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Mashed potato
A serving of mashed potatoes in a bowl with two whole potatoes
CourseSide dish, condiment
Place of originUnited Kingdom[1]
Region or stateUnited Kingdom
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsPotatoes, butter, milk or cream, salt, black pepper
VariationsDuchess potatoes

Mashed potato or mashed potatoes (American, Canadian and Australian English), colloquially known as mash (British English),[2] is a dish made by mashing boiled or steamed potatoes, usually with added milk, butter, salt and pepper. It is generally served as a side dish to meat or vegetables. Roughly mashed potatoes are sometimes called smashed potatoes.[citation needed] Dehydrated instant mashed potatoes[3] and frozen mashed potatoes[4] are available. Mashed potatoes are an ingredient in other dishes, such as dumplings and gnocchi.[5][6]


An early recipe is found in Hannah Glasse's The Art of Cookery, published in 1747.[1] Her recipe mashed them in a saucepan with milk, salt, and butter.[7]


Most authors recommend the use of "floury" potatoes with a high ratio of amylose in their starch to achieve a fluffy, creamy consistency and appearance.[8] The best-known floury varieties are King Edward, Golden Wonder, and Red Rascal in Britain and the Russet in North America.[9] However, some recipes use "waxy" potatoes containing more amylopectin in their starch for a different texture or look;[8] for instance, one pounded mashed potato dish from Yunnan cuisine (in southwestern China), uses waxy potatoes to achieve a chewy, sticky texture.[10]

Butter, milk or cream, salt, and pepper are usually added. Many other seasonings may also be used, including herbs (notably parsley and chives), spices (notably nutmeg), garlic, cheese, bacon, sour cream, crisp onion or spring onion, caramelized onion, and mustard.[11]

One French variation adds egg yolk for pommes duchesse, or Duchess potatoes, piped through a carrot tube into wavy ribbons and rosettes, brushed with butter, and lightly browned.[12][13] Some French recipes for pomme purée (potato puree) use up to one part butter for every two parts potato.[8][14] In low-calorie or non-dairy variations, milk, cream, and butter may be replaced by soup stock or broth.

Aloo bharta, an Indian sub-continent variation, uses chopped onions, mustard (oil, paste, or seeds), chili pepper, coriander leaves, and other spices. Alu pitika (Assamese: আলু পিটিকা) is a popular variation of aloo bharta in Assam,[15][16] that may occasionally omit mustard and other spices. Alu pitika, made with roasted and smoked potatoes, is especially consumed in the winter.

Culinary uses

Mashed potato served with Frankfurter Rippchen, sauerkraut and mustard

Mashed potato can be served as a side dish. In the British Isles, sausages served with mashed potatoes are known as bangers and mash. Mashed potato can be an ingredient of various other dishes, including shepherd's and cottage pie, Orkney clapshot, pierogi, colcannon, dumplings, potato pancakes, potato croquettes and gnocchi. Particularly runny mashed potatoes are called mousseline potatoes.[17]

In the United Kingdom, cold mashed potato can be mixed with fresh eggs and then fried until crisp to produce a potato cake. This dish is thought to have originated in Cornwall and is a popular breakfast item. When instead combined with meat and other leftover vegetables, the fried dish is known as bubble and squeak.[citation needed]

Mashed potatoes may be eaten with gravy,[18] typically meat gravy, though vegetable gravy is becoming more common as the vegetarian and vegan trends see a rise in popularity.[citation needed]

A potato masher can be used to mash the potatoes.[19] A potato ricer produces a uniform, lump-free, mash.[20]

In India, mashed potatoes made with spices, fried or not, are called chaukha. Chaukha is used in samosas in India and with littee specially in Bihar.[17]

In Turkey, mashed potatoes made with milk, salt, black pepper and butter are called patates puresi.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ a b Smith, A. (2011) Potato: A Global History. London: Reaktion Books.
  2. ^ "Mash: Meaning of Mash". Lexico Dictionaries | English. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019.
  3. ^ Package Quantities of Instant Mashed Potatoes. Voluntary product standard. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. 1971. p. 1. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  4. ^ Sun, D.W. (2016). Handbook of Frozen Food Processing and Packaging. Contemporary Food Engineering. CRC Press. p. 490. ISBN 978-1-4398-3605-7. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  5. ^ Marks, G. (1999). The: World of Jewish Cooking. Over 613 Traditional Recipes from Alsace to Yemen. Simon & Schuster. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-684-83559-4. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  6. ^ Food Preparation and Cooking: Cookery units. Student guide. Catering and hospitality, NVQ/SVQ2. Stanley Thornes. 1996. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-7487-2566-3. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  7. ^ Hannah Glasse, The Art of Cookery, 1747, p. 148 full text
  8. ^ a b c Cloake, Felicity (15 March 2010). "What's the best mashed potato method?". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2016.
  9. ^ Randal, Oulton (7 October 2004). "Floury Potatoes". Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  10. ^ Chinese Cooking Demystified (19 December 2019). Yunnan Pounded Mashed Potato (云南哈尼舂洋芋). YouTube. Retrieved 12 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Best Mashed Potato Recipes and Toppings – US Potato Board". Archived from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  12. ^ Child, J. (1970). Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume 2: A Cookbook. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 399. ISBN 978-0-394-40152-2. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  13. ^ Institute, F.C. (2022). The Fundamental Techniques of Classic Cuisine. ABRAMS. p. 380. ISBN 978-1-61312-255-6. Retrieved 29 August 2023.
  14. ^ Eppich, Kristen (18 April 2013). "Best mashed potato recipe in the world". Archived from the original on 10 April 2018. Retrieved 16 April 2018.
  15. ^ Gokhale, Jyoti S.; Lele, S. S.; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi (2021). "Indian Traditional Foods and Diets: Combining Traditional Wisdom with Modern Science of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods". Nutrition, Food and Diet in Ageing and Longevity. Healthy Ageing and Longevity. Vol. 14. pp. 357–392. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-83017-5_18. ISBN 978-3-030-83016-8. S2CID 244308051. Archived from the original on 9 December 2022. Retrieved 23 November 2021.
  16. ^ Ananthanarayanan, Laxmi; Dubey, Kriti Kumari; Muley, Abhijeet B.; Singhal, Rekha S. (2019). "Indian Traditional Foods: Preparation, Processing and Nutrition". Traditional Foods. Food Engineering Series. pp. 127–199. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-24620-4_6. ISBN 978-3-030-24619-8. S2CID 210312613. Archived from the original on 11 July 2022. Retrieved 23 November 2021 – via Springer.
  17. ^ a b Dupree, Nathalie (1 November 2012). Mastering the Art of Southern Cooking. Gibbs Smith. ISBN 978-1-4236-2316-8.
  18. ^ Smith, A.F. (2007). The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford Companions. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 321. ISBN 978-0-19-530796-2. Retrieved 28 August 2023.
  19. ^ Commercial America. The Philadelphia Commercial Museum. 1910. p. 27. Retrieved 9 January 2017.
  20. ^ Simmons, M.; Table, Sur La (2008). Things Cooks Love: Implements, Ingredients, Recipes. Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-7407-6976-4. Retrieved 9 January 2017.