Matthew Wren
Bishop of Ely
Bp Matthew Wren, Pembroke.jpg
ChurchChurch of England
DioceseDiocese of Ely
In office1638–1646
1660–1667
PredecessorFrancis White
SuccessorBenjamin Lany
Other post(s)Bishop of Hereford (1634–35)
Bishop of Norwich (1635–38)
Personal details
Born(1585-12-03)3 December 1585
Parish of St Peter, Westcheap, London
Died24 April 1667(1667-04-24) (aged 81)
Ely House, Holborn, London
BuriedPembroke College, Cambridge
NationalityEnglish
DenominationAnglican
SpouseElizabeth Cutler
EducationMerchant Taylors' School
Alma materPembroke College, Cambridge

Matthew Wren (3 December 1585 – 24 April 1667) was an influential English clergyman, bishop and scholar.

Life

He was the eldest son of Francis Wren (born 18 January 1552 at Newbold Revell[1]), citizen and mercer of London,[2] only son of Cuthbert Wren (d.1558[1]), of Monk's-Kirby, in the county of Warwick, and his wife Mary, daughter of William Jenkinson.[1] His grandfather Cuthbert Wren was the second son of William Wren, of Sherborne-House and of Billy-Hall in the bishopric of Durham.[3] He was descended from an ancient family which came originally from Denmark.[4] Matthew Wren's mother was Susan, daughter of William Wiffinson. His parents lived in the parish of St. Peter’s Cheap in the City of London, and had three children: a daughter Anna, and two sons; Matthew, born 1585, and Christopher, born 1589.[5]

He was the brother of Christopher Wren, who also took holy orders, and the uncle of the prominent architect Sir Christopher Wren.

He attended Merchant Taylors' School, London, and proceeded in 1601 to Pembroke College, Cambridge, where he was a protégé of Lancelot Andrewes. He became a Fellow in 1605 and later President. He was Master of Peterhouse from 1625 to 1634.[6][7] From this point, his rise was rapid. He accompanied Charles I to Holyrood Palace for his Scottish coronation in 1633, and was appointed chaplain and Clerk of the Closet. He became Bishop of Hereford in 1634, Norwich in 1635, and Ely in 1638.

However, his strong support of William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, and his toughness on Puritans, led to his being imprisoned in the Tower of London by the Parliamentarian faction from 1642 to 1660.[8] Unlike Laud, he survived, and was allowed the freedom to write notes on improvements to the Book of Common Prayer, on which he later had some influence. He was deprived of his See by Parliament on 9 October 1646, as episcopacy was abolished for the duration of the Commonwealth and the Protectorate.[9][10] Upon the Restoration, he was released on 15 March 1660.[11]

While in the Tower, he vowed to devote a sum of money to "some holy and pious employment" should he be released. To fulfill this vow, he chose to pay for a new Chapel for Pembroke College, and had it built by his nephew Christopher Wren – one of his first buildings, consecrated in 1665. Matthew Wren also led the movement to rebuild St Paul's Cathedral after it had been damaged by the Puritans, and again his nephew accomplished the task.

He married Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Cutler of Ipswich and Sproughton, county Suffolk.[1] Matthew Wren’s diary records the event as that he was ‘joined together in happy matrimony.’[12] Elizabeth was baptised at Ringshall, Suffolk on 17 October. 1604. She was married on 27 February 1621 at Sproughton, Suffolk, to Robert Brownrigg of Ipswich, and had by him two daughters; Elizabeth, baptised 13 January 1623 at Sproughton,[1] died on 31 May 1662 of fen fever, who married Joseph Beaumont, D.D. Master of Peterhouse, and Ann, baptised 19 April 1625 at Sproughton. She married secondly Matthew Wren on 17 August 1628, also at Sproughton.[1]

Of the twelve children whose birth Matthew Wren records in his diary, six died while very young.[12]

He died at Ely House, Holborn, on 24 April 1667. His body was brought from London to Cambridge on 9 May and placed in the Schools, and two days later he was buried in the chapel he had built at Pembroke College, Cambridge.[49][50]

Theology

Wren was well acquainted with the Dutch Arminian literature.[51] He was himself firmly attached to the Arminian views.[52]

List of appointments

Notes and references

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Gandy, Wallace (1922). The Wren family of Suffolk (PDF). Vol. XVIII Part 1.
  2. ^ Mathew David (1948). The Social Structure in Caroline England.
  3. ^ Wren, Christopher (1750). Parentalia Or Memoirs of the Family of the Wrens Viz. of Mathew Bishop of Ely, Christopher Dean of Windsor ... But Chiefly of --- Surveyor-general of the Royal Buildings ... Now Published by Stephen Wren. Osborn.
  4. ^ Crabb, George (1833). Universal Historical Dictionary: Or, Explanation of the Names of Persons and Places in the Departments of Biblical, Political, and Ecclesiastical History, Mythology, Heraldry, Biography, Bibliography, Geography, and Numismatics. Baldwin and Cradock, and J. Dowding.
  5. ^ "The Project Gutenberg eBook of Sir Christopher Wren, by Lucy Phillimore". www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  6. ^ "Wren, Matthew (WRN604M)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  7. ^ Phillimore, Lucy (30 November 2007). Sir Christopher Wren: His family and his times, 1585-1723. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-548-80595-4.
  8. ^ Cranfield, Nicholas. "Wren, Matthew". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.
  9. ^ Plant, David (2002). "Episcopalians". BCW Project. Retrieved 25 April 2021.
  10. ^ King, Peter (July 1968). "The Episcopate during the Civil Wars, 1642–1649". The English Historical Review. Oxford University Press. 83 (328): 523–537. doi:10.1093/ehr/lxxxiii.cccxxviii.523. JSTOR 564164.
  11. ^ a b Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1541–1857, vol. 7, 1992, pp. 7–10
  12. ^ a b "The Project Gutenberg eBook of Sir Christopher Wren, by Lucy Phillimore". www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Buckler, Benjamin (1765). Stemmata Chicheleana; or, A genealogical account of some of the families derived from Thomas Chichele, of Higham-Ferrers in the county of Northampton; all of whose descendants are held to be entitled to fellowships in All Souls College, Oxford by virtue of their consanguinity to Archbishop Chichele, the founder. Robarts - University of Toronto. Oxford Clarendon Press.
  14. ^ "WREN, Sir William (1638-89), of Wilburton, Cambs. and Lincoln's Inn. | History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org. Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  15. ^ "Wren, Charles (WRN662C)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
  16. ^ Ely, Eng (Diocese); Gibbons, Alfred W. (1891). Ely Epicsopal records. PIMS - University of Toronto. Lincoln, J. Williamson.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Buckler, Benjamin (1765). Stemmata Chicheleana; or, A genealogical account of some of the families derived from Thomas Chichele, of Higham-Ferrers in the county of Northampton; all of whose descendants are held to be entitled to fellowships in All Souls College, Oxford by virtue of their consanguinity to Archbishop Chichele, the founder. Robarts - University of Toronto. Oxford Clarendon Press.
  18. ^ "Correspondence mainly with and filed by the Honourable Charles Monson. Description: The Honourable Charles, brother of the 1st Lord Monson, was elected MP for Lincoln in 1734, 1741 and 1747 and was Deputy Paymaster of His Majesty's Forces until 1745. He died unmarried on 26 August 1764. Some letters addressed to the Honourable Colonel Monson (presumably George, nephew of Charles) have been put with these letters for continuity of subject. Some of the letters, even when endorsed by Charles Monson, appear to relate to matters concerned with Trade and Customs and may have been dealt with by Charles on behalf of his brother, Lord Monson, who was First Commissioner for Trade and Plantations. Some of the letters, both to the Honourable Charles Monson and to the 1st and 2nd Lords Monson, were for the support of their interest generally with the Newcastle connection and for obtaining preferment of various kinds. Held by: Lincolnshire Archives, not available at The National Archives".
  19. ^ "The Marriage of Anne Scroggs and Robert Wright, 4 April 1681 at South Weald in Essex". findmypast.co.uk. Retrieved 8 September 2020.
  20. ^ a b "Will of Anne Ball, Widow of Hampton Court, Middlesex – The National Archives". Published by Ancestry here. 21 October 1707.
  21. ^ "Will of John Ball of Saint Paul Covent Garden, Middlesex – The National Archives". Published by Ancestry here. 18 November 1686.
  22. ^ a b Staff, New England Historic Genealogical Society (1998). The New England Historical and Genealogical Register,: Volume 48 1894. Heritage Books. ISBN 978-0-7884-0814-4. Anne Ball of London, widow, 13 March 1653, proved 9 October 1654. My body to be buried in the parish church of St. Dunstans in the East, in London, near to the body of my late husband.
  23. ^ Murray, Thomas Boyles (1859). Chronicles of a city church, an account of the parish church of St. Dunstan in the East. Richard Ball, 1617. Also, his wife, 1654; with divers of his children and grandchildren
  24. ^ Will of Ann Ball of Fulham, Middlesex – The National Archives. 3 March 1735.
  25. ^ a b c "Parish of Sedgefield | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 September 2020. On an altar-tomb: Here lies interred the body of Mrs. Alice Ball, who departed this life 17 Nov. 1724, aged 52 years. Near lies interred the body of John Ball, Esq. husband of the said Alice, who departed this life the 5th day of January 1732. Arms: A chevron inter three fleurs de lis, on a chief three lozenges.
  26. ^ Marriage settlement. Description: John Ball to Frances Watts. Lands at Brimpton and Odcombe co. Somerset. Date: 1701. Held by: Lincolnshire Archives, not available at The National Archives. 1701.
  27. ^ a b c Lysons, Daniel (1800). An Historical Account of Those Parishes in the County of Middlesex: Which are Not Described in the Environs of London. T. Cadell, jun. and W. Davies.
  28. ^ a b c "'Hampton', in An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Middlesex (London, 1937), pp. 30-50. British History Online". british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  29. ^ a b Small deed box I. Description: Nos. 275-89. Title deeds, family of Watts and Ball (John Ball married Frances Watts), land in Ware, Little Amwell, Standon, co. Hertford, St. Andrew's Holborn. N.B. that Sir William Wren occurs as executor of Edward Watts and Charles Monson as assignee in 1735 of a mortgage of the Holborn houses. Date: 1616-1735. Held by: Lincolnshire Archives, not available at The National Archives. 1616–1735.
  30. ^ a b Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Will of Edward Watts written 12 April 1687 in Tewin, Hertfordshire, probated Jan. 1688.))
  31. ^ 1700 [...] John Ball of Snt James in ye ffields & Francis Watts of Snt Andrew Holborn married July ye 12th at St. Mary Magdalen Old Fish Street, City of London, Surrey, England
  32. ^ Burke, John (1835). A Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Commoners of Great Britain and Ireland, Enjoying Territorial Possessions Or High Official Rank: But Univested with Heritable Honours. H. Colburn.
  33. ^ 1706 [...] 8 Apr.. John Ball of Hampton-Court in ye County of Middlesex & Alice Wright of ye Parish of St Michael Pater noster were Married on ye 8 April.1706.by Mr Wood. By License Ball & Wright at St. Stephen Walbrok, City of London
  34. ^ St. Stephen's, Walbrook; Bannerman, W. Bruce (William Bruce); Bannerman, William Bruce (1919). The registers of St. Stephen's, Walbrook, and of St. Benet Sherehog, London. Harold B. Lee Library. London : Printed by Roworth and company limited.
  35. ^ John Son of John & Frances Ball baptised on 27 July 1701 at St. Mary, Hampton, Richmond upon Thames, Middlesex, England
  36. ^ Edward Son of John & Frances Ball baptised on 19 July 1702 at St. Mary, Hampton, Richmond upon Thames, Middlesex, England. Another parish record of the same event, but with social signifiers states that: Edward Son of mr John Ball and ffraunces his wife was bapt: July ye 19:th
  37. ^ George Son of John & Frances Ball baptised on 20 June 1703 at St. Mary, Hampton, Richmond upon Thames, Middlesex, England. Another parish record of the same event, but with social signifiers states that: George the Son of Jno Esq and ffrances his wife baptsd ye 20 June 1703
  38. ^ Francis Son of John & Frances Ball baptised on 7 September 1704 at St. Mary, Hampton, Richmond upon Thames, Middlesex, England
  39. ^ a b c d "C78 1712 - Waalt". waalt.uh.edu. Retrieved 2 September 2020. 1712 1 Aug [Regnal_Year] 11 Anna Maria Watts of Hmapton Court, Middx, spinster, eldest daughter and one of the coheirs of Edward Batts of Tewin, Herts, esq; Thmas Dunster of Hertford, Herts, esq, & Dorothy his wife, one other of the daughters and coheirs of said ____ Watts v. John Ball, sr, esq; John Ball, jr; George Ball; and Francis Ball, sons of said John Ball; George Monson; Giles Dunster; Joseph Cramner; Walter Wellinger, esqs; and George Watts gent C78/1790, no. 2 [125]
  40. ^ a b Will of John Ball of Sedgefield, Durham – The National Archives. 17 January 1733.
  41. ^ "Will of Edward Watts of Tewin, Hertfordshire, Date: 25 January 1688, Held by: The National Archives, Kew". Published by Ancestry here. 25 January 1688.
  42. ^ a b "Chichester cathedral: The nave | British History Online". www.british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 6 September 2020. There are also floor slabs [...] to Mrs. Anna Maria Watts, 1744; Mrs. Dorothy Dunster, 1771;
  43. ^ Anna Maria Watts, buried 22 September 1744 at St.Peter the Great, Chichester, Sussex, England. Notes: Mrs "Buried in the Choir, died 22 September 1744, [WYATT in B/T]
  44. ^ Dorothy Dunster, buried 17 April 1771 at St.Peter the Great, Chichester, Sussex, England. Notes: Mrs Widow
  45. ^ Will of Dorothy Dunster, Widow of Chichester, Sussex – The National Archives. 2 August 1771.
  46. ^ Chauncy, Sir Henry (1826). The Historical Antiquities of Hertforshire: with the Original of Counties, Hundred Or Wapentakes...the Foundation and Origin of Monasteries, Churches and Vicarages... Ben, Griffin ... 1700. Bishops Stortford, J. M. Mullinger.
  47. ^ Catalogue description: Watts v Ball. Plaintiffs: Anna Maria Watts, Thomas Dunster and Dorothy Dunster his wife. Defendants: John Ball, John Ball, George Ball, Francis Ball, George Monson, Giles Dunster and Joseph Cranmer and others. Subject: property in Great Amwell, Hertford, Standon Ware, Hertfordshire, Upwell, Norfolk etc, Cambridgeshire. Document type: bill and five answers. Date: 1709. Held by: The National Archives, Kew. 1709.
  48. ^ Catalogue description: Memoranda for the settlement of accounts between Thomas Dunster and John Ball and between Mr Ball and Mrs Anna Maria Watts. In a wrapper endorsed: "Papers belonging to Coss Watts" and in Charles Monson's hand: "This I found among my mother's papers". Date: 1707-1708. Held by: Lincolnshire Archives, not available at The National Archives. 1707–1708.
  49. ^ Wikisource:Wren, Matthew (1585-1667) (DNB00)
  50. ^ Enid Porter (1969). Cambridgeshire Customs & Folklore. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
  51. ^ Milton 2002, p. 436.
  52. ^ Tyacke 2001, pp. 123, 217.

Sources

Academic offices Preceded byLeonard Mawe Master of Peterhouse, Cambridge 1625–1635 Succeeded byJohn Cosin Church of England titles Preceded byAugustin Lindsell Bishop of Hereford 1634–1635 Succeeded byTheophilus Feild Preceded byRichard Corbet Bishop of Norwich 1635–1638 Succeeded byRichard Montagu Preceded byFrancis White Bishop of Ely 1638–1646 & 1660–1667 Succeeded byBenjamin Lany