Ludwig Traube (June 19, 1861 – May 19, 1907) was a paleographer and held the first chair of Medieval Latin in Germany (at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich). He was a son of the physician Ludwig Traube (1818–1876), and the brother of the chemist Margarete Traube (1856–1912).
Traube was born in Berlin, the son of a middle-class Jewish family, and studied at the universities of Munich and Greifswald. In 1883 he finished his Ph.D. with a dissertation entitled Varia libamenta critica. He finished his habilitation in classical and medieval philology in 1888 with a part of his book on Carolingian poetry (Karolingische Dichtungen).
In 1897 he became a member of the central management of Monumenta Germaniae Historica. In 1902 he was appointed professor of Latin philology of the Middle Ages at Munich. In 1905 he discovered that he had leukemia, from which he died two years later.