Maxillary artery
Maxillary artery branches.png
Maxillary artery and its branches. ("Internal maxillary" is horizontal at left center.)
Gray511.png
Plan of branches of maxillary artery.
Details
Precursoraortic arch 1
Sourceexternal carotid artery
Branches1st part: anterior tympanic - deep auricular - middle meningeal - superior tympanic artery - accessory meningeal - inferior alveolar
2nd part: Posterior deep temporal artery - Pterygoid branches - masseteric - buccinator - Anterior deep temporal artery
3rd part: posterior superior alveolar - infraorbital - descending palatine - artery of the pterygoid canal - sphenopalatine
Veinmaxillary veins
Identifiers
Latinarteria maxillaris
MeSHD008438
TA98A12.2.05.053
TA24422
FMA49675
Anatomical terminology

The maxillary artery supplies deep structures of the face. It branches from the external carotid artery just deep to the neck of the mandible.

Structure

The maxillary artery, the larger of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery, arises behind the neck of the mandible, and is at first imbedded in the substance of the parotid gland; it passes forward between the ramus of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, and then runs, either superficial or deep to the lateral pterygoid muscle, to the pterygopalatine fossa.

It supplies the deep structures of the face, and may be divided into mandibular, pterygoid, and pterygopalatine portions.

First portion

The first or mandibular or bony portion passes horizontally forward, between the neck of the mandible and the sphenomandibular ligament, where it lies parallel to and a little below the auriculotemporal nerve; it crosses the inferior alveolar nerve, and runs along the lower border of the lateral pterygoid muscle.

Branches include:

Second portion

The second or pterygoid or muscular portion runs obliquely forward and upward under cover of the ramus of the mandible and insertion of the temporalis, on the superficial (very frequently on the deep) surface of the lateral pterygoid muscle; it then passes between the two heads of origin of this muscle and enters the fossa.

Branches include:

Third portion

The third or pterygopalatine[1] or pterygomaxillary portion lies in the pterygopalatine fossa in relation with the pterygopalatine ganglion. This is considered the terminal branch of the maxillary artery.

Branches include:

Nomenclature

Additional images

References

  1. ^ Gaillard, Frank. "Maxillary artery | Radiology Reference Article". Radiopaedia.org. Retrieved 25 April 2022.

Public domain This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 559 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)