has considerably checked its flooding menace in the district.
Buddha Nala
It runs parallel to the Satluj on its south for a fairly large section of its course in the district and ultimately joins the Satluj at Gorsian Kadar Baksh in the northwestern corner of the district. It floods during the rainy season, but in the dry season, it can be crossed on foot at certain points. Ludhiana and Machhiwara are to the south of the Buddha Nala. The water of the stream is polluted after it enters Ludhiana City.

Demographics

According to the 2011 census, Ludhiana district has a population of 3,498,739[1] roughly equal to the nation of Panama[16] or the US state of Connecticut.[17] Ludhiana district has a total of 2,560,225 literates which constitutes 73.5% of the population, of which male literary is 76.5% and female literacy is 69.4%. The effective literacy of 7+ population of Ludhiana district is 82.20%, of which male is 86% and female literacy is 77.9%. The sex ratio of 873 females for every 1,000 males.[1] The total Scheduled Caste population is 923,358 (26.39%). There were 716826 households in the district in 2011.[1]

The number of workers in the district is 1285,000, which means a work participation rate of 36.7%. Out of the total workforce of the district, 18.7% are engaged in the agriculture sector, 5.6% are working in the household industry, and the rest are employed in other sectors/industries.[18]

Religion

Religion in Ludhiana district (2011)[19]
Religion Percent
Sikhism
53.26%
Hinduism
42.94%
Islam
2.22%
Jainism
0.56%
Christianity
0.47%
Other or not stated
0.55%
Religion in Ludhiana District [a]
Religion Population (1941)[20]: 42  Percentage (1941) Population (2011)[19] Percentage (2011)
Sikhism 341,175 41.68% 1,863,408 53.26%
Islam 302,482 36.95% 77,713 2.22%
Hinduism[b] 171,715 20.98% 1,502,403 42.94%
Christianity 1,632 0.2% 16,517 0.47%
Others [c] 1,611 0.2% 38,698 1.11%
Total Population 818,615 100% 3,498,739 100%

Language

Languages of Ludhiana district (First Language) (2011)[21]

  Punjabi (79.65%)
  Hindi (18.19%)
  Others (2.16%)

At the time of the 2011 census 79.65% of the population spoke Punjabi and 18.19% Hindi as their first language. Hindi is spoken mainly in urban areas.[21]

Government and politics

Politics

The district is a part of the Ludhiana Lok Sabha constituency. Ravneet Singh Bittu from Congress is the MP since 2019. Following is a list of the assembly constituencies in the district.

This section is transcluded from Ludhiana Lok Sabha constituency. (edit | history)

Assembly Constituency S. No. Name Reserved for (SC/ST/None) District Total Electors MLA Party
60 Ludhiana East None Ludhiana 1,97,740 Daljit Singh Grewal AAP
61 Ludhiana South None Ludhiana 1,67,388 Rajinder Pal Kaur Chhina AAP
62 Atam Nagar None Ludhiana 1,65,315 Kulwant Singh Sidhu AAP
63 Ludhiana Central None Ludhiana 1,53,025 Ashok Prashar Pappi AAP
64 Ludhiana West None Ludhiana 1,82,976 Gurpreet Gogi AAP
65 Ludhiana North None Ludhiana 1,92,714 Madan Lal Bagga AAP
66 Gill SC Ludhiana 2,58,699 Jiwan Singh Sangowal AAP
68 Dakha None Ludhiana 1,85,086 Manpreet Singh Ayali SAD
70 Jagraon SC Ludhiana 1,80,382 Saravjit Kaur Manuke AAP
Total Electors (as on 29-April-2019) 16,83,325


MLAs

No. Constituency Name of MLA Party Bench
57 Khanna Tarunpreet Singh Sond Aam Aadmi Party Government
58 Samrala Jagtar Singh Aam Aadmi Party Government
59 Sahnewal Hardeep Singh Mundian Aam Aadmi Party Government
60 Ludhiana East Daljit Singh Grewal Aam Aadmi Party Government
61 Ludhiana South Rajinder Pal Kaur Chhina Aam Aadmi Party Government
62 Atam Nagar Kulwant Singh Sidhu Aam Aadmi Party Government
63 Ludhiana Central Ashok Prashar Pappi Aam Aadmi Party Government
64 Ludhiana West Gurpreet Gogi Aam Aadmi Party Government
65 Ludhiana North Madan Lal Bagga Aam Aadmi Party Government
66 Gill (SC) Jiwan Singh Sangowal Aam Aadmi Party Government
67 Payal (SC) Manwinder Singh Gyaspura Aam Aadmi Party Government
68 Dakha Manpreet Singh Ayali Shiromani Akali Dal Opposition
69 Raikot (SC) Hakam Singh Thekedar Aam Aadmi Party Government
70 Jagraon (SC) Saravjit Kaur Manuke Aam Aadmi Party Government

Administrative divisions

For the administrative purpose, Ludhiana district is divided into seven tehsils, which are: -

  1. Jagraon
  2. Khanna
  3. Ludhiana (East)
  4. Ludhiana (West)
  5. Payal
  6. Raikot
  7. Samrala

Ludhiana West Tehsil is a tehsil in Ludhiana district. It has 125 villages.

Ludhiana East Tehsil is a tehsil in Ludhiana district. It has 181 villages.

Also, there are seven sub-tehsils in Ludhiana district: -

  1. Dehlon
  2. Koom Kalan
  3. Ludhiana Central
  4. Machhiwara
  5. Maloud
  6. Mullanpur Dakha
  7. Sidhwan Bet

Places of interest

References

  1. ^ a b c d "District Census Hand Book – Ludhiana" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  2. ^ "United Nations HDI report - Punjab".
  3. ^ a b "Administrative Set-Up". District official website. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  4. ^ "Punjab". UNDP in India. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
  5. ^ Decadal Variation In Population Since 1901
  6. ^ Ludhiana Dist. Gazetteer 1888-89 & 1904. Chiefs of Punjab 1890, 1909 & 1940
  7. ^ "Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 16, page 200 -- Imperial Gazetteer of India -- Digital South Asia Library". dsal.uchicago.edu.
  8. ^ "Violence, Displacement and the Issue of Identity - 1947". 9 March 2005. Archived from the original on 9 March 2005.
  9. ^ "Station: Ludhiana Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 449–452. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  10. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M171. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 20 January 2021.
  11. ^ "Climate & Weather Averages in Ludhiana, Punjab, India". Time and Date. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  12. ^ "Climate and monthly weather forecast Ludhiana, India". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  13. ^ Majeed, Shariq (26 March 2014). "Ludhiana worries over its PM". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014.
  14. ^ Preet, Jatinder (16 October 2011). "Ludhiana fourth most polluted city in the world". The Sunday Guardian. Delhi, India. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014.
  15. ^ "How air and water pollution plagues Indian cities". Hindustan Times. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 29 January 2014.
  16. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2011. Panama 3,460,462 July 2011 est.
  17. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 30 September 2011. Connecticut 3,574,097
  18. ^ "Population of Ludhiana, Ludhiana Population 2018". www.punjabdata.com.
  19. ^ a b "Table C-01 Population by Religious Community: Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  20. ^ "CENSUS OF INDIA, 1941 VOLUME VI PUNJAB PROVINCE". Retrieved 21 July 2022.
  21. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Punjab". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  1. ^ Historic district borders may not be an exact match in the present-day due to various bifurcations to district borders — which since created new districts — throughout the historic Punjab Province region during the post-independence era that have taken into account population increases.
  2. ^ 1941 census: Including Ad-Dharmis
  3. ^ Including Jainism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, or not stated