This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (July 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (July 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
A "Made in China" label
A "Made in China" label
A dry marker with a Made in China label
A dry marker with a Made in China label

Made in China, Product of China or sometimes Made in PRC is a country of origin label affixed to products manufactured in the People's Republic of China.[1][2] The Made in China label is the most recognizable label in the world today, due to the country being the largest exporter in the world.[3][failed verification]

Due to the common association of the label with cheap, low-quality, and often dangerous products, the phrase "Made in China" is often used in a pejorative manner to refer to any low-quality products regardless of origin.[4]

Manufacturing

A "Made in China" label
A "Made in China" label

China is currently the world's number-one manufacturer.[5] China has been continuing to improve their ways of manufacturing by using robots and large scale factories.

Branding

The "Made in China" brand was historically challenged by the US Cold War media campaigns that reported negatively on the brand and publicized hearings on the security of Chinese products in the United States Congress.[6]

Representative competition

Since the 21st century, China’s emerging independent companies have performed well in the international market. After entering the Chinese market, many multinational companies have not monopolized the Chinese market as they thought, but can only cooperate or share the market with Chinese companies, and Chinese companies Comparison with international companies.

Procter & Gamble

P & G entered the Chinese market in 1988, and began to profit in 1991. Its sales have been growing at a rate of 50% per year. In the 15th year of P&G's operation in China, at the end of 2003, it announced a new market strategy: "Eagle Shooting". "Eagle" refers to a local private enterprise Nice, the company uses Diao (eagle Pinyin) as its laundry soap and detergent brand name. Following the success of high-performance soap, Nice quickly launched another distinctive new product: Diao translucent laundry soap. The success of ultra-high performance soap and translucent laundry soap earned Nice the first pot of gold. Nice has become the industry leader. Since then, Diao card brand has gone beyond the remote town of Yeosu and fame throughout China[citation needed].

Taobao-eBay

eBay in March 2002 acquisition of China's most popular auction site EveryNet, to enter the Chinese market. EachNet.com in China founded by two young graduates of Harvard Business School, who in 1999 brought the concept of eBay China. China is of strategic importance in eBay’s global strategy, and the company is ready to make long-term investments: a payback period of 5 to 10 years is sufficient. At that time, the Ma (Jack Ma) led by Ali Baba to $12 million investment in support of Taobao. But only four years later, eBay reached a deal that appeared to be withdrawing from the Chinese market, even though eBay stated that the deal did not mean exit. By the end of 2006, the battle had ended. Taobao has won a staggering 69% market share, while eBay's market share declined from 80% to 29%. On December 20, eBay's then CEO Meg Whitman went to Shanghai to announce his withdrawal from the battle. Alibaba's B2B sites primarily by global operators and manufacturers in China linked services for SMEs.

2020 December 14, China National Administration of the market has made the decision based on "anti-monopoly law," Article 48, 49, Alibaba Investment Ltd. The three companies were sentenced to a fine of 500,000-yuan RMB administrative penalties. Last Christmas Eve (24 December), on the ants gold dress IPO was stopped after one month, the Chinese market regulators announced Alibaba suspicion of "alternative" monopoly (ie electronic business platform and take advantage of its dominant position business-to-platform dependencies between platform operators forced "alternative" behavior) and other acts of a criminal investigation. Alibaba share price immediately plunged. It is also China's first large-scale domestic science-based companies such investigations.[7]

Major incidents related to exported products

Main articles: 2007 Chinese export recalls, 2007 pet food recalls, and 2008 Chinese heparin adulteration

In the 2007 Chinese export recalls, product safety institutions in the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia and New Zealand issued recalls and import bans on a wide range of Chinese-made consumer goods, such as pet food, toys,[8] toothpaste,[9][10] lipstick, and certain types of seafood.

During the 2008 Chinese export recalls, heparin was recalled by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to contamination of the raw heparin stock imported from China.[11][12][13]

Lenovo has admitted in a public statement that it had pre-installed third-party adware named Superfish that was considered malicious on an unknown number of machines, beginning from 2010.[14][15][16]

During the COVID-19 pandemic, rapid antibody tests purchased by Spain for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus reportedly detected only 30% of infected cases. An 80% detection rate was considered desirable. The tests were allegedly made by a firm which did not have permission to produce biomedical materials, and were inadvertently purchased by Spain due to insufficient oversight owing to the disruption caused by the pandemic.[17]

Recently, controversies related to products made in China have regarded the treatment of the Uyghur ethnic minority in the Xinjiang region, which has included use of forced labor.[18]

Xinjiang cotton disputes in 2021

See also: Uyghur genocide and Xinjiang cotton industry

It is learned from China Grain Reserve Management Group that as the world's largest cotton consumer and second largest cotton producer, China will produce about 5.95 million tons of cotton in 2020/2021, with a total demand of about 7.8 million tons and an annual gap of about 1.85 million tons.[19]

The data published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations also show that China's seed cotton (cotton with no seeds removed) has been in the forefront of the world in recent years, ranking first in the world in 2018 and 2019. Although the output is large, it is still in short supply. In order to meet domestic demand, China still needs to import about 2 million tons of cotton every year on average. China has actively expanded import channels and strengthened cooperation with important cotton producing countries such as Brazil and India to ensure the stability of the domestic cotton supply chain.

According to China Agricultural Net, the sown area of cotton in Xinjiang will reach 24.196 million mu (16,130 km2) in 2020, of which the planting area of mechanical harvesting mode will reach 16.8963 million mu, and the planting area of mechanical harvesting will account for 69.83% of the total cotton sown area. In 2020, a total of 3,383 cotton pickers (2626 local) were put into use in various parts of Xinjiang, of which 1233 were involved in cross-regional operations (mainly the Corps and Beijiang cotton pickers).[20]

In the future, the mechanization of cotton picking will continue to advance. The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Agricultural and Rural Mechanization Development Center's 2021 work points mentioned that in 2021, it will accelerate the improvement of the level of mechanization of cotton production and guide the transformation of cotton production to full mechanization. The new machine-picked cotton area in Xinjiang will be more than 1.6 million mu, and the whole process of cotton production will be The mechanization rate reached 88%, and the cotton mechanization rate increased by 4%.

Among them, Xinjiang is the main producing area of cotton in China. Data from the National Bureau of Statistics and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Statistics Bureau show that in 1949, Xinjiang's cotton production accounted for only 1% of the country's total. In 2012, Xinjiang’s cotton production accounted for more than 50% of the country’s cotton production. In the following years, this data continued to rise. By 2020, Xinjiang’s cotton production has accounted for 87% of the country’s cotton production.

The problem of Xinjiang’s labor camps has long existed. In addition to denials, Chinese officials have actually taken specific actions to modify the operation of the re-education camps on a large scale. The British and US customs banned the import of products from Xinjiang’s re-education camps as early as 2020. In September 2020, the United States Congress passed the "Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act", which stipulates that unless companies provide clear and convincing evidence that there is no forced labor in their supply chain, the import of all products from Xinjiang is completely prohibited. The "Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act" has caused substantial interference with the operations of multinational companies. Therefore, President Trump announced the signing after it was passed, and the successor Biden has not yet dealt with it.

At the same time, H&M issued a statement as early as October last year that "no longer use Xinjiang cotton to produce goods, and no purchase of related raw materials." Although the Chinese government was unhappy, it did not immediately punish or sanction the company, nor did it impose other sanctions on the company. Foreign companies participating in the BCI conducted substantive audits. The Chinese government was silent for nearly half a year before suddenly resorting to mass movements.

Made in China 2025

Main article: Made in China 2025

In 2013, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang and his State Council approved a plan called "Made in China 2025". Drafted by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the plan took one hundred and fifty people over two years to complete. The plan's aim is to improve production efficiency and quality.[21] The "Made In China 2025" initiative is not just aimed at removing dependence on foreign technology, but also to have China actively lead and define international technology standards.[22]

'New Era' 2025

The impact of the export of Chinese-made products on the Chinese economy and overview the impact of the export of Chinese-made products on the international economy. It will include the draft outline of the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025), to show the further plan from the Chinese government that has already made for future export of made-in-China products.

On March 5 (Friday) in the "Two Sessions" event held in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China reviewed and approved the draft outline of the Fourteenth Five-Year Plan (2021-2025). China's next five-year plan aimed at clothing production westwards, including the contentious Xinjiang, and expand the domestic market in the world's largest clothing, footwear and raw material producing countries.

Overall, the new program aims to achieve financial services, real estate and industrial and agricultural economy "balanced development", aimed at achieving supply chain and modern production chain, so that China continues "green transformation" by stringent environmental regulations, and stabilize agribusiness, Coordinate urban and rural development.

"Fourteenth Five-Year Plan" also includes so-called "dual circulation" doctrine of the outline, China will be based on the promotion of "internal circulation" trade, rather than over-reliance on open international market.[23]

China is looking forward to move from "made in China" to "created in China".[24]

Made in Hong Kong

By the 1970s, Hong Kong had an abundance of cheap labor, thus large-scale processing and manufacturing of products for international brands. Hong Kong needs the production and export of daily life electronic watches, toys, clothes and other products around the world. During this time, Hong Kong strictly adopted Western production and management standards under British rule. So many people in Western countries regard the Hong Kong goods associated with quality.

In 1974, the Hong Kong Independent Commission Against Corruption was established. Independent Commission Against Corruption to ensure strict compliance with company and factory production standards, while preventing corruption in business. With these policies and advantages, Hong Kong witnessed the golden age of manufacturing industry in the 1980s.

Made in Hong Kong in Australia

In Australia, the Hong Kong-made products can be traced back to the 1930s. During the Great Depression, Australia's exports to Hong Kong exceeded its imports. Imports from Hong Kong products are usually the local Chinese community products, including rice, ginger, essential oils, tea, textiles, embroidery and lace. By the 1970s, trade between Australia and Hong Kong is growing, more and more manufactured goods shipped to Hong Kong on Australian shelves. In the 1970s emigration from Hong Kong, the influx of products manufactured in Hong Kong's imports from Chinatown, such as chopsticks and rice cookers.

Made in Hong Kong will be replaced by Made in China

In the 1990s, Hong Kong's status as a manufacturing hub began to decline. With mainland China opening up to the world economy, many companies moved their factories from the neighboring province of Guangdong, Hong Kong. Since then, Hong Kong, Australia, the production of goods declined significantly. As foreign investment continues to flow into mainland China, Hong Kong has gradually lost its advantage as a manufacturing center. With plenty of cheap labor and land, China has become the "world factory", but Hong Kong has seen a small real estate prices soaring. Made in Hong Kong will be replaced by Made in China. In November 2020, the United States for all products imported from Hong Kong re-labeled "Made in China" label, in response to China's increasingly strict controls Hong Kong's autonomy.[25]

Made in China diplomacy

While political leaders traded threats, this pandemic makes Americans more dependent on Chinese manufacturers. Analysis of e-commerce Marketplace Pulse, said nearly half of Amazon's bestseller - in the United States with annual sales of over a million dollars - all in Chinese. Amazon spokesman recently described it as inaccurate, though he declined to say how many Chinese seller, saying only that most third-party vendors on the US site are in the United States. On the product page, Chinese sellers rarely advertise their location.[26]

COVID-19 and China's manufacturing

The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions to do so are met. (May 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In a report entitled "China's factory activity expands at fastest pace in over three years",[27] Reuters said that China's official PMI index rose from 51.4% in October to 52.1% in November, the highest since September 2017. Value, and higher than the 51.5% previously expected by Reuters analysts. This shows that China's manufacturing industry has returned to the level before the new crown pneumonia pandemic.

The report of the US Consumer News and Business Channel website specifically mentioned that China’s November non-manufacturing business activity index and composite PMI output index were both at their highest points during the year, and were above the threshold for 9 consecutive months, showing that China’s The non-manufacturing and service industries have continued their steady and positive recovery.[28]

According to a report from Nihon Keizai Shimbun on November 29[citation needed]: "China's share of global exports is rising, even exceeding the level before the Sino-US trade war broke out in 2018." According to the report, data on 3,800 commodities from the International Trade Center The analysis found that China accounted for more than 50% of the total of 320 kinds of commodities in 2019, close to 10%. This number is more than four times more than when China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001 (61 kinds).

As the COVID-19 vaccines are put into use in the future, they will help boost market confidence and promote global economic recovery. China will be the only country to achieve positive economic growth this year. By the end of next year[when?], the global economy may return to the level before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, and it is expected that China's contribution to global economic growth next year will reach one-third.[29]

See also

References

  1. ^ Fan, Ying (2008). "Country of origin, branding strategy and internationalisation: The case of Chinese piano companies". Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies. 6 (3): 303–319. doi:10.1080/14765280802283618. S2CID 34472118.
  2. ^ Fan, Ying (2006). "The globalisation of Chinese brands". Marketing Intelligence & Planning. 24 (4): 365–379. doi:10.1108/02634500610672107.
  3. ^ Monaghan, Angela (10 January 2014). "China surpasses US as world's largest trading nation". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
  4. ^ Monaghan, Angela. "Made In China: Misconceptions". ITI Manufacturing. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Everything you need to know about China manufacturing". South China Morning Post. 16 December 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  6. ^ Jing, Wang. Brand New China: Advertising, Media, and Commercial Culture. Harvard University Press. pp. 136–137.
  7. ^ "被赶下神坛的马云——阿里巴巴遭反垄断调查始末". www.abc.net.au (in Chinese). 8 January 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Mattel to recall more Chinese-made toys". CNN. Retrieved 14 August 2007.[dead link]
  9. ^ Spain withdraws Chinese toothpaste from the oral care market CosmesticsDesigns.com. 12 July 2007.Accessed: 2007-09-05.
  10. ^ Ramachandran, Arjun (29 August 2007). "Toxic toothpaste alert: buyers beware". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 29 August 2007.
  11. ^ CBS News, Blood-thinning drug under suspicion
  12. ^ FDA informational page with information and links about FDA investigation.
  13. ^ "Heparin's Deadly Side Effects". Time magazine. 13 November 2008. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008. Retrieved 16 November 2008. A month earlier and half a world away, a team of quality-control specialists from Baxter International, the big multinational health-care company (2007 sales: $11.26 billion) based in Deerfield, Ill., arrived in Zhejiang province, China, about two hours by car from Shanghai, to inspect a facility owned by one of its key suppliers. CZ-SPL is a joint venture controlled by Scientific Protein Laboratories LLC (SPL), a Waunakee, Wis., company started in 1976 by Oscar Meyer, of hot-dog fame. (The connection: pigs naturally produce proteins used in pharmaceuticals.) CZ-SPL makes a key ingredient, what in the pharmaceutical business is called an active pharmaceutical ingredient, or API, for a drug called heparin, a blood thinner that is widely used by kidney-dialysis and postsurgical patients to prevent blood clots. The team found little unusual and gave the facility a clean bill of health.
  14. ^ "LENOVO STATEMENT ON SUPERFISH - Lenovo Newsroom". news.lenovo.com. Archived from the original on 13 September 2017. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  15. ^ "Lenovo Superfish Adware Vulnerable to HTTPS Spoofing - US-CERT". www.us-cert.gov.
  16. ^ "AVG | How to remove Superfish". Archived from the original on 2 March 2015. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
  17. ^ Jones, Sam. "Coronavirus test kits withdrawn in Spain over poor accuracy rate". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2022.
  18. ^ Davidson, Helen (15 December 2020). "Xinjiang: more than half a million forced to pick cotton, report suggests". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  19. ^ 魏文彬. "【数·百年】世界棉花看中国 中国棉花看新疆-新华网". www.xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  20. ^ "Better Cotton Initiative pulls out of Xinjiang | Materials & Production News | News". 28 March 2021. Archived from the original on 28 March 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  21. ^ "Made in China 2025". Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved 14 July 2015.
  22. ^ Levine, Derek Adam (2020). "Made in China 2025: China's Strategy for Becoming a Global High-Tech Superpower and its Implications for the U.S. Economy, National Security, and Free Trade". Journal of Strategic Security. 13 (3): 1–16. doi:10.5038/1944-0472.13.3.1833. ISSN 1944-0464.
  23. ^ "'Made in China for China' focus of new five-year plan". www.just-style.com. 9 March 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  24. ^ Keane, Michael (September 2006). "From made in China to created in China". International Journal of Cultural Studies. 9 (3): 285–296. doi:10.1177/1367877906066875. ISSN 1367-8779. S2CID 128552235.
  25. ^ "Made in Hong Kong was once favoured by Australian households — but now it's disappearing". www.abc.net.au. 13 February 2021. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  26. ^ Hessler, Peter. "The Rise of Made-in-China Diplomacy". The New Yorker. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  27. ^ Woo, Stella Qiu, Ryan (30 November 2020). "China's factory activity expands at fastest pace in over three years". Reuters. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  28. ^ consumer, the world's top (6 November 2012). "METALS-Copper off two-month low, cautious ahead of U.S. vote". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  29. ^ "制造业快速增长 服务业稳中向好:最新数据显示中国经济持续向好_滚动新闻_中国政府网". www.gov.cn. Retrieved 27 May 2021.