Mayor of Manila
Punong Lungsod ng Maynila
Seal of the City of Manila
Incumbent
Honey Lacuna Pangan
since June 30, 2022
StyleThe Honorable (Formal)
SeatManila City Hall, Ermita
AppointerElected via popular vote
Term length3 years, not eligible for re-election immediately after three consecutive terms
Inaugural holderArsenio Cruz Herrera
Formation1901
WebsiteLungsod ng Maynila

The city mayor of Manila (Filipino: Punong Lungsod ng Maynila, sometimes referred to as, Alkalde ng Maynila) is the head of the executive branch of Manila's city government. The mayor holds office at Manila City Hall. Like all local government heads in the Philippines, the mayor is elected via popular vote, and may not be elected for a fourth consecutive term (although the former mayor may return to office after an interval of one term). In case of death, resignation or incapacity, the vice mayor becomes the mayor.

History

Prior to the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi, Manila was a chiefdom headed by datus. From the defeat of Rajah Sulayman's forces in 1575 to the passage of the Maura Law in 1895, the chief executive of the city was appointed by the Spanish government to a person of Spanish descent. The highest position a Filipino was able to hold was the cabeza de barangay. With the passage of the Maura Law, the office of capitan municipal was established, with the people electing their own town heads, although the Spanish retained considerable influence and could veto decisions.

With the eruption of the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine–American War, the position reverted to an appointive head. With the advent of World War II, President Manuel L. Quezon appointed Jorge B. Vargas as mayor of the City of Greater Manila (forerunner of Metro Manila) in 1941. With the liberation of Manila in 1945 by combined Filipino and American soldiers under the United States Army and the Philippine Commonwealth Army including local recognized guerrillas against the Japanese Imperial forces, the earlier setup was used once again.

With the amendment of the city's charter in 1951, the position became an elective post. The first mayoral election was in 1951, and Manila's congressman from the 2nd district Arsenio Lacson defeated incumbent Manuel de la Fuente. A few years after the declaration of martial law by President Ferdinand Marcos, Manila and nearby cities like Quezon City, Caloocan, and Pasay, were overshadowed by the office of the governor of the newly created Metro Manila, whom Marcos appointed his wife, Imelda Marcos, to the position.

With Arsenio Lacson becoming the first elected mayor, the city of Manila underwent The Golden Age,[1] was revitalized, and once again became the "Pearl of the Orient", a moniker it earned before the outbreak of the war.[citation needed] After Mayor Lacson's term in the 1950s, the city was led by Mayor Antonio Villegas during most of the 1960s, and Mayor Ramon Bagatsing for nearly the entire decade of the 1970s until the 1986 People Power Revolution that overthrew President Marcos.

Mayors Lacson, Villegas, and Bagatsing are often collectively considered as "the Big Three of Manila" for their rather long tenures as the city hall's chief executive (continuously for over three decades, from 1952 to 1986), but more importantly, for their indelible contribution to the development and progress of the city and their lasting legacy in uplifting the quality of life and welfare of the people of Manila.

With the ouster of Marcos following the People Power Revolution, President Corazon Aquino vacated all local executive officials and appointed officers in charge (OICs) in their place; she appointed party-mate Mel Lopez as OIC of Manila. Local elections were held in 1988, and Lopez was elected as mayor. The Local Government Code was enacted in 1991, and standardized the powers of Manila's mayor making it at par with other cities in the country.

The office of the mayor is often used as a springboard for further political ambitions. In 1961, Lacson bolted the Nacionalista Party to become the campaign manager of the Liberal Party's Diosdado Macapagal's presidential campaign. After Macapagal's victory, Lacson returned with the Nacionalistas and became a critic of the Macapagal administration. Lacson would've been likely the Nacionalista's candidate for the presidency in 1965, had not death intervened in 1962.[2] In 1998, the sitting mayor of Manila, Alfredo Lim, did run as the Liberal Party's candidate for the presidency, but was beaten by Joseph Estrada, finishing fifth in a field of ten candidates, garnering 9% of the vote; Estrada later nominated him as Secretary of the Interior and Local Government. Lim later ran and won a Senate seat in 2001, but forfeited it three years when he ran and won as mayor again.[3] Estrada, who was previously the mayor of bordering San Juan, defeated Lim as mayor of Manila in 2013. Their vice mayor, Isko Moreno, ran for the Senate and lost in 2016. Moreno defeated both Estrada and Lim in 2019. In 2021, Moreno announced his candidacy for president in the 2022 presidential election.[4] Days later, Moreno's opponent Manny Pacquiao chose former mayor Lito Atienza as his running mate for vice president.[5] Moreno, Atienza, and Pacquiao both lost their bids in 2022, respectively.

The longest-serving mayor of Manila is Ramon Bagatsing, who continuously served as the city's chief executive from 1971 until 1986. His tenure could have been longer if his term was not disrupted by the forced resignation of all local government unit heads and the appointment of officers in charge in their place after the 1986 revolution, to which Bagatsing fully supported and complied with, voluntarily handing over his position to OIC Mel Lopez.

List

No. Image Name of mayor Party Term Start of term End of term Name of Vice mayor
Appointive position (1901–1951)
1 Arsenio Cruz Herrera Federalist N/A August 7, 1901 September 18, 1905[a] Ramón Fernández
2 Félix M. Roxas Federalist September 19, 1905 January 15, 1917
Ramón Fernández
Isabelo de los Reyes
Justo Lukban
Pablo Ocampo
Pablo Ocampo
3 Justo Lukban Liga Popular January 16, 1917 March 6, 1920[a]
4 Ramón Fernández Democrata March 7, 1920 July 16, 1923[a] Juan Posadas, Jr.
5 Eulogio A. Rodriguez Sr. Democrata July 17, 1923 February 8, 1924[a]
6 Miguel Romuáldez Nacionalista February 9, 1924 August 31, 1927 Tomás Earnshaw
7 Tomás Earnshaw Nacionalista September 1, 1927 December 31, 1933
Juan Posadas, Jr.
Isabelo de los Reyes
Jorge B. Vargas
Jorge B. Vargas
8 Juan Posadas, Jr. Nacionalista January 1, 1934 January 4, 1940[b]
(5) Eulogio A. Rodriguez Sr. Nacionalista January 5, 1940 August 28, 1941 Carmen Planas
9 Juan G. Nolasco Nacionalista August 29, 1941 December 23, 1941 Hermenegildo Atienza
10 Jorge B. Vargas KALIBAPI December 24, 1941 January 26, 1942
11 Leon Guinto, Sr. KALIBAPI January 27, 1942 July 17, 1944
12 Hermenegildo Atienza KALIBAPI July 18, 1944 July 18, 1945 Carmen Planas
(9) Juan G. Nolasco Nacionalista July 19, 1945 June 6, 1946
13 Valeriano E. Fugoso, Sr. Liberal June 7, 1946 December 31, 1947
14 Manuel de la Fuente Liberal January 1, 1948 December 31, 1951
Carmen Planas
Iñigo Ed. Regalado
Elective position (1952–present)
15 Arsenio Lacson, Sr. Nacionalista 1951 January 1, 1952 April 15, 1962[b] Jesus Marcos Roces
1955
1959 Antonio Villegas
16 Antonio Villegas Liberal April 16, 1962 December 31, 1971 Herminio A. Astorga
1963
1967 Felicisimo Cabigao
Atty. Ernesto Maceda, Sr.
Atty. Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr.
Atty. Mel Lopez
17 Ramon Bagatsing Liberal 1971 January 1, 1972 March 26, 1986[c]
Martin B. Isidro, Sr.
KBL 1980 James Barbers
Mel Lopez[d] UNIDO March 26, 1986 December 1, 1987 Bambi M. Ocampo
N/A Gregorio Ejercito
PDP–Laban Ernesto A. Nieva
Gregorio Ejercito[d] N/A December 2, 1987 February 2, 1988 Ernesto A. Nieva
18 Mel Lopez PDP–Laban 1988 February 3, 1988 June 30, 1992 Danilo Lacuna
LDP
Lakas Ernesto Maceda, Jr.
19 Alfredo Lim PRP 1992 June 30, 1992 March 27, 1998[a] Lito Atienza
Liberal 1995
20 Lito Atienza Liberal March 27, 1998 June 30, 2007 Ernesto Nieva
Larry Silva
1998 Danilo Lacuna
2001
2004
Lakas
(19) Alfredo Lim PMP 2007 June 30, 2007 June 30, 2013 Isko Moreno
Liberal 2010
21 Joseph Estrada UNA 2013 June 30, 2013 June 30, 2019
PMP 2016 Honey Lacuna
22 Isko Moreno Asenso Manileño 2019 June 30, 2019 June 30, 2022
23 Honey Lacuna Asenso Manileño 2022 June 30, 2022 Incumbent Yul Servo Nieto
  1. ^ a b c d e Resigned from office
  2. ^ a b Died in office
  3. ^ At this time, after the 1986 EDSA Revolution, President Corazon Aquino forced the resignation of all local government unit heads and appointed officers in charge in their place.
  4. ^ a b Officer-in-charge
Honey LacunaIsko MorenoJoseph EstradaAlfredo LimLito AtienzaAlfredo LimMel LopezMel LopezRamon BagatsingAntonio VillegasArsenio Lacson

Elections

The mayor of Manila holds office at the Manila City Hall.

Vice mayor

The vice mayor is the second-highest official of the city. The vice mayor is elected via popular vote; although most mayoral candidates have running mates, the vice mayor is elected separately from the mayor. This can result in the mayor and the vice mayor coming from different political parties.

The vice mayor is the presiding officer of the Manila City Council, although they can only vote as the tiebreaker. When a mayor is removed from office, the vice mayor becomes the mayor until the scheduled next election.

# Name Start of term End of term
Appointive position (1901–1951)
1 Ramón Fernández August 7, 1901 August 7, 1907
2 Isabelo de los Reyes August 7, 1907 August 7, 1911
3 Justo Lukban August 8, 1911 August 8, 1915
4 Pablo D. Ocampo August 8, 1915 March 6, 1920
5 Juan Posadas, Jr. March 7, 1920 February 8, 1924
6 Tomás Earnshaw February 9, 1924 August 31, 1927
(5) Juan Posadas, Jr. September 1, 1927 December 31, 1929
(2) Isabelo de los Reyes January 1, 1930 December 31, 1931
7 Jorge B. Vargas January 1, 1932 January 4, 1940
8 Carmen Planas January 5, 1940 August 28, 1941
9 Hermenegildo Atienza August 29, 1941 July 17, 1944
(8) Carmen Planas July 18, 1944 December 31, 1949
10 Iñigo Ed. Regalado January 1, 1950 December 31, 1951
Elective position (1952–present)
11 Jesus M. R. Roces January 1, 1952 December 30, 1959
12 Antonio J. Villegas December 30, 1959 April 15, 1962
13 Herminio A. Astorga April 16, 1962 December 31, 1967
14 Felicisimo R. Cabigao January 1, 1968 December 31, 1969
15 Atty. Ernesto Maceda, Sr. January 1, 1970 August 31, 1970
16 Atty. Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr. September 1, 1970 April 30, 1971
17 Atty. Gemiliano C. López, Jr. May 1, 1971 December 31, 1971
18 Atty. Martin B. Isidro, Sr. January 1, 1972 December 31, 1975
19 James Z. Barbers January 1, 1976 March 26, 1986
Bambi M. Ocampo March 26, 1986 April 27, 1987
Gregorio Ejercito April 28, 1987 June 30, 1987
Ernesto A. Nieva July 1, 1987 February 2, 1988
(16) Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr. February 3, 1988 January 31, 1992
Ernesto V.P. Maceda, Jr. February 1, 1992 June 30, 1992
20 José L. Atienza, Jr. June 30, 1992 March 27, 1998
Ernesto A. Nieva March 27, 1998 May 31, 1998
Hilarion C. Silva June 1, 1998 June 30, 1998
(16) Danilo B. Lacuna, Sr. June 30, 1998 June 30, 2007
21 Isko Moreno Domagoso June 30, 2007 June 30, 2016
22 Maria Sheilah Lacuna–Pangan June 30, 2016 June 30, 2022
23 Yul Servo Nieto June 30, 2022 Incumbent

See also

References

  1. ^ Hancock 2000, p. 16
  2. ^ "Arsenio Lacson of Manila Dead". New York Times. April 16, 1962. p. 29. Retrieved February 2, 2008. Mr. Lacson had returned to the Nacionalista party, now in opposition, and was considered likely to be its Presidential candidate in 1965
  3. ^ "Former Manila Mayor Alfredo Lim Dies". Rappler. August 8, 2020. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  4. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (September 21, 2021). "Isko Moreno to Run for President in 2022; Formal Announcement Sept 22". Inquirer.net. Retrieved September 21, 2021.
  5. ^ Maru, Davinci (October 1, 2021). "Lito Atienza Files COC as Pacquiao's VP for 2022". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved October 4, 2021.

Works cited