1M No.2
Mars 1M.jpg
A Mars 1M spacecraft
Mission typeMars flyby
Mission durationFailed to orbit
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft typeMars 1M
Launch mass650 kilograms (1,430 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date14 October 1960, 13:51:03 (1960-10-14UTC13:51:03Z) UTC
Launch siteBaikonur 1/5

Mars 1M No.2, designated Mars 1960B by NASA analysts and dubbed Marsnik 2 by the Western media, was a spacecraft launched as part of the Soviet Union's Mars programme, which was lost in a launch failure in 1960.[1] 1M No.2, which was intended to explore Mars from flyby trajectory, was destroyed after its Molniya carrier rocket failed to achieve orbit.[2][3]


Mars 1M No.2 was the second Mars 1M spacecraft to be launched, lifting off four days after its sister craft, Mars 1M No.1, had been lost during the Molniya 8K78 rocket's maiden flight. 1M No.2 was carried by another Molniya, which had the serial number L1-5M. The launch took place from Site 1/5 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, with liftoff occurring at 13:51:03 UTC on 14 October 1960.[4]

During preparations for the launch, an oxidiser leak in the second stage caused liquid oxygen, at cryogenic temperature, to spill around the engine's fuel inlet valve. This froze the stage's RP-1 propellant, leaving the engine unable to ignite. As a result, the spacecraft failed to achieve Earth orbit.[5]

Scientific Instruments

The spacecraft carried three scientific instruments in order to investigate Mars.[6] They are as follows

See also


  1. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Russia's unmanned missions to Mars". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  2. ^ Krebs, Gunter. "Mars 1M". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  3. ^ Wade, Mark. "Mars 1M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on August 21, 2002. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  4. ^ McDowelll, Jonathan. "Launch Log". Jonathan's Space Page. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  5. ^ LePage, Andrew J. (11 October 2010). "The beginnings of planetary exploration". Retrieved 26 October 2013.
  6. ^ Siddiqi, A. A., & Launius, R. (2002). Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000.