|City of Manado|
Kota 1001 Gereja
(City of 1001 Churches)
Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou
(Men live to help others live)
|Founded||14 July 1623|
|• Mayor||Andrei Angouw|
|• Vice Mayor||Richard Sualang|
|• Total||157.26 km2 (60.72 sq mi)|
|Elevation||5 m (16 ft)|
(mid 2022 estimate)
|• Density||2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (ICST)|
|Area code||+62 431|
Manado (Indonesian pronunciation: [maˈnado], Tombulu: Wenang) is the capital city of the Indonesian province of North Sulawesi. It is the second largest city in Sulawesi after Makassar, with the 2020 census giving a population of 451,916, and the official estimates for mid 2022 showing 454,606 inhabitants (228,011 males and 226,595 females), distributed over a land area of 157.26 km2. The Manado metropolitan area had a population of 1,365,237 as of mid 2022. The city is located adjacent to the Bay of Manado, and is surrounded by a mountainous area.
Manado is among Indonesia's top-five tourism priorities. The city is served by Sam Ratulangi International Airport, which provides regular international flights to Japan, and Singapore, international charter flights to China and South Korea, as well as domestic flights to other major Indonesian cities like Denpasar, Jakarta, Makassar, and Surabaya. Bunaken National Park is one of the city's most famous tourist attractions. The city is also known for its Christian-majority population, and holds the country's biggest Christmas celebration annually. It is also recognised as one of the most tolerant and peaceful cities in Indonesia.
The name Manado is derived from the Sangir language word manaro, meaning 'on the far coast' or 'in the distance', and originally referred to the further of two islands which can be seen from the mainland. When the settlement on this island was relocated to the mainland, the name Manado was brought with it, after which the island itself became referred to as Manado Tua (Old Manado). The name for Manado in the Sangir language is Manaro.
The first mention of Manado comes from a world map by French cartographer Nicolas Desliens, which shows the island of Manarow (today's Manado Tua). Before Europeans arrived in North Sulawesi, the area was under the rule of the Sultan of Ternate, who exacted tribute and introduced Islam to its inhabitants. The Portuguese made the Sultan their vassal, ruling over the Minahasa people, and establishing a factory in Wenang.
Meanwhile, the Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain as a centre of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies, the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century. The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo.
Spain renounced its possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats. Minahasan natives made an alliance treaty with the Dutch, and expelled the last of the Portuguese from Manado a few years later.
The Dutch East India Company or Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie (VOC) built a fortress in Manado named Fort Amsterdam in 1658. As with regions in eastern Indonesia, Manado has undergone Christianisation by Dutch missionaries, including Riedel and John Gottlieb Schwarz. The Dutch missionaries built the first Christian church in Manado called Oude Kerk (Old church), which still stands, and is now called Gereja Sentrum. HMS Dover captured Manado in June 1810. The Javanese prince Diponegoro was exiled to Manado by the Dutch government in 1830 for leading a war of rebellion against the Dutch. In 1859, the English biologist Alfred Wallace visited Manado and praised the town for its beauty.
In 1919, the Apostolic Prefecture of Celebes was established in the city. In 1961, it was promoted to the Diocese of Manado.
The Japanese captured Manado in the Battle of Manado in January 1942. The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during World War II.
In 1958, the headquarters of the rebel movement Permesta was moved to Manado. When Permesta confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform, Jakarta responded by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.
In 1962, the People's Representative Council declared Manado as the official capital city of North Sulawesi Province.
Manado has a tropical rainforest climate (Af) according to the Köppen climate classification, as there is no real dry season. The wettest month is January, with an average rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in), while the driest is September with an average rainfall of 121 millimetres (4.8 in). The abundance of rain seems to be influenced by the monsoon. As its location is near the equator, the temperature seems constant throughout the year. The hottest month is August with an average temperature of 26.6 °C (79.9 °F), while the coolest months are January and February with an average temperature of 25.4 °C (77.7 °F). Unlike other cities in Indonesia, the temperature seems to be cooler.[weasel words]
|Climate data for Manado, North Sulawesi, Indonesia (1961-1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||25.4
|Average low °C (°F)||22.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||427
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||129||119||155||168||168||144||176||210||179||172||157||152||1,929|
|Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst|
|28 °C (82 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||27 °C (81 °F)||27 °C (81 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||29 °C (84 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)||28 °C (82 °F)|
The city is divided into eleven districts (kecamatan), including the new districts of Bunaken Kepulauan (Bunaken Islands) and Paal Dua established in 2012. These are all tabulated below with their areas and populations at the 2010 census and 2020 census, together with the official estimates as at mid 2022. The table also includes the location of the district administrative centres, the number of urban villages (kelurahan) in each district, and its post codes.
|Malalayang||17.96||54,959||61,891||62,202||Malalayang Satu||9||95115 - 95163|
|Sario||1.99||23,198||21,740||21,724||Sario||7||95113 - 95116|
|Wanea||8.47||56,962||59,757||59,829||Wanea||9||95117 - 95119|
|Wenang||3.47||32,796||32,601||32,633||Tikala Kumaraka||12||95111 - 95124|
|Tikala||6.69||69,734||30,174||30,196||Tikala Baru||5||95124 - 95129|
|Paal Dua||9.38||(a)||44,015||44,180||Ranomuut||7||95127 - 95129|
|Mapanget||53.58||53,194||63,275||64,380||Paniki Bawah||10||95249 - 95259|
|Singkil||4.87||46,721||52,732||53,025||Singkil||9||95231 - 95234|
|Tuminting||5.26||52,089||53,759||53,984||Bitung Karang Ria||10||95238 - 95239|
|Bunaken||32.00||20,828||25,669||26,130||Molas||5||95231 - 95249|
|Bunaken Kepulauan (b)||18.88||(c)||6,303||6,323||Bunaken||4||95231 - 95246|
(a) the 2010 population of Paal Dua District is included in the figure for Tikala District, from which it was cut out in 2013.
(b) including the small offshore islands of Pulau Bunaken, Pulau Siladen, and Pulau Manado Tua.
(c) the 2010 population of Bunaken Kepulauan District is included in the figure for Bunaken District, from which it was cut out in 2013.
The boundaries of Manado city are as follows:
Currently, the majority of Manado city residents are from the Minahasa ethnic group, because Manado is located in Minahasan lands. The indigenous people of Manado are from the Tombulu people. The Tombulu language is spoken widely in several urban villages within Manado, for example: Wenang (Wenang / Mahawenang - kolintang), Tumumpa (down), Mahakeret (yelling), Tikala Ares (Walak Ares Tombulu, where the word 'ares' means punishable), Ranotana (ground water), Winangun (built), Wawonasa (wawoinasa - sharpened above), Pinaesaan (unity place), Pakowa (Tree of Treasure), Teling (fur / bamboo to make equipment), Titiwungen (excavated), Tuminting (from the word Ting-Ting: a bell, the inserted syllable -um- changing the noun to a verb, so Tuminting: ringing bell), Pondol (Edge), Wanea (from the word Wanua: meaning the country), etc. While the Malalayang area has residents mainly from the Bantik people, other indigenous groups in Manado today are from the Sangir, Gorontalo, Mongondow, Babontehu, Talaud, Tionudese, Siau, and Borgo peoples. There are also Arabian peranakan communities, mainly in the Kampung Arab area which is near Pasar '45 and has become a destination for religious tourism. Other ethnicities represented include Javanese, Chinese, Batak, Makassar, and Moluccans. A small Jewish community also exists.
Manado Malay is the main language spoken in Manado. It is a Malay-based creole. Some of the loan words in the Minahasan vernacular are derived from Dutch, Portuguese, and other foreign languages. There are many words in Manado Malay comes from foreign language.
Protestant Christianity is the major religion in Manado, constituting around 63 per cent of all residents, Islam comes second forming about 31 per cent, Catholicism comes in third forming around 5 per cent, and the rest follow Buddhism, Hinduism, and Confucianism, each coming in at less than 1 per cent each, according to the 2020 national census. In addition, about 20 Indonesian Jews live in Manado. The people of Manado identify as tolerant, harmonious, open and dynamic. Therefore, the city of Manado has a relatively conducive social environment, and is known as one safest cities in Indonesia. When Indonesia was vulnerable to political upheaval around 1999, and there were riots in other Indonesian cities, Manado was little affected. This is shown through the slogan of the people of Manado: Torang samua basudara, which means We are all family. And also through the words of Dr. Sam Ratulangi: "Sitou, Timou, Tumou, Tou", which roughly translates to 'Man lives to educate others'.
Indonesia Pentecostal Church in Manado
St. Mary of the Sacred Heart Parish Cathredal, Manado
Manado Great Mosque
Sam Ratulangi International Airport of Manado is one of the main ports of entry to Indonesia. In 2005, more than 15,000 international passengers entered Indonesia via Manada airport, connected with other cities like Jakarta, Surabaya and Makassar etc.
Other public transportation in Manado are:
Manado–Bitung Toll Road connects the city with Bitung. Terminal Malalayang, or Malalayang Bus Terminal serves as the main gateway for long-distance buses in Manado.
Manado is home to some of the biggest and most influential churches in the province, with many of them located along the iconic Sam Ratulangi Street.
See also: Minahasan cuisine
Food typical of Manado include tinutuan, a porridge consisting of various kinds of vegetables. In addition to tinutuan, there is cakalang fufu, a smoked skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), roa fish (exocoetidae or torani) Parexocoetus brachypterus, kawok which is food based from meat of the forest rodent white rat Maxomys hellwandii; paniki, bat meat-based dishes; such as (Pteropus pumilus) and rinte wuuk (abbreviated to RW) which is a local name of dog meat, swine pig (a pig is cooked by rotating on the embers), usually served at parties, and babi putar (made from pork mixed with Manado spices, rolled and burned in bamboo).
There is also a typical drink from the area of Manado and its surroundings are saguer which is a kind of wine or palm wine derived from enau / aren tree (Arenga pinnata), which is then fermented. Saguer is a cap tikus (spirits with an average of 40% alcohol content). The exact amount of alcohol depends on the technique of distillation, which varies in different villages in Minahasa).
Woku is a type of bumbu (spice mixture) found in Manado cuisine of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It has rich aroma and spicy taste. Woku consist of ground spices paste; red ginger, turmeric, candlenut, and red chili pepper, mixed with chopped shallot, scallion, tomato, lemon or citrus leaf, and turmeric leaf, lemon basil leaf, and bruised lemongrass. Rub main ingredients (chicken or fish) with salt and lime juices, and marinate for 30 minutes. All spices are cooked in coconut oil until the aroma came up and mixed together with the main ingredients, water, and a pinch of salt, well until all cooked well.
Other typical food of Manado city which is also quite famous is nasi kuning which taste and its presentation is different from yellow rice in other area because it is spiked with abon of cakalang rica fish and presented in a parcel using sugar palm leaves. In addition, there are also grilled fish roasted head. Dabu-dabu is a very popular typical Manado sauce, made from a mixture of red chilies, cayenne pepper, sliced red onion, and freshly diced tomatoes, and finally given a mixture of soy sauce.
The local language spoken in Manado and the surrounding area is a creole of the Malay language called Manado Malay. It exhibits significant influence of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch, for example:
While there is not much known about the origin of ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, currently the orthography used for indigenous Minahasan languages closely matches that used for Indonesian.