|Minimum B.Sc. in meteorology|
|Research, teaching and operational|
A meteorologist is a scientist who studies and works in the field of meteorology aiming to understand or predict Earth's atmospheric phenomena including the weather. Those who study meteorological phenomena are meteorologists in research, while those using mathematical models and knowledge to prepare daily weather forecasts are called weather forecasters or operational meteorologists.
Meteorologists work in government agencies, private consulting and research services, industrial enterprises, utilities, radio and television stations, and in education. They are not to be confused with weather presenters, who present the weather forecast in the media and range in training from journalists having just minimal training in meteorology to full fledged meteorologists.
Meteorologists study the Earth's atmosphere and its interactions with the Earth's surface, the oceans and the biosphere. Their knowledge of applied mathematics and physics allows them to understand the full range of atmospheric phenomena, from snowflake formation to the Earth's general climate.
Research meteorologists are specialized in areas like:
Operational meteorologists, also known as forecasters:
Meteorologists can also be consultants for private firms in studies for projects involving weather phenomena such as windfarms, tornado protection, etc. They finally can be weather presenters in the media (radio, TV, internet).
To become a meteorologist, a person must take at least one undergraduate university degree in meteorology. For researchers, this training continues with higher education, while for forecasters, each country has its own way of training. For example, the Meteorological Service of Canada and UK Met Office have their own training course after the university, while Météo-France takes charge of all the training once the person has passed the entrance examination at the National School of Meteorology after high school. In United States, forecasters are hired by the National Weather Service or private firms after university, and receive on-the-job training, while researchers are hired according to their expertise.
In some countries there is a third way for weather presenters, such as in United States, where a graduate in meteorology and communication at the college or university level can be hired by media.
Ce concours peut se passer après le lycée, pour le grade de technicien ou après une licence ou des classes préparatoires pour devenir ingénieur. Le candidat qui a réussi le concours peut même être payé pendant ses études s'il travaille à terme pour Météo-France pendant 10 ans. Il a le statut de fonctionnaire.