Medical cybernetics is a branch of cybernetics which has been heavily affected by the development of the computer,[1] which applies the concepts of cybernetics to medical research and practice. At the intersection of systems biology, systems medicine and clinical applications it covers an emerging working program for the application of systems- and communication theory, connectionism and decision theory on biomedical research and health related questions.


Medical cybernetics searches for quantitative descriptions of biological dynamics.[2] It investigates intercausal networks in human biology, medical decision making and information processing structures in the living organism.

Approaches of medical cybernetics include:

See also


  1. ^ Brian H. Rudall (2000). "Cybernetics and systems in the 1980s". In: Kybernetes. Vol 29. Issue 5/6 p.595-611.
  2. ^ a b c d e J.W. Dietrich (2004), Medical Cybernetics – A Definition, Medizinische Kybernetik, 2004. Released under creative commons 2.0 attribution licence.
  3. ^ Tretter, F; Wolkenhauer, O; Meyer-Hermann, M; Dietrich, JW; Green, S; Marcum, J; Weckwerth, W (2021). "The Quest for System-Theoretical Medicine in the COVID-19 Era". Frontiers in Medicine. 8: 640974. doi:10.3389/fmed.2021.640974. PMC 8039135. PMID 33855036.
  4. ^ Tsukamoto, Y (21 June 1979). "An information theory of the genetic code". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 78 (4): 451–98. doi:10.1016/0022-5193(79)90187-5. PMID 513794.
  5. ^ Figureau, A (1987). "Information theory and the genetic code". Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 17 (3–4): 439–49. doi:10.1007/BF02386481. PMID 3627775. S2CID 25129093.
  6. ^ Battail, Gérard (2007). "Information Theory and Error-Correcting Codes In Genetics and Biological Evolution". Introduction to Biosemiotics: 299–345. doi:10.1007/1-4020-4814-9_13. ISBN 978-1-4020-4813-5.
  7. ^ Kuruoglu, EE; Arndt, PF (21 April 2017). "The information capacity of the genetic code: Is the natural code optimal?". Journal of Theoretical Biology. 419: 227–237. doi:10.1016/j.jtbi.2017.01.046. hdl:21.11116/0000-0000-7D7E-8. PMID 28163008.
  8. ^ Ramakrishnan, Nithya; Bose, R. (20 August 2012). "Dipole entropy based techniques for segmentation of introns and exons in DNA". Applied Physics Letters. 101 (8): 083701. doi:10.1063/1.4747205.

Further reading