|Part of a series of articles on|
|Mother of Jesus|
|Mary in culture|
Marian feast days in the liturgical year are celebrated in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The number of Marian feasts celebrated, their names (and at times dates) can vary among Christian denominations.
The earliest feasts that relate to Mary grew out of the cycle of feasts that celebrate the Nativity of Jesus Christ. Given that according to the Gospel of Luke (Luke 2:22–40), forty days after the birth of Jesus, along with the Presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Mary was purified according to Jewish customs, the Feast of the Purification began to be celebrated by the 5th century, and became the Feast of Simeon in Byzantium.
The origin of Marian feasts is lost to history. Although there are references to specific Marian feasts introduced into the liturgies in later centuries, there are indications that Christians celebrated Mary very early on. Methodius, a bishop (died 311) from the 3rd and early 4th century, wrote:
And what shall I conceive, what shall I speak worthy of this day? I am struggling to reach the inaccessible, for the remembrance of this holy virgin far transcends all words of mine. Wherefore, since the greatness of the panegyric required completely puts to shame our limited powers, let us betake ourselves to that hymn which is not beyond our faculties, and boasting in our own unalterable defeat, let us join the rejoicing chorus of Christ’s flock, who are keeping holy-day ... We keep festival, not according to the vain customs of the Greek mythology; we keep a feast which brings with it no ridiculous or frenzied banqueting of the gods, but which teaches us the wondrous condescension to us men of the awful glory of Him who is God over all ... Do thou, therefore, O lover of this festival ...
A separate feast for Mary, connected with the Christmastide, originated in the 5th century, even perhaps before the First Council of Ephesus of 431. It seems certain that the sermon by Proclus before Nestorius (the Archbishop of Constantinople whose Nestorianism rejected the title of Theotokos) which began the controversy that led to the council was about a feast for the Virgin Mary.
In the 8th and 9th centuries four more Marian feasts were established in the Eastern Church. Byzantine Emperor Maurice selected August 15 as the date of the feast of Dormition and Assumption. The feast of the Nativity of Mary was perhaps started in the first half of the 7th century in the Eastern Church. In the Western Church a feast dedicated to Mary, just before Christmas was celebrated in the Churches of Milan and Ravenna in Italy in the 7th century. The four Roman Marian feasts of Purification, Annunciation, Assumption and Nativity of Mary were gradually and sporadically introduced into England and by the 11th century were being celebrated there.
Over time, the number and nature of feasts (and the associated Titles of Mary) and the venerative practices that accompany them have varied a great deal among diverse Christian traditions. Overall, there are significantly more titles, feasts and venerative Marian practices among Roman Catholics than any other Christians traditions.
Some differences in feasts originate from doctrinal issues – the Feast of the Assumption is such an example. Given that there is no agreement among all Christians on the circumstances of the death, Dormition or Assumption of Mary, the Feast of the Assumption is celebrated among some denominations and not others. In his early years, Martin Luther used to celebrate the Feast of the Assumption, but towards the end of his life he stopped celebrating it.
While the Western Catholics celebrate the Feast of the Assumption on 15 August, some Eastern Catholics celebrate it as Dormition of the Mother of God, and may do so on 28 August, if they follow the Julian calendar. The Eastern Orthodox also celebrate it as the Dormition of the Mother of God, one of their 12 Great Feasts. The Armenian Apostolic Church celebrates the Feast of Dormition not on a fixed date, but on the Sunday nearest 15 August. Moreover, the practices apart from doctrinal differences also vary, e.g. for the Eastern Orthodox the feast is preceded by the 14-day Dormition Fast.
Feasts continue to be developed, e.g. the feast of the Queenship of Mary was declared in 1954 in the papal encyclical Ad Caeli Reginam by Pope Pius XII. The initial ceremony for this feast involved the crowning of the Salus Populi Romani icon of the Virgin Mary in Rome by Pius XII as part of a procession in Rome, and is unique to Roman Catholics.
Other differences in feasts relate to specific events that occurred in history. For instance, the Feast of Our Lady of Victory (later renamed Feast of Our Lady of the Rosary) was based on the 1571 victory of the Papal States against the Ottoman Empire in the Battle of Lepanto, is hence unique to Roman Catholics.
|Part of a series of articles on|
|Prayers and devotions|
The most prominent Marian feast days in the General Roman Calendar are:
Note: Solemnities and feasts are in bold face. Memorials are in regular face.
Optional Marian memorials in the General Roman Calendar are:
There are many more Marian commemorations celebrated in various localities, but not included in the General Roman Calendar.
During the month of May, May devotions to the Blessed Virgin Mary take place in many Catholic regions. There is no firm structure as to the content of a May devotion. It includes usually the singing of Marian anthems, readings from the Scriptures, a sermon or a presentation by local choirs. The whole rosary is prayed separately and is usually not a part of a Marian devotion, although Hail Marys are included. The devotion was promoted by the Jesuits and spread to Jesuit colleges and to the entire Latin Church and since that time it has been a regular feature of Catholic life. Marian devotions may be held within the family, around a "May Altar" consisting of a table with a Marian picture decorated with many May flowers. The family would then pray together the rosary. May devotions exist in the entire Latin church and since that time have been a regular feature of Catholic life.
Traditionally, the month of October is "rosary month" in the Catholic Church, when the faithful are encouraged to pray the rosary if possible. Since 1571, Mary, Queen of the Holy Rosary, is venerated on October 7. In 2005 Pope Benedict XVI stated:
The month of October is dedicated to the Holy Rosary, the unique contemplative prayer through which, guided by the Lord's Heavenly Mother, we fix our gaze on the face of the Redeemer in order to be conformed to his joyful, light-filled, sorrowful and glorious mysteries. This ancient prayer is having a providential revival, thanks also to the example and teaching of the beloved Pope John Paul II. I invite you to reread his Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae and to put into practice its directions on the personal, family and community levels.
Among the most prominent Marian feast days in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic liturgical calendars are:
Note: Feasts ranked among the twelve Great Feasts are in bold face. Minor feasts are in regular face.
Feast days are also established for famous icon of Mary.
Purification of the Most Holy Theotokos is also considered as Feasts of Jesus Christ.
Protection of Our Most Holy Lady Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary in Russian Church is treated as twelve Great Feasts.
In 10th century Visitation of Mary was commemorated on 1 April.
In the Coptic Orthodox rite St. Mary is commemorated on the 21st of each Coptic month (Generally the 30th/31st of each Gregorian month).
In the Syriac Orthodox rite St. Mary is commemorated on the following 8 Major feast days:
In the Malankara Orthodox church St. Mary is commemorated on the following feast days:
In calendars throughout the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglican churches, the following Marian feasts may be observed, although the practice of different provinces varies widely:
Lutherans tend to de-emphasize the importance of Mary out of respect for the centrality of Jesus, yet many or all of the traditional medieval Marian days are retained. Due to disagreements about the perpetual virginity of Mary, many Lutherans avoid using the traditional title of "Blessed Virgin Mary" to preface the feasts or don't celebrate them, although many still retain the title and continue the observances (the Book of Concord also explicitly reaffirms the perpetual virginity of Mary in the Latin form of Martin Luther's Smalcald Articles, and suggests it strongly elsewhere in the German form). The following are Marian festivals celebrated within the Lutheran liturgical calendar:
When Johann Sebastian Bach worked as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, three Marian feasts were observed for which he composed church cantatas: