Madison County
Madison County Courthouse
Madison County Courthouse
Map of Florida highlighting Madison County
Location within the U.S. state of Florida
Map of the United States highlighting Florida
Florida's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 30°27′N 83°28′W / 30.45°N 83.47°W / 30.45; -83.47
Country United States
State Florida
FoundedDecember 26, 1827
Named forJames Madison
SeatMadison
Largest cityMadison
Area
 • Total716 sq mi (1,850 km2)
 • Land696 sq mi (1,800 km2)
 • Water20 sq mi (50 km2)  2.8%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2019)
18,493[1]
 • Density26.5/sq mi (10.2/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district5th
Websitewww.madisoncountyfl.com

Madison County is a county located in the north central portion of the state of Florida, and borders the state of Georgia to the north. As of the 2010 census, the population was 19,224.[2] Its county seat is also called Madison.[3] As of August 28, 2012, Madison became a wet county, meaning that voters had approved the legal sale, possession, or distribution of alcoholic beverages.[4]

History

Located in what is known as the Florida Panhandle, Madison County was created in 1827.[5] It was named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States of America, who served from 1809 to 1817.[6] It was developed as part of the plantation belt, with cotton cultivated and processed by enslaved African Americans.[7]

In the period after Reconstruction, racial violence rose in the state, reaching a peak at the end of the 19th century and extending into the difficult economic years of the 1920s and 1930s. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report, Lynching in America: Confronting Racial Terror, from 1877 to 1950, Madison County had 16 lynchings in this period, the 6th highest of any county in the state.[8] The county's economic and population growth was stagnant from the 1880s and for several decades into the early 20th century.[7]

In 1945, the county's population of 15,537 was divided evenly between black and white.[7] The last known lynching in the county was that in October 1945 of Jesse James Payne, a young married sharecropper with a child. After an economic dispute with the white landowner where he was sharecropping, where Payne escaped murder following "a demand for an unjust debt repayment", he was charged with sexually assaulting the landowner's daughter, but was innocent. The sheriff and other law enforcement officials appeared implicated in Payne's murder, as he was left in the county jail unguarded after mob action had been threatened. Payne's was the only recorded lynching nationwide that year, when World War II ended. The case received national attention and the governor was strongly criticized for failure to mount a true investigation or to take action against the sheriff.[7]

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 716 square miles (1,850 km2), of which 696 square miles (1,800 km2) is land and 20 square miles (52 km2) (2.8%) is water.[9]

Adjacent counties

Demographics

Historical population
Census Pop.
1830525
18402,644403.6%
18505,490107.6%
18607,77941.7%
187011,12143.0%
188014,79833.1%
189014,316−3.3%
190015,4467.9%
191016,9199.5%
192016,516−2.4%
193015,614−5.5%
194016,1903.7%
195014,197−12.3%
196014,154−0.3%
197013,481−4.8%
198014,89410.5%
199016,56911.2%
200018,73313.1%
201019,2242.6%
2019 (est.)18,493[10]−3.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[11]
1790-1960[12] 1900-1990[13]
1990-2000[14] 2010-2019[2]

2020 census

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

Madison County racial composition
(NH = Non-Hispanic)[15][16]
Race Pop 2010 Pop 2020 % 2010 % 2020
White (NH) 10,582 10,132 55.05% 56.39%
Black or African American (NH) 7,423 6,281 38.61% 34.96%
Native American or Alaska Native (NH) 76 53 0.4% 0.29%
Asian (NH) 43 45 0.22% 0.25%
Some Other Race (NH) 6 63 0.03% 0.35%
Mixed/Multi-Racial (NH) 195 513 1.01% 2.86%
Hispanic or Latino 899 881 4.68% 4.9%
Total 19,224 17,968

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 17,968 people, 6,778 households, and 4,232 families residing in the county.

2000 census

As of the census[17] of 2000, there were 18,733 people, 6,629 households, and 4,680 families residing in the county. The population density was 27 people per square mile (10/km2). There were 7,836 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile (4/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 57.49% Caucasian, 40.30% Black or African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, and 1.04% from two or more races. 3.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 6,629 households, out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 17.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.40% were non-families. 25.40% of all households were made up of individuals, and 11.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 25.30% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 28.20% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, and 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 107.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $26,533, and the median income for a family was $31,753. Males had a median income of $25,255 versus $19,607 for females. The per capita income for the county was $12,511. About 18.90% of families and 23.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.10% of those under age 18 and 22.50% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation

Major highways

See also: List of county roads in Madison County, Florida

Railroads

Madison County has at least two railroad lines. The primary one is a CSX line formerly owned by the Seaboard Air Line Railroad; it served Amtrak's Sunset Limited until it was truncated to New Orleans in 2005 by Hurricane Katrina. The station was Madison County's only active passenger railroad station until that point. The other line is owned by the Georgia and Florida Railway, and runs in close proximity to US 221 throughout Madison County.

Education

Madison County Schools headquarters
Madison County Schools headquarters

Madison County Schools operates public schools.[18] Madison County High School is one of the two high schools in Madison, the other is a charter high school, James Madison Preparatory High School.

Libraries

Madison County is served by the Suwannee River Regional Library System, which contains eight branches and also serves Hamilton and Suwannee counties.

Communities

Hanson on State Road 145
Hanson on State Road 145
Pinetta on State Road 145
Pinetta on State Road 145

City

Towns

Unincorporated communities

Politics

United States presidential election results for Madison County, Florida[19]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 5,576 59.36% 3,747 39.89% 70 0.75%
2016 4,851 56.80% 3,526 41.29% 163 1.91%
2012 4,474 51.27% 4,176 47.85% 77 0.88%
2008 4,544 51.02% 4,270 47.94% 93 1.04%
2004 4,191 50.47% 4,050 48.77% 63 0.76%
2000 3,038 49.29% 3,015 48.92% 110 1.78%
1996 2,195 39.29% 2,794 50.01% 598 10.70%
1992 2,007 34.38% 2,648 45.36% 1,183 20.26%
1988 2,563 56.59% 1,951 43.08% 15 0.33%
1984 2,819 57.30% 2,101 42.70% 0 0.00%
1980 2,280 41.39% 3,134 56.89% 95 1.72%
1976 1,761 34.94% 3,218 63.85% 61 1.21%
1972 3,236 72.92% 1,187 26.75% 15 0.34%
1968 654 13.81% 1,378 29.10% 2,703 57.09%
1964 2,822 57.09% 2,121 42.91% 0 0.00%
1960 1,152 35.60% 2,084 64.40% 0 0.00%
1956 1,017 33.01% 2,064 66.99% 0 0.00%
1952 1,209 42.66% 1,625 57.34% 0 0.00%
1948 207 9.00% 1,189 51.70% 904 39.30%
1944 293 13.28% 1,914 86.72% 0 0.00%
1940 440 15.38% 2,421 84.62% 0 0.00%
1936 184 7.47% 2,278 92.53% 0 0.00%
1932 221 12.12% 1,602 87.88% 0 0.00%
1928 266 25.70% 769 74.30% 0 0.00%
1924 23 3.88% 538 90.73% 32 5.40%
1920 30 3.04% 920 93.31% 36 3.65%
1916 22 2.74% 721 89.79% 60 7.47%
1912 16 2.92% 480 87.59% 52 9.49%
1908 32 5.38% 511 85.88% 52 8.74%
1904 66 9.73% 595 87.76% 17 2.51%


Notable residents

The small town of Greenville was the childhood home of rhythm and blues giant Ray Charles. Professional football player Chris Thompson is also from the Town of Greenville. Professional baseball player Lorenzo Cain is from Madison County. Scott Phillips, drummer for the bands Creed and Alter Bridge is also from Madison.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 20, 2018. Retrieved June 20, 2018.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 14, 2014.[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ "Home". madisonyes.com.
  5. ^ Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 32.
  6. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 196.
  7. ^ a b c d Jack E. Davis, " 'Whitewash' in Florida: The Lynching of Jesse James Payne and Its Aftermath", The Florida Historical Quarterly Vol. 68, No. 3 (Jan., 1990), pp. 277-298; accessed 19 March 2018
  8. ^ "Lynching in America: Supplement: Lynchings by County, Equal Justice Institute, 2015; accessed 19 March 2018, p. 3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  9. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  10. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
  11. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  12. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  13. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  14. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 15, 2014.
  15. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  16. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  17. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  18. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Madison County, FL" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 31, 2022. - Text list
  19. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved June 15, 2018.

Government links/Constitutional offices

Special districts

Judicial branch

Tourism links

Miscellaneous links

Coordinates: 30°27′N 83°28′W / 30.45°N 83.47°W / 30.45; -83.47