Lule Sámi
julevsámegiella
Native toNorway, Sweden
Native speakers
650 [1] (2015)
Latin
Official status
Recognised minority
language in
Norway; Sweden[2]
Language codes
ISO 639-2smj
ISO 639-3smj
Glottologlule1254
ELPLule Saami
Sami languages large.png
Lule Sámi is 4 on this map
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Lule Sami (julevsámegiella, Norwegian: lulesamisk, Swedish: lulesamiska) is a Uralic, Sámi language spoken around the Lule River, Sweden, and in the northern parts of Nordland county in Norway, especially Tysfjord municipality, where Lule Sámi is an official language. It is written in the Latin script, having an official alphabet.

Status

With 650 speakers, it is the second largest of all Sámi languages. It is reported that the number of native speakers is in sharp decline among the younger generations. The language has, however, been standardised in 1983 and elaborately cultivated ever since.

Phonology

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Consonants

Some analyses of Lule Sámi phonology may include preaspirated stops and affricates (/hp/, /ht/, /ht͡s/, /ht͡ʃ/, /hk/) and pre-stopped or pre-glottalised nasals (voiceless /pm/, /tn/, /tɲ/, /kŋ/ and voiced /bːm/, /dːn/, /dːɲ/, /gːŋ/). However, these can be treated as clusters for the purpose of phonology, since they are clearly composed of two segments and only the first of these lengthens in quantity 3. The terms "preaspirated" and "pre-stopped" will be used in this article to describe these combinations for convenience.

Labial Dental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive /
Affricate
voiceless p t t͡s t͡ʃ k
voiced b d d͡z d͡ʒ ɟ ɡ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ h
voiced v
Semivowel j
Lateral l ʎ
Trill r

Vowels

Lule Sámi possesses the following vowels:

Short vowels Long vowels Diphthongs
Front Back Front Back Front Back
Close i u ie̯ uo̯
Mid e o ea̯ oɑ̯
Open a

Consonant length and gradation

Consonants, including clusters, that occur after a stressed syllable can occur in multiple distinctive length types, or quantities. These are conventionally labelled quantity 1, 2 and 3 or Q1, Q2 and Q3 for short. The consonants of a word alternate in a process known as consonant gradation, where consonants appear in different quantities depending on the specific grammatical form. Normally, one of the possibilities is named the strong grade, while the other is named weak grade. The consonants of a weak grade are normally quantity 1 or 2, while the consonants of a strong grade are normally quantity 2 or 3.

Throughout this article and related articles, consonants that are part of different syllables are written with two consonant letters in IPA, while the lengthening of consonants in quantity 3 is indicated with an IPA length mark (ː).

Not all consonants can occur in every quantity type. The following limitations exist:

When a consonant can occur in all three quantities, quantity 3 is termed "overlong".

Phonological processes

Umlaut

Umlaut is a process whereby a diphthong in a stressed syllable changes depending on the vowel in the next syllable.

The first type of umlaut causes an alternation between /ea̯/ and /ie̯/ in words whose stems end with unstressed /ie̯/. For such words, these two diphthongs can be considered variants of each other, while in words whose stems end with another vowel, these vowels remain distinct. The following table shows the different patterns that occur with different following vowels:

Second vowel uo̯ ie̯ a u i
Stem ends in /ie̯/ ea̯ ie̯ ea̯ ie̯
Stem ends in another vowel ea̯ ea̯
Stem ends in another vowel ie̯ ie̯

The second type of umlaut, called "diphthong simplification" or "monophthongization", is similar to its Northern Sami counterpart, but works differently. The diphthongs /ea̯/ and /oɑ̯/ become /eː/ and /oː/ respectively, if:

The diphthongs /ie̯/ and /uo̯/ are unaffected. The reverse process also occurs, turning the long vowels back into diphthongs if the consonant becomes quantity 3 or the vowel in the next syllable becomes long.

The third type of umlaut, progressive umlaut, works in the other direction. It causes the unstressed vowels /a/ and /aː/ to be rounded to /o/ and /oː/ respectively, if the preceding stressed vowel is short /o/.

Unstressed vowel lengthening

If a stressed syllable contains a short vowel followed by a single (quantity 1) consonant, then a short vowel in the following syllable is lengthened.

Dialects

Sammallahti[3] divides Lule Sámi dialects as follows:

Features of the northern dialects of Lule Sámi are:

Features of the southern dialects of Lule Sámi are:

Orthography

The orthography used for Lule Sámi is written using an extended form of the Latin script.

Letter Phoneme(s) Notes
A a /a/
Á á /aː/
B b /p/, /b/
D d /t/, /d/
E e /eː/, /ie̯/ /ie̯/ when unstressed.
F f /f/
G g /k/, /ɡ/
H h /h/
I i /i/
J j /j/
K k /k/, /kʰ/ Postaspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
L l /l/
M m /m/
N n /n/
Ŋ ŋ /ŋ/
O o /uo̯/ Only unstressed.
P p /p/, /pʰ/ Postaspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
R r /r/
S s /s/
T t /t/, /tʰ/ Postaspirated at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
U u /u/
V v /v/
Å å /o/, /oː/
Ä ä /ea̯/

Traditionally, the character ⟨Ń⟩ has been used to represent /ŋ/. In place of n-acute (available in Unicode and mechanical type writers, but not in Latin-1 or traditional Nordic keyboards), many have used ⟨ñ⟩ or even ⟨ng⟩. In modern orthography, such as in the official publications of the Swedish government and the recently published translation of the New Testament, it is usually replaced with ⟨ŋ⟩, in accordance with the orthography of many other Sámi languages.

Grammar

Cases

Lule Sámi has seven cases:

Nominative

Like the other Uralic languages, the nominative singular is unmarked and indicates the subject of a predicate. The nominative plural is also unmarked and is always formally the same as the genitive singular.

Genitive

The genitive singular is unmarked and looks the same as the nominative plural. The genitive plural is marked by a-j. The genitive is used:

Accusative

The accusative is the direct object case and it is marked with -v in the singular. In the plural, its marker is -t, which is preceded by the plural marker -j.

Inessive

The inessive marker is -n in the singular and the plural, when it is then preceded by the plural marker -j. This case is used to indicate:

Illative

The illative marker is -j in the singular and -da in the plural, which is preceded by the plural marker -i, making it look the same as the plural accusative. This case is used to indicate:

Elative

The elative marker is -s in the singular and the plural, when it is then preceded by the plural marker -j. This case is used to indicate:

Comitative

The comitative marker in the singular is -jn and -j in the plural, which means that it looks like the genitive plural. The comitative is used to state with whom or what something was done.

Pronouns

The personal pronouns have three numbers - singular, plural and dual. The following table contains personal pronouns in the nominative and genitive/accusative cases.

  English nominative English genitive
First person (singular) I mån my muv
Second person (singular) you (thou) dån your, yours duv
Third person (singular) he, she sån his, her suv
First person (dual) we (two) måj our munnu
Second person (dual) you (two) dåj your dunnu
Third person (dual) they (two) såj theirs sunnu
First person (plural) we mij our mijá
Second person (plural) you dij your dijá
Third person (plural) they sij their sijá

The next table demonstrates the declension of a personal pronoun he/she (no gender distinction) in various cases:

  Singular Dual Plural
Nominative sån såj sij
Genitive suv sunnu sijá
Accusative suv sunnuv sijáv
Inessive sujna sunnun siján
Illative sunji sunnuj sidjij
Elative sujsta sunnus sijás
Comitative sujna sunnujn sijájn

Verbs

Person

Lule Sámi verbs conjugate for three grammatical persons:

Mood

Lule Sámi has five grammatical moods:

Grammatical number

Lule Sámi verbs conjugate for three grammatical numbers:

Tense

Lule Sámi verbs have two simple tenses:

and two compound tenses:

Verbal nouns

Negative verb

Lule Sámi, like Finnish, the other Sámi languages, and some Estonian dialects, has a negative verb. In Lule Sámi, the negative verb conjugates according to tense (past and non-past), mood (indicative, imperative and optative), person (1st, 2nd and 3rd) and number (singular, dual and plural).

Present
indicative
Past
indicative
Imperative Optative
1st singular iv ittjiv
2nd singular i ittji ale allu
3rd singular ij ittjij allis allus
1st dual en ejma allon allun
2nd dual ähppe ejda al'le alluda
3rd dual äbá ejga alliska alluska
1st plural ep ejma allop allup
2nd plural ehpit ejda allit allut
3rd plural e ettjin allisa allusa

References

  1. ^ numbers from 2015 (Norwegian)
  2. ^ "To which languages does the Charter apply?". European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Council of Europe. p. 3. Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2014-04-03.
  3. ^ Sammallahti, Pekka (1998). The Saami Languages: An Introduction. Kárášjohka: Davvi Girji.

Literature