Ludic
lyydin kiel', l'yyd'ikiel'
Native toRussia (Republic of Karelia)
RegionNear northwestern shore of Lake Onega
Native speakers
300 (2017)[1]
Uralic
Latin (Karelian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in
recognised as minority language in:
Republic of Karelia[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-3lud
Glottologludi1246
ELPLudian
Ludic language.png
Flag of Ludic Karelian
Flag of Ludic Karelian

Ludic, or Ludian, or Ludic Karelian (Luudi, Lyydi or lüüdi), is a Finnic language in the Uralic language family or a Karelian dialect. It is transitional between the Olonets Karelian language and the Veps language.[1] It is spoken by 300 Karelians in the Republic of Karelia in Russia, near the southwestern shore of Lake Onega, including a few children.[3]

Classification

In the Finnish research tradition, Ludic has been considered a transitional dialect area between Karelian and Veps,[4] while in the Russian research tradition it is, on ethnographic grounds, normally considered a dialect of Karelian. A status as an independent language has been proposed in recent times.[5] Ludic is characterised by a specific mixture of Karelian-like traits (such as the diphthongisation of the Proto-Finnic non-open long vowels: e.g. *pää > piä 'head', *soo > suo 'swamp', contrast Veps , so)[6] and Veps-like traits (such as an almost complete loss of consonant gradation).[7]

Dialects

Ludic comprises three main dialect groups:[5]

The strongest Karelian resemblance is found in Northern Ludic, while the Kuďäŕv dialect shares the most features with Veps.

Phrases

ken sina oled = who are you

mi tämä on = what is this

kudam teiš on onni = which one of you is Onni

kuspiä sina astud = where do you live

mikš sina nagrad = why are you laughing

kudam čuas on = what time is it

konz hyö tuldah kodih = when are they coming home

häin lähtöu huomei = he/she leaves tomorrow[8]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Ludic at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ "Законодательные акты: О государственной поддержке карельского, вепсского и финского языков в Республике Карелия". Archived from the original on 2017-10-11. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  3. ^ "Uhanalainen lyydi on oma itämerensuomalainen kielensä | Humanistinen tiedekunta | Helsingin yliopisto".
  4. ^ Itkonen, Terho (1971). "Aunuksen äänneopin erikoisuudet ja aunukselaismurteiden synty". Virittäjä (75): 182.
  5. ^ a b Pahomov 2011, p. 10.
  6. ^ Pahomov 2011, p. 29.
  7. ^ Pahomov 2011, p. 32.
  8. ^ Pahomov, Miikul (2019). Venä-lüüdin paginnik Русско-людиковский разговорник. Lüüdilaine Siebr.

Literature