Miami-Dade County
Left to right from top down: Downtown Miami; a lifeguard station on South Beach; Miami Design District's Palm Court; Wynwood Walls in Wynwood Art District; Ocean Drive in Miami Beach; Venetian Pool; Anhinga Trail boardwalk in Everglades National Park; Kaseya Center; and Biscayne National Park
Flag of Miami-Dade County
Official seal of Miami-Dade County
Official logo of Miami-Dade County
"Dade County", "Dade", "Metro-Dade", "Greater Miami"
Delivering Excellence Every Day
Miami-Dade County is located in the United States
Miami-Dade County
Miami-Dade County
Location within the United States
Coordinates: 25°36′38″N 80°29′50″W / 25.61058°N 80.497099°W / 25.61058; -80.497099[1]
Country United States
State Florida
RegionSouth Florida
Metro areaMiami
FoundedJanuary 18, 1836
Named forFrancis L. Dade and Miami, derived from the Miami River, and ultimately derived from Mayaimi
County seat
and largest city
Incorporated municipalities34
 • TypeTwo-tier federation
 • BodyMiami-Dade Board of County Commissioners
 • Miami-Dade Board of County Commissioners[2]
  • Oliver Gilbert (Chair)
  • Marleine Bastien
  • Keon Hardemon
  • Micky Steinberg
  • Eileen Higgins
  • Kevin M. Cabrera
  • Raquel Regalado
  • Danielle Cohen Higgins
  • Kionne McGhee
  • Anthony Rodriguez (Vice Chair)
  • Roberto Gonzalez (appointed)
  • Juan Carlos Bermudez
  • René García
 • Mayor of Miami-Dade CountyDaniella Levine Cava (D)[a]
 • Total2,431.178 sq mi (6,296.72 km2)
 • Land1,898.753 sq mi (4,917.75 km2)
 • Water532.425 sq mi (1,378.97 km2)  21.9%
Highest elevation20−25 ft (6–8 m)
Lowest elevation0 ft (0 m)
 • Total2,701,767
 • Estimate 
 • Rank7th in the United States
1st in Florida
 • Density1,408.21/sq mi (543.71/km2)
DemonymMiami-Dadian[citation needed]
 • Total$219.476 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern Time Zone)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (Eastern Daylight Time)
ZIP Codes
33002, 33010–33018, 33030–33035, 33039, 33054, 33056, 33090, 33092, 33101–33102, 33106, 33109, 33111–33112, 33114, 33116, 33119, 33122, 33124–33147, 33149–33158, 33160–33170, 33172–33199, 33206, 33222, 33231, 33233–33234, 33238–33239, 33242–33243, 33245, 33247, 33255–33257, 33261, 33265–33266, 33269, 33280, 33283, 33296, 33299
Area codes305, 786, 645
FIPS code12086
GNIS feature ID295755
Primary AirportMiami International Airport (MIA)
Secondary Airport
U.S. Routes
State Routes
Rapid TransitMetrorail
Commuter RailAmtrak, Brightline, Tri-Rail

Miami-Dade County (/mˈæmi ˈdd/) is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida. The county had a population of 2,701,767 as of the 2020 census,[4] making it the most populous county in Florida and the seventh-most populous county in the United States.[7] It is Florida's third largest county in terms of land area with 1,946 square miles (5,040 km2). The county seat is Miami, the core of the nation's ninth-largest and world's 65th-largest metropolitan area with a 2020 population of 6.138 million people, exceeding the population of 31 of the nation's 50 states as of 2022.[8]

As of 2022, Miami-Dade County has a gross domestic product of $184.5 billion, making the county's GDP the largest for any county in the State of Florida and it being the 14th-largest for the nation's 3,033 counties.[9][10] The county is home to the Port of Miami on Biscayne Bay, the world's largest passenger port with a world record 5.5 million passengers in 2018, and Miami International Airport, the third largest U.S. airport for international passengers and largest U.S. airport for international cargo. The county's land area of nearly 2,000 square miles exceeds that of two U.S. states, Delaware and Rhode Island.[11] The county is home to several universities and colleges, including Florida International University, one of the largest public universities in the country, and the University of Miami in Coral Gables, a private research university that is routinely ranked as one of the nation's top universities and is the county's second-largest employer with nearly 17,000 employees as of 2021.[12][13]

Miami-Dade County is heavily Hispanic and was the most populous majority-Hispanic county in the nation as of 2020. It is home to 34 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas.[14] The northern, central and eastern portions of the county are heavily urbanized with many high-rise buildings along the coastline, including Miami's Central Business District in Downtown Miami. Southern Miami-Dade County includes the Redland and Homestead areas, which make up the agricultural economy of the county. Agricultural Redland makes up roughly one third of Miami-Dade County's inhabited land area, and is sparsely populated, a stark contrast to the densely populated, urban portions of the county's northern sections.

The county includes portions of two national parks. To the west, the county extends into the Everglades National Park and is populated only by a Miccosukee tribal village. Biscayne National Park and the Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves are located east of the mainland in Biscayne Bay.[15][16]


Further information: History of Miami

See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Miami-Dade County, Florida

Native people

The earliest evidence of Native American settlement in the Miami region is from approximately 12,000 years ago.[17] The first inhabitants settled on the banks of the Miami River, with the main villages on the northern banks.

The inhabitants at the time of first European contact were the Tequesta people, who controlled much of southeastern Florida, including present-day Miami-Dade County, Broward County, and the southern part of Palm Beach County. The Tequesta Indians fished, hunted, and gathered the fruit and roots of plants for food, but did engage in agriculture. They buried the small bones of the deceased with the rest of the body, and put the larger bones in a box for the village people to see. The Tequesta are credited with making the Miami Circle.[18]

European explorers and settlers

Juan Ponce de León was the first European to visit the area in 1513 by sailing into Biscayne Bay. His journal records he reached Chequescha, a variant of Tequesta, which was Miami's first recorded name.[19] It is unknown whether he came ashore or made contact with the natives. Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and his men made the first recorded landing when they visited the Tequesta settlement in 1566 while looking for Avilés' missing son, shipwrecked a year earlier.[20] Spanish soldiers led by Father Francisco Villarreal built a Jesuit mission at the mouth of the Miami River a year later but it was short-lived. After the Spaniards left, the Tequesta Indians were left to fend themselves from European-introduced diseases like smallpox. By 1711, the Tequesta sent a couple of local chiefs to Havana, Cuba, to ask if they could migrate there. The Cubans sent two ships to help them, but Spanish illnesses struck and most of the Tequesta died.[21]

The first permanent European settlers arrived in the early 19th century. People came from the Bahamas to South Florida and the Keys to hunt for treasure from the ships that ran aground on the treacherous Great Florida Reef. Some accepted Spanish land offers along the Miami River. At about the same time, the Seminole Indians arrived, along with a group of runaway slaves. The area was affected by the Second Seminole War, during which Major William S. Harney led several raids against the Indians. Most non-Indian residents were soldiers stationed at Fort Dallas. It was the most devastating Indian war in American history, causing almost a total loss of population in Miami.

After the Second Seminole War ended in 1842, William English re-established a plantation started by his uncle on the Miami River. He charted the "Village of Miami" on the south bank of the Miami River and sold several plots of land. In 1844, Miami became the county seat, and six years later a census reported there were ninety-six residents in the area.[22] The Third Seminole War was not as destructive as the second, but it slowed the settlement of southeast Florida. At the end of the war, a few of the soldiers stayed.


Julia Tuttle is credited as Miami's founder.

Dade County was created on January 18, 1836, under the Territorial Act of the United States. The county was named after Major Francis L. Dade, a soldier killed in 1835 in the Second Seminole War, at what has since been named the Dade Battlefield.[23] At the time of its creation, Dade County included the land that now contains Palm Beach and Broward counties, together with the Florida Keys from Bahia Honda Key north and the land of present-day Miami-Dade County. The county seat was originally at Indian Key in the Florida Keys; then in 1844, the County seat was moved to Miami. The Florida Keys from Key Largo to Bahia Honda were returned to Monroe County in 1866. In 1888 the county seat was moved to Juno, near present-day Juno Beach, Florida, returning to Miami in 1899. In 1909, Palm Beach County was formed from the northern portion of what was Dade County, and then in 1915, Palm Beach County and Dade County contributed nearly equal portions of land to create what is now Broward County. There have been no significant boundary changes to the county since 1915.[24][25][26]

Hurricane Andrew

The third-costliest natural disaster to occur in the United States was Hurricane Andrew, which hit Miami in the early morning of Monday, August 24, 1992. It struck the southern part of the county from due east, south of Miami and very near Homestead, Kendall, and Cutler Ridge, which was later renamed Cutler Bay. Damages exceeded US$25 billion in the county, and recovery took years in these areas where the destruction was greatest. Hurricane Andrew was the costliest natural disaster in U.S. history until Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf region in 2005.

Name change

On November 13, 1997, voters changed the name of the county from Dade County to Miami-Dade County to acknowledge the international name recognition of Miami.[27] Voters were acting pursuant to home rule powers granted to Dade County, including the ability to change the name of the county without the consent of the Florida Legislature.[28] With the name change, Miami-Dade became the only county in the United States whose name was hyphenated.


The Miami River in Downtown Miami in May 2008
Miami, Florida[29]
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Metric conversion
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,431 square miles (6,300 km2), of which 1,898 square miles (4,920 km2) is land and 533 square miles (1,380 km2) (21.9%) is water.[30] It is the third-largest county in Florida by land area and second-largest by total area. Most of the water is in the Biscayne Bay, with another significant portion in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

Miami-Dade County is only about 6 feet (1.8 m) above sea level. It is rather new geologically and is at the eastern edge of the Florida Platform, a carbonate plateau created millions of years ago. Eastern Dade is composed of Oolite limestone while western Dade is composed mostly of Bryozoa.[31] Miami-Dade is among the last areas of Florida to be created and populated with fauna and flora, mostly in the Pleistocene.

The bay is divided from the Atlantic Ocean by many barrier islands along the coast. The city of Miami Beach, home to the South Beach neighborhood and its Art Deco district, is built on these barrier islands. The archipelago of the Florida Keys, which extends in an arc to the south-southwest, is only accessible through Miami-Dade County, although most of the Keys are part of neighboring Monroe County. Miami is 68 miles from West Palm Beach, and 30 miles from Fort Lauderdale.


Main article: List of communities in Miami-Dade County, Florida

Miami-Dade County includes 34 incorporated areas, 38 census-designated places, and 16 unincorporated regions.

Adjacent counties

National protected areas


Historical population
2023 (est.)2,686,867[32]−0.6%
U.S. Decennial Census
1840–1970[33] 1980[34] 1990[35]
2000[36] 2010[37] 2020[4] 2022[5]
Historical racial composition 2020[4] 2010[37] 2000[36] 1990[35] 1980[34]
White (non-Hispanic) 13.4% 15.4% 20.7% 30.2% 46.4%
Hispanic or Latino 68.7% 65.0% 57.3% 49.2% 35.7%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 14.0% 17.1% 19.0% 19.1% 16.6%
Asian and Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic) 1.6% 1.5% 1.4% 1.2% 1.2%
Native American (non-Hispanic) 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Some other race (non-Hispanic) 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1%
Two or more races (non-Hispanic) 1.7% 0.8% 1.4% N/A N/A
Population 2,701,767 2,496,435 2,253,362 1,937,094 1,625,781
Demographic characteristics 2020[38][39][40] 2010[41][42][43] 2000[44][45][46] 1990[35] 1980[34][47]
Households 1,074,685 989,435 852,278 692,355 609,830
Persons per household 2.51 2.52 2.64 2.80 2.67
Sex Ratio 92.6 93.8 93.5 92.0 89.5
Ages 0–17 19.4% 21.9% 24.8% 24.2% 24.0%
Ages 18–64 63.4% 64.0% 61.9% 61.8% 60.3%
Ages 65 + 17.2% 14.1% 13.3% 14.0% 15.7%
Median age 41.0 38.2 35.6 34.2 34.7
Population 2,701,767 2,496,435 2,253,362 1,937,094 1,625,781
Economic indicators
2018–22 American Community Survey Miami-Dade County Florida
Median income[48] $35,899 $37,826
Median household income[49] $64,215 $67,917
Poverty Rate[50] 15.3% 12.9%
High school diploma[51] 82.7% 89.3%
Bachelor's degree[51] 32.5% 32.3%
Advanced degree[51] 12.3% 12.1%
Ethnic origins in Miami-Dade and Monroe Counties
Language spoken at home[b] 2020[c] 2010[d] 2000[54] 1990[55] 1980[56]
English 24.9% 27.7% 32.1% 42.6% 57.2%
Spanish or Spanish Creole 66.5% 63.9% 59.2% 50.1% 36.3%
French or Haitian Creole 4.9% 5.0% 5.1% 3.8% 1.3%
Other Languages 3.8% 3.4% 3.6% 3.5% 1.3%
Nativity 2020[e] 2010[f] 2000[61][62] 1990[55] 1980[56]
% population native-born 46.0% 48.8% 49.1% 54.9% 64.4%
... born in the United States 43.0% 45.7% 46.0% 51.5% 61.9%
... born in Puerto Rico or Island Areas 1.7% 2.0% 2.3% 2.3% 2.5%
... born to American parents abroad 1.3% 1.1% 0.7% 1.0%
% population foreign-born[g] 54.0% 51.2% 50.9% 45.3% 35.6%
... born in Cuba 25.2% 24.0% 23.3% 22.1% 20.0%
... born in Venezuela 3.7% 1.6% 1.1% 0.5% N/A[h]
... born in Colombia 3.7% 3.5% 3.6% 2.2% N/A[h]
... born in Haiti 2.9% 3.0% 3.2% 2.3% N/A[h]
... born in Nicaragua 2.8% 3.3% 3.8% 3.5% N/A[h]
... born in Honduras 1.8% 1.9% 1.5% 0.8% N/A[h]
... born in the Dominican Republic 1.4% 1.5% 1.6% 0.8% 0.4%
... born in Peru 1.2% 1.3% 1.2% 0.8% N/A[h]
... born in Mexico 1.1% 1.1% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3%
... born in Argentina 1.0% 0.9% 0.7% 0.4% N/A[h]
... born in Jamaica 0.9% 1.1% 1.5% 1.6% 0.9%
... born in Guatemala 0.8% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in Brazil 0.7% 0.5% 0.6% 0.2% N/A[h]
... born in Ecuador 0.7% 0.6% 0.6% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in El Salvador 0.5% 0.6% 0.5% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in Spain 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% N/A[h]
... born in Chile 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% N/A[h]
... born in Panama 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% N/A[h]
... born in Italy 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3%
... born in Russia 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 1.0%[i] 1.0%[i]
... born in Canada 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5%
... born in the Bahamas 0.2% 0.2% N/A[h] 0.4% N/A[h]
... born in the United Kingdom 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.4%
... born in Germany 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5%
... born in Poland < 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.3% 0.7%
... born in other countries 3.5% 5.2% 5.6% 6.9% 12.3%

2010 U.S. Census

Downtown Miami in April 2008
Miami's Brickell neighborhood in November 2008
The beach at Crandon Park in Key Biscayne in February 2008

U.S. Census Bureau 2010 ethnic/race demographics:[63][64]

In 2010, the largest ancestry groups were:[63]

In 2010, Cubans made up the largest population of immigrants (with more than half of the population) with Colombians coming in second, Haitians in third, followed by Nicaraguans in fourth place, then Dominicans, Venezuelans, Peruvians, Jamaicans, Mexicans, and Argentinians among the highest group of immigrants.[67]

Miami-Dade has small communities of Brazilians, Portuguese, Spaniards, Ukrainians and Poles along with Canadians (including Francophone from the province of Quebec), French, Germans, other Europeans, British expatriates and Israelis.

There were 867,352 households, out of which 30.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 18.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.5% were non-families. 23.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.4% (2.5% male and 5.9% female) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.33.[64][68]

The age distribution is 21.9% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 25.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.0 males.[68]

The median income for a household in the county was $43,605, and the median income for a family was $50,065. Males had a median income of $35,096 versus $29,980 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,957. About 13.8% of families and 17.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.0% of those under age 18 and 22.1% of those aged 65 or over.[69]

In 2010, 51.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 48.7% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 93.0% were born in Latin America, 3.2% were born in Europe, 2.7% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.5% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania.[63]

Population Miami-Dade
2020 Census 2,701,767
2010 Census 2,496,435
2000 Census 2,253,362
1990 Census 1,937,094



As of 2010, 28.1% of the population spoke only English at home, while 63.8% of the population spoke Spanish, 4.2% spoke French Creole (mainly Haitian Creole), 0.6% French, and 0.6% Portuguese.[72] About 52% of the county residents were born outside the United States, while 71.9% of the population spoke a language other than English at home.[72]

Religious statistics

In 2010 statistics, the largest religious group in Miami-Dade County was the Archdiocese of Miami with 544,449 Catholics in 65 parishes, followed by 96,749 non-denominational adherents with 197 congregations, 80,123 SBC Baptists with 313 congregations, 47,921 NBC Baptists with 44 congregations, 27,901 Seventh-day Adventists in 62 congregations, 25,244 AoG Pentecostals with 45 congregations, 14,628 LDS Mormons with 18 congregations, 12,569 TEC Episcopalians with 30 congregations, and 11,880 UMC Methodists with 32 congregations. There is an estimated 23,064 Muslims with 15 congregations, 3,069 Hindus with 7 congregations, and 1,342 Buddhist with 17 congregations.[73]

In 2005 the Jewish population of the county has decreased but stabilized at about 121,000 with a high percentage of retired and elderly persons (but less than in Broward and Palm Beach counties). There are more than 60 congregations, 34 Jewish educational institutions, and three Jewish community centers. The highest percentage and increase in Jewish population is in North Dade, especially in Aventura. Miami-Dade County hosts Florida's third largest Jewish population and the nation's tenth largest.[73]

Altogether, 39.8% of the population was claimed as members by religious congregations, although members of historically African-American denominations were underrepresented due to incomplete information.[74] In 2014, Miami-Dade County had 731 religious organizations, the 14th most out of all US counties.[75]

Law, government, and politics

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

Main article: Government of Miami-Dade County

The Stephen P. Clark Government Center, June 2018[76]

Miami-Dade County has operated under a metropolitan system of government, a "two-tier federation", since 1957. This was made possible when Florida voters approved a constitutional amendment in 1956 that allowed the people of Dade County (as it was known) to enact a home rule charter. Prior to this year, home rule did not exist in Florida, and all counties were limited to the same set of powers by the Florida Constitution and state law.

Unlike a consolidated city-county, where the city and county governments merge into a single entity, these two entities are separate. Instead there are two "tiers", or levels, of government: city and county. There are 34 municipalities in the county, the City of Miami being the largest.

Cities are the "lower tier" of local government, providing police and fire protection, zoning and code enforcement, and other typical city services within their jurisdiction. These services are paid for by city taxes. The County is the "upper tier", and it provides services of a metropolitan nature, such as emergency management, airport and seaport operations, public housing and health care services, transportation, environmental services, solid waste disposal etc. These are funded by county taxes, which are assessed on all incorporated and unincorporated areas.

Of the county's 2.6 million total residents (as of 2013), approximately 52% live in unincorporated areas, the majority of which are heavily suburbanized. These residents are part of the Unincorporated Municipal Services Area (UMSA). For these residents, the County fills the role of both lower- and upper-tier government, the County Commission acting as their lower-tier municipal representative body. Residents within UMSA pay a UMSA tax, equivalent to a city tax, which is used to provide County residents with equivalent city services (police, fire, zoning, water and sewer, etc.). Residents of incorporated areas do not pay UMSA tax.

Structure of county government

See also: List of mayors of Miami-Dade County, Florida

The Mayor of Miami-Dade County is elected countywide to serve a four-year term and is considered a "strong mayor". The mayor is not a member of the County Commission, appoints all 25 directors who oversee the operations of the County Departments and has veto power over the Commission. A mayoral appointment and veto can only be overridden by a two-thirds majority of the County Commission. The post is occupied by Daniella Levine Cava, the county's first female mayor.

The Board of County Commissioners is the legislative body, consisting of 13 members elected from single-member districts. Members are elected to serve four-year terms, and elections of members are staggered. The board chooses a chairperson, who presides over the commission, as well as appoints the members of its legislative committees. The board has a wide array of powers to enact legislation, create departments, and regulate businesses operating within the county. It also has the power to override the mayor's veto with a two-thirds vote.

Florida's Constitution provides for five elected officials to oversee executive and administrative functions for each county (called "Constitutional Officers"): Sheriff, Property Appraiser, Supervisor of Elections, Tax Collector, and Clerk of the Circuit Court (also functions as Comptroller).[77] However, the Constitution allows voters in home-rule counties (including Miami-Dade) to abolish the offices and reorganize them as subordinate County departments;[78] Miami-Dade voters chose this option for Sheriff, Supervisor of Elections, and Tax Collector.[79] The offices of Clerk of the Circuit Court, State Attorney, and Public Defender are still branches of State government and are, therefore, independently elected and not part of County government.[80]

Miami-Dade is the only county in Florida that does not have an elected sheriff or a "Sheriff's Office".[81] Instead, the county's law enforcement agency is known as the Miami-Dade Police Department, and its leader is known as the Metropolitan Sheriff and Director of the Miami-Dade Police Department; Nonetheless, Miami-Dade Police badges bear the inscription, "Deputy Sheriff, Sheriff's Office, Dade County, Fla."



Miami-Dade County has voted for the Democratic Party candidate in most of the presidential elections in the past four decades, and has gone Democratic in every election since 1992. However, it did vote twice for Ronald Reagan (1980, 1984) and once for George H. W. Bush (1988). From 1904 to 1972 it supported the Democratic candidate in all but four elections. The Democrats had expanded their winning margin in each of the three elections from 2008 to 2016; in 2008 and 2012, Democrat Barack Obama averaged 59.69% of the vote. In 2016, Democrat Hillary Clinton won 63.22% of the vote. However, in 2020, Democrat Joe Biden only won 53.31% of the vote, winning the county by just over seven percent over Republican Donald Trump. This was attributed to a large swing of Cuban Americans, Venezuelan Americans, and other Hispanic Americans to the Republican Party,[82] resulting in the best Republican performance since 2004. In the 2022 gubernatorial and U.S. Senate elections, Republicans Ron DeSantis and Marco Rubio respectively won the county. DeSantis became the first Republican Governor to win Miami-Dade since Jeb Bush in 2002. Rubio won the county for the second time, following his victory in 2010.

Miami-Dade County is represented in the United States House of Representatives by Republicans Maria Elvira Salazar, Carlos Gimenez and Mario Diaz-Balart of the 27th, 28th and 26th districts, and Democrats Frederica Wilson and Debbie Wasserman Schultz of the 24th and 25th districts.

United States presidential election results for Miami-Dade County, Florida[83]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 532,833 45.98% 617,864 53.31% 8,221 0.71%
2016 333,999 33.83% 624,146 63.22% 29,046 2.94%
2012 332,981 37.87% 541,440 61.58% 4,758 0.54%
2008 360,551 41.70% 499,831 57.81% 4,254 0.49%
2004 361,095 46.61% 409,732 52.89% 3,899 0.50%
2000 289,574 46.29% 328,867 52.57% 7,111 1.14%
1996 209,740 37.87% 317,555 57.34% 26,487 4.78%
1992 235,313 43.19% 254,609 46.73% 54,921 10.08%
1988 270,937 55.26% 216,970 44.26% 2,358 0.48%
1984 324,414 59.17% 223,863 40.83% 35 0.01%
1980 265,888 50.65% 210,868 40.17% 48,149 9.17%
1976 211,148 40.45% 303,047 58.06% 7,747 1.48%
1972 256,529 58.87% 177,693 40.78% 1,541 0.35%
1968 135,222 37.02% 176,689 48.37% 53,391 14.62%
1964 117,480 35.99% 208,941 64.01% 0 0.00%
1960 134,506 42.35% 183,114 57.65% 0 0.00%
1956 130,938 55.37% 105,559 44.63% 0 0.00%
1952 122,174 56.77% 93,022 43.23% 0 0.00%
1948 41,301 37.04% 59,681 53.52% 10,530 9.44%
1944 30,357 33.56% 60,100 66.44% 0 0.00%
1940 25,224 32.70% 51,921 67.30% 0 0.00%
1936 10,295 26.88% 28,007 73.12% 0 0.00%
1932 9,244 34.16% 17,820 65.84% 0 0.00%
1928 15,860 60.15% 10,136 38.44% 372 1.41%
1924 2,753 26.01% 3,474 32.83% 4,356 41.16%
1920 3,077 38.09% 4,288 53.08% 713 8.83%
1916 629 21.94% 1,654 57.69% 584 20.37%
1912 99 5.56% 1,171 65.71% 512 28.73%
1908 275 17.34% 961 60.59% 350 22.07%
1904 307 24.08% 887 69.57% 81 6.35%
1900 389 28.50% 806 59.05% 170 12.45%
1896 368 46.46% 372 46.97% 52 6.57%
1892 0 0.00% 109 95.61% 5 4.39%

Voter registration

Registered voters as of May 31, 2024[84]
Total population[85] 2,701,767 (2020 census)
  Registered voters[86] 1,455,213 ~54%
    Democratic 512,308 35.21%
    Republican 447,523 30.75%
    Democratic–Republican spread +64,785 +4.46%
    Minor parties 28,090 1.93%
    No party preference 467,292 32.11%
Previous gubernatorial elections results
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2022 55.3% 393,532 44.0% 312,972 0.7% 5,347
2018 39.0% 311,581 59.8% 478,958 1.1% 8,483
2014 39.3% 205,017 58.4% 304,721 2.2% 11,684
2010 42.0% 204,918 56.2% 274,638 1.8% 8,332
2006 45.3% 183,457 53.3% 215,930 1.4% 5,558


See also: List of companies based in Miami

With 16,479 employees as of 2021, the University of Miami in Coral Gables is the county's second-largest employer after Baptist Health South Florida.[87]
The headquarters of Burger King in January 2008
The headquarters of Norwegian Cruise Line in January 2008
Jackson Memorial Hospital in Miami, the primary teaching hospital of the University of Miami's Miller School of Medicine and the largest hospital in the United States with 1,547 beds[88]

Brightstar Corporation,[89] Burger King,[90] Intradeco Holdings,[91] Latin Flavors,[92] Norwegian Cruise Line,[93] and Ryder have their headquarters in unincorporated areas in the county.[94] Centurion Air Cargo, Florida West International Airways, IBC Airways, and World Atlantic Airlines have their headquarters on the grounds of Miami International Airport in an unincorporated area in the county.[95][96][97][98][99]

Hewlett Packard's main Latin America offices are on the ninth floor of the Waterford Building in unincorporated Miami-Dade County.[100]

Other companies with offices in an unincorporated area not in any CDP:

Several defunct airlines, including Airlift International, Arrow Air, National Airlines, and Rich International Airways, were headquartered on or near the airport property.[105][106][107][108]

After Frank Borman became president of Eastern Airlines in 1975, he moved Eastern's headquarters from Rockefeller Center in Midtown Manhattan, New York City to an unincorporated area in Miami-Dade County[109][110] Around 1991 the Miami-Dade County lost a few corporations, including Eastern Airlines, which folded in 1991.[111]

At one time the cruise line ResidenSea had its headquarters in an unincorporated area in the county.[112]

Top private employers

According to Miami's Beacon Council, the top private employers in 2014 in Miami-Dade were:[113]

# Employer # of employees
1 University of Miami 12,818
2 Baptist Health South Florida 11,353
3 American Airlines 11,031
4 Carnival Cruise Line 3,500
5 Nicklaus Children's Hospital 3,500
6 Mount Sinai Medical Center 3,321
7 Florida Power & Light 3,011
8 Royal Caribbean International 2,989
9 Wells Fargo 2,050
10 Bank of America 2,000

Top government employers

According to Miami's Beacon Council, the top government employers in 2014 in the county were:[113]

# Employer # of employees
1 Miami-Dade County Public Schools 33,477
2 Miami-Dade County 25,502
3 U.S. federal government 19,200
4 Florida state government 17,100
5 Jackson Health System 9,800


Most of the state's summer okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is grown here,[114] totalling 1,000 to 1,500 acres (400 to 610 ha) over the whole year.[115] It is grown as a "scavenger crop", one grown to scavenge the benefits of residual fumigant and fertilizer.[114] The most problematic pest is the Melon Thrips (Thrips palmi) but aphids are also significant.[115] Although the Silverleaf Whitefly (Sweet Potato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci) reproduces in large numbers on this crop, the plant is not seriously harmed and the feeding damage is quickly repaired.[115] This does still leave okra as a problematic refuge from which SLW will migrate, to nearby tomato, bean, and ornamentals.[115] The University of Florida provides a production handbook[116]: 235  which recommends disease management and weed management practices.

Methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out and Telone products – fumigants – are heavily regulated here.[116]: 46  M-D much more heavily regulates Telone than the rest of the state does.[116]: 46  Therefore the best MB alternatives here are either metam sodium or metam potassium, both combined with chloropicrin.[116]: 46 

M-D has some of the lowest Cry 1F resistance in the country.[117] Despite its high volume of cargo traffic with Puerto Rico and earlier speculation, none of PR's extreme Cry1F-r genetics seems to have spread to this area.[117] Southern Florida in general has the lowest in the country (including PR).[117]

The state's first invasion of the Peach Fruit Fly (Bactrocera zonata) began here.[118] An adult male PFF was found on November 10, 2010, on a guava tree (Psidium guajava).[118] The state responded by trapping an 81 square miles (210 km2) are around the site.[118]

The Little Fire Ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) is an invasive agricultural pest here.[119] In fact the first recorded invasion of the state was in 1924 in Coconut Grove (which was then near Miami and has since been incorporated into the city).[119][120]

M-D has the largest greenhousing/nursery industry in the state, but on the other hand produces very little of its own livestock.[121]

Public services

Fire rescue

Further information: Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department

The Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department

The Miami-Dade County Fire Rescue Department is the agency that provides fire protection and emergency medical services for Miami-Dade County, Florida. The department serves 29 municipalities and all unincorporated areas of Miami-Dade County from 60 fire stations.[122] The Department also provides fire protection services for Miami International Airport, Miami Executive Airport and Opa-locka Airport.[123]

The communities served are Aventura, Bal Harbour, Bay Harbor Islands, Biscayne Park, Cutler Bay, Doral, El Portal, Florida City, Golden Beach, Hialeah Gardens, Homestead, Indian Creek, Medley, Miami Gardens, Miami Lakes, Miami Shores, Miami Springs, North Bay Village, North Miami, North Miami Beach, Opa-locka, Palmetto Bay, Pinecrest, South Miami, Surfside, Sweetwater, Sunny Isles Beach, Virginia Gardens, and West Miami.[124]

Miami-Dade Fire Rescue is also the home to Urban Search and Rescue Florida Task Force 1 as well as EMS operations consisting of 57 Advanced Life Support units staffed by 760 state-certified paramedics and 640 state-certified emergency medical technicians.

Police department

Further information: Miami-Dade Police Department

A Miami-Dade Police Department vehicle

The Miami-Dade Police Department is a full-service metropolitan police department serving Miami-Dade County's unincorporated areas, although it has lenient mutual aid agreements with other municipalities, most often the City of Miami Police Department. With 4,700 employees, it is Florida's largest police department. The Department is often referred to by its former name, the Metro-Dade Police or simply Metro.

The Miami-Dade Police Department operates out of nine districts throughout the county and has two special bureaus. The director of the department is Juan Perez, who succeeded J.D. Patterson, Jr.[125] The Department's headquarters are in Doral, Florida.

Water and sewer department

Miami-Dade Water and Sewer Department (MDWASD) is one of the largest public utilities in the United States, employing approximately 2,700 employees as of 2007. It provides service to over 2.4 million customers, operating with an annual budget of almost $400 million. Approximately 330 million gallons of water are drawn every day from the Biscayne Aquifer for consumer use. MDWASD has over 7,100 miles (11,400 km) of water lines, a service area of 396 square miles (1,026 km2) and 14 pump stations. MDWASD has over 3,600 miles (5,800 km) of sewage pipes, a service area of 341 square miles (883 km2) and 954 pump stations.[126] Miami-Dade County is also in the jurisdiction of the South Dade Soil and Water Conservation District.

Corrections department

Miami-Dade County Corrections and Rehabilitation Department is the correction agency.

Aviation department

The Miami-Dade Aviation Department (MDAD) operates Miami International Airport, Miami Executive Airport, Opa-locka Executive Airport, Homestead General Aviation Airport, and Dade-Collier Training and Transition Airport.[127]

County representation

The Florida Department of Juvenile Justice operates the Miami-Dade Regional Juvenile Detention Center in an unincorporated area in the county.[128]

Public libraries

Further information: Miami-Dade Public Library System

Lemon City Branch Library, c. 1955
Shenandoah Branch Library in November 2015

The Miami-Dade Public Library System traces its origin to the late nineteenth century. The first library was a reading room established in Lemon City on April 7, 1894, by the Lemon City Library and Improvement Association. In 1942 neighborhood libraries were brought together in a single public library system, governed by a board of trustees and administered by a Head Librarian. A new central library building had been proposed for Bayfront Park in Downtown Miami as early as 1938, but the proposal was not realized till over a decade later. In December 1965 the City of Miami and Metropolitan Dade County agreed that the City of Miami would provide public library service to unincorporated Dade County and to those municipalities that did not provide their library service with four bookmobiles provided library service to the unincorporated area. On November 1, 1971, the City of Miami transferred its library system to Metropolitan Dade County which created a new Department of Libraries with a Director reporting directly to the County Manager.

On November 7, 1972, Dade County voters approved a referendum, also known as the "Decade of Progress" bonds, authorized approximately $553 million for public improvement projects in Dade County. Of that amount, approximately $34.7 million was authorized for public libraries, including construction, renovation, land acquisition, furnishings, and equipment. Between 1976 and 1990, this bond issue provided the funds to open 14 new libraries.[129] On August 24, 1992, Hurricane Andrew inflicted significant damage on the library system, destroying all branches south of Kendall Drive.[130] Over the next years, no further expansion of the system was funded and no new libraries opened. It was not until the fall of 2001, when Mayor Alex Penelas and Board of County Commissioners voted to increase the library system's budget which provided funding for capital improvement initiatives—making way for the opening of 18 new libraries by 2011. As of 2017, 15 of these libraries have been opened, with the remaining 3 still under construction.

Today Miami-Dade Public Library System serves a population of 2,496,435, provides services for the Miami-Dade County except for the cities of Bal Harbour, Hialeah, Homestead, Miami Shores, North Miami, North Miami Beach and Surfside. It has forty-nine branches,[131] two bookmobiles and one technobus. The Miami-Dade County Board of County Commissioners governs the Miami-Dade Public Library System.[132]


The University of Miami in Coral Gables, April 2006
Florida International University in University Park, October 2018
Miami Dade College in Miami, December 2019

Colleges and universities

The University of Miami, located in Coral Gables, is among the top-tier research universities in the United States, and is the highest ranked private university in Florida.

As of 2020, Florida International University, located in Westchester (in the University Park area), is the fifth largest university by enrollment in the United States. Miami Dade College, located in Miami, has the second largest undergraduate enrollment of any U.S. college or university with over 100,000 students.

A full list of colleges and universities:

Primary and secondary (K-12) schools

In Florida, each county is also a school district, and Miami-Dade County Public Schools is such for the county.[133] The district is operated by an independently elected School Board. A professional Superintendent of Schools appointed by the School Board manages the district's day-to-day operations. As of 2014, the Miami-Dade County Public School District is the fourth-largest public school district in the nation with almost 360,000 students.[134]

The Miami-Dade Public Library is one of the country's largest public library systems. It has 50 branch locations and others under construction.[135]

Miami-Dade County is home to many private and public primary and secondary schools.

MDCPS public

Sites of interest

The Pérez Art Museum in Downtown Miami in July 2014
Frost Art Museum at Florida International University in April 2009


Culture and wildlife

Vizcaya Museum and Gardens in Coconut Grove in June 2007
Miami Seaquarium in Virginia Key in October 2006

Other areas and attractions

South Beach in April 2006


Sports venues

Hard Rock Stadium, home of the Miami Dolphins of the NFL and Miami Hurricanes of NCAA Division I college football, January 2020
LoanDepot Park, home of the Miami Marlins, April 2012

Miami-Dade County holds the majority of sports arenas, stadiums and complexes in South Florida. Some of these sports facilities are:

Former venues include:



Main article: Transportation in South Florida


Miami International Airport

Miami International Airport (IATA: MIA, ICAO: KMIA, FAA LID: MIA), in an unincorporated area in central Miami-Dade County, is the Miami area's primary international airport. One of the busiest international airports in the world, it serves over 35 million passengers a year. The airport is a major hub and the single largest international gateway for American Airlines, the world's largest passenger air carrier. Miami International Airport is the United States' third largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers (behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport and Los Angeles International Airport), and is the seventh largest such gateway in the world. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.

Other airports in Miami-Dade County include:

Public transit

Public transit in Miami-Dade County is operated by Miami-Dade Transit (MDT),[136] the largest public transit system in the state. MDT operates Metrorail, a heavy rail rapid transit system; Metromover, an elevated people mover servicing Downtown Miami, the Brickell financial district and the Arts & Entertainment District; and Metrobus, the county-wide bus system.[137] MDT also runs the Paratransit division's Special Transportation Service.

Many county municipalities also operate local circulator trolleys within their municipal limits. These free trolleys are operated either independently by the municipality or in concert with MDT, and connect with the MDT network at various locations throughout their routes. Some examples of municipalities offering such services include Aventura [1], Coral Gables [2], Doral [3], Hialeah [4], Homestead [5], Miami [6], Miami Beach [7], Miami Gardens [8] North Miami Beach [9], and Sunny Isles Beach [10]. Additionally, the Homestead trolley network includes seasonal service from the city to Biscayne National Park and Everglades National Park [11].

MDT also collaborates with Broward County Transit to provide overlapping and connecting bus service between Miami-Dade and Broward counties, and with Monroe County Transit to provide overlapping and connecting bus service between Miami-Dade County and the Florida Keys.

Miami-Dade County is also serviced by the Tri-Rail commuter rail service connecting locations in Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, and the Amtrak and Brightline intercity rail systems, all of which connect at various locations to Metrorail and other parts of the MDT network.

Companies providing intercity bus service in Miami-Dade County include FlixBus, Greyhound Lines and Megabus.

The Miami Intermodal Center (MIC) is an intermodal rapid transit, commuter rail, intercity rail, local bus, intercity bus and vehicle rental transportation hub just east of Miami International Airport and connected to the airport via an automated people mover. It connects the airport to all the other modes of public transportation available in the county.

Major expressways

Julia Tuttle Causeway, which connects Miami with Miami Beach, May 2008
Flagler Street in Downtown Miami, May 2008
Florida State Road 970, also known as the Downtown Distributor, May 2008

Miami-Dade County has 10 major expressways and one minor expressway in Downtown Miami:

County roads

This is a list of Miami-Dade county roads. Miami-Dade County has fewer county roads than any other county in Florida, despite its large population. None are signed.

# Road Name(s) Direction and Termini Notes
CR 854 Ives Dairy Road SR 817 US 1 former SR 854 (east of US 441)[138]
CR 905A Card Sound Road Monroe County line US 1 former SR 905A
signed on mile markers[139]
CR 913 Crandon Boulevard / Rickenbacker Causeway extension of SR 913
CR 948 Lindgren Road extension of SR 825
CR 959 Southwest 57th Avenue extension of SR 959
CR 973 Galloway Road extension of SR 973
CR 992 Coral Reef Drive extension of SR 992
CR 9823 Northwest 67th Avenue
Northwest 68th Avenue
N/S SR 826 Palm Springs North Broward County line Palm Springs North


Street grid

A street grid stretches from downtown Miami throughout the county. This grid was adopted by the City of Miami following World War I after the United States Post Office threatened to cease mail deliveries in the city because the original system of named streets, with names often changing every few blocks and multiple streets in the city sharing the same name, was too confusing for the mail carriers.[140] The new grid was later extended throughout the county as the population grew west, south, and north of city limits.

The grid is laid out with Miami Avenue as the meridian going north–south and Flagler Street the baseline going east-west. The grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler and west of Miami Avenue have NW in their address (e.g. NW 27th Avenue). Because its point of origin is in downtown Miami which is close to the coast, the NW and SW quadrants are much larger than the SE and NE quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named, although, with a few notable exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals.

Although this grid is easy to understand once one is oriented to it, it is not utilized in the entire county. Hialeah uses its own grid system which is entirely different in its orientation. Coral Gables and Miami Lakes use named streets almost exclusively, and various smaller municipalities such as Florida City and Homestead use their own grid system along with the Miami-Dade grid system adding to the confusion. In the beach cities and parks of Miami Beach, Surfside, Bal Harbour, Sunny Isles, and Golden Beach, the streets are coordinated with the main grid; however, their avenues are named.


Main article: List of communities in Miami-Dade County, Florida

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Miami

Sister cities

See also: List of sister cities in Florida

Miami-Dade County's sister cities are:[141]

See also


  1. ^ The Mayor of Miami-Dade County is officially elected in a non-partisan election, despite common de facto party affiliation.
  2. ^ Language spoken at home among residents at least five years old; only languages (or language groups) which at least 2% of residents have spoken at any time since 1980 are mentioned
  3. ^ Refers to 2018–2022 American Community Survey data;[52] the last Decennial Census where language data was collected was in the 2000 census
  4. ^ Refers to 2008–2012 American Community Survey data;[53] the last Decennial Census where language data was collected was in the 2000 census
  5. ^ Refers to 2018–2022 American Community Survey data;[57][58] the last Decennial Census where foreign-born population data was collected was in the 2000 census
  6. ^ Refers to 2008–2012 American Community Survey data;[59][60] the last Decennial Census where foreign-born population data was collected was in the 2000 census
  7. ^ Only countries of birth which at least 0.3% of residents were born in at any time since 1980 are mentioned
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Not counted separately; aggregated into "Other" category
  9. ^ a b Data from the 1980 census and 1990 census pertains to residents born anywhere in the Soviet Union, not just Russia


  1. ^ "Counties Gazetteer" (TXT). Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  2. ^ "Agencies and Officials". Archived from the original on November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  3. ^ "Miami-Dade County High Point -".
  4. ^ a b c d "P2: HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT ... - Census Bureau Table". P2 | HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  5. ^ a b "County Population Totals and Components of Change: 2020-2022". County Population Totals: 2020-2022. U.S. Census Bureau. March 30, 2023. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  6. ^ "Gross Domestic Product: All Industries in Miami-Dade County, FL".
  7. ^ "". Miami Herald.
  8. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  9. ^ "Gross Domestic Product by County and Metropolitan Area, 2022" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis.
  10. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis: Real Gross Domestic Product: All Industries in Miami-Dade County, FL. Accessed June 15, 2024.
  11. ^ "About Miami-Dade County", Miami Dade County website, accessed February 10, 2023
  12. ^ University of Miami profile at U.S. News & World Report National Universities
  13. ^ "Largest employers in South Florida", South Florida Business Journal, September 24, 2021
  14. ^ "Miami-Dade County Municipalities". Archived from the original on February 21, 2019. Retrieved May 22, 2022.
  15. ^ "Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserves | Florida Department of Environmental Protection".
  16. ^ "Biscayne Bay Aquatic Preserve". Florida Department of Environmental Protection. July 8, 2015. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  17. ^ Parks, Arva Moore (1991). Miami: The Magic City. Miami: Centennial Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-9629402-2-4.
  18. ^ "Miami Circle to Brickell Avenue – From Native to NOW! – HistoryMiami Museum". Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
  19. ^ Parks, p 13
  20. ^ Parks, p 14
  21. ^ Parks, p 14-16
  22. ^ History of Miami-Dade county retrieved January 26, 2006 Archived January 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ Publications of the Florida Historical Society. Florida Historical Society. 1908. p. 30.
  24. ^ "Miami-Dade County Annual Report for Bondholders. For the Fiscal Year of 1998" (PDF). Miami-Dade County, Florida. 1998. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
  25. ^ History of Indian Key – retrieved September 13, 2007
  26. ^ Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, U.S.A. Coconut Grove, Florida. Hurricane House Publishers. Pp. 33, 100
  27. ^ "Miami-Dade County Government". Archived from the original on April 3, 2007.
  28. ^ Fla. Const. of 1885, art. VIII, s. 11(h), continued in force by, Fla. Const. art. VIII, s. 9(e).
  29. ^ "Miami-Dade County, FL Weather -™".
  30. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  31. ^ "Notes on Florida Geography, Florida International University".
  32. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Counties: April 1, 2020 to July 1, 2023". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 31, 2024.
  33. ^ "Census Counts: 1830-2020". Florida County Population Census Counts: 1830 to 2020. Office of Economic and Demographic Research, The Florida Legislature. 2023. Archived from the original on April 4, 2022. Retrieved April 12, 2023.
  34. ^ a b c "General Population Characteristics FLORIDA 1980 Census of Population" (PDF). 07553445v1chA-Cpt11sec1ch002.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  35. ^ a b c "1990 Census of Population General Population Characteristics Florida Section 1 of 2" (PDF). Florida: 1990, Part 1. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  36. ^ a b "PL002: HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT ... - Census Bureau Table". PL002 | HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE [73]. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  37. ^ a b "P2: HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT ... - Census Bureau Table". P2 | HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  38. ^ "H1 | occupancy status". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  39. ^ "P12 | sex by age for selected age categories". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 27, 2023.
  40. ^ "P13 | median age by sex". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 27, 2023.
  41. ^ "H1 | occupancy status". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  42. ^ "P12 | sex by age". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  43. ^ "P13 | median age by sex". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  44. ^ "H003 | occupancy status [3]". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  45. ^ "P012 | sex by age [49]". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  46. ^ "P013 | median age by sex [3]". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 20, 2023.
  47. ^ "General Population Characteristics FLORIDA 1980 Census of Population" (PDF). 07553445v1chA-Cpt11sec1ch002.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 13, 2023.
  48. ^ "S2001: EARNINGS IN THE PAST 12 ... - Census Bureau Table". S2001 | EARNINGS IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2022 INFLATION-ADJUSTED DOLLARS). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  49. ^ "S1901: INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS ... - Census Bureau Table". S1901 | INCOME IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS (IN 2022 INFLATION-ADJUSTED DOLLARS). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  50. ^ "S1701: POVERTY STATUS IN THE PAST ... - Census Bureau Table". S1701 | POVERTY STATUS IN THE PAST 12 MONTHS. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  51. ^ a b c "S1501: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT - Census Bureau Table". S1501 | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  52. ^ "C16001: LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME FOR ... - Census Bureau Table". C16001 | LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  53. ^ "B16001: LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY - Census Bureau Table". B16001 | LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME BY ABILITY TO SPEAK ENGLISH FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  54. ^ "PCT010: AGE BY LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT ... - Census Bureau Table". PCT010 | AGE BY LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME FOR THE POPULATION 5 YEARS AND OVER [83]. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  55. ^ a b "1990 Census of Population General Social and Economic Characteristics Florida Section 1 of 3" (PDF). Florida: 1990, Part 1. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  56. ^ a b "General Social and Economic Characteristics FLORIDA 1980 Census of Population" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 13, 2023.
  57. ^ "B05001: NATIVITY AND CITIZENSHIP ... - Census Bureau Table". B05001 | NATIVITY AND CITIZENSHIP STATUS IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  58. ^ "B05006: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". B05006 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 8, 2023.
  59. ^ "B05001: NATIVITY AND CITIZENSHIP ... - Census Bureau Table". B05001 | NATIVITY AND CITIZENSHIP STATUS IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  60. ^ "B05006: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". B05006 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  61. ^ "P021: PLACE OF BIRTH BY CITIZENSHIP ... - Census Bureau Table". P021 | PLACE OF BIRTH BY CITIZENSHIP STATUS [15]. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  62. ^ "PCT019: PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE ... - Census Bureau Table". PCT019 | PLACE OF BIRTH FOR THE FOREIGN-BORN POPULATION [126]. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g "Miami-Dade County: Selected Social Characteristics in the United States 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  64. ^ a b c d e "Miami–Dade County Demographic Characteristics". Archived from the original on January 31, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  65. ^ "Hispanic or Latino by Type: 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  66. ^ "Miami-Dade County, Florida First Ancestry Reported Universe: Total population – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 11, 2015.
  67. ^ "3.2% county population rise in year". Miami Today. July 18, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  68. ^ a b "Miami-Dade County: Age Groups and Sex: 2010 Census Summary File 1". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
  69. ^ "Miami-Dade County, Florida: Selected Economic Characteristics – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved November 14, 2015.
  70. ^ "Regulatory and Economic Resources - Miami-Dade County" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on February 16, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
  71. ^ "Regional & Local Profiles". Archived from the original on January 27, 2008. Retrieved December 18, 2007.
  72. ^ a b "Modern Language Association Data Center Results of Miami-Dade County, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  73. ^ a b "The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports".
  74. ^ "County Membership Report Miami-Dade County (Florida)". The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2020.
  75. ^ "Social Capital Variables Spreadsheet for 2014". PennState College of Agricultural Sciences, Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development. December 8, 2017. Retrieved December 30, 2019.
  76. ^ "verso". Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  77. ^ "Statues & Constitution". Online Sunshine. Article 7, Section 1 of the Constitution of Florida (1968). Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  78. ^ "Statues & Constitution". Online Sunshine. Article 7, Section 6 of the Constitution of Florida (1968). Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  79. ^ "January 6 Amendment 10 Consideration" (PDF). Miami-Dade County. p. 1. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  80. ^ "Statutes & Constitution". Online Sunshine. Article 5, Section 16, 17 and 18 of the Constitution of Florida (1968). Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  81. ^ "January 6 Amendment 10 Consideration" (PDF). Miami-Dade County. January 6, 2022. History of the Sheriff in Miami-Dade County. Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  82. ^ Rodriguez, Sabrina (November 4, 2020). "How Miami Cubans disrupted Biden's path to a Florida win". Politico. Retrieved November 8, 2020.
  83. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections".
  84. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics".
  85. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Miami-Dade County, Florida".
  86. ^ "Active Voter Party-Race Analysis" (PDF). Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  87. ^ "Largest employers in South Florida", South Florida Business Journal, September 24, 2021
  88. ^ "100 of the largest hospitals and health systems in America", Becker's Hospital Review
  89. ^ "Contact Us Archived December 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Brightstar Corporation. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  90. ^ "We're Listening Archived July 25, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." Burger King. Retrieved on January 31, 2009.
  91. ^ "Contact Us Archived April 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine." Intradeco Holdings. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  92. ^ "Contact Us Archived May 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." Latin Flavors. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  93. ^;jsessionid=LJQGQS4Fn2NYC0v4zCFMmjyv8LKvPRC5!-27535706 [permanent dead link]
  94. ^ "Contact Us Archived January 8, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." Ryder. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  95. ^ "Contact Us Archived August 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine." (Direct link to image Archived May 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine) Centurion Air Cargo. Retrieved on July 1, 2010. "Head Office 1851 NW 68 Ave., Bldg 706 Miami, FL 33126. This address may incorrectly be mapped to a residential subdivision. The proper location is at Miami International Airport
  96. ^ Home page Archived November 6, 2005, at the Wayback Machine. Florida West International Airways. Retrieved on January 7, 2010.
  97. ^ "Locations Archived April 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine." International Bonded Couriers. Retrieved on January 9, 2010.
  98. ^ "Contact World Atlantic Airlines Archived January 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." World Atlantic Airlines. Retrieved on December 31, 2012. "5600 NW 36th Street Suite: 450 Miami, Florida 33166"
  99. ^ "MIA LOST AND FOUND PUBLIC AUCTION ON MARCH 20 Archived March 12, 2013, at the Wayback Machine." Miami International Airport. March 9, 2010. Retrieved on December 31, 2012. "5600 N.W. 36th Street (Building 845), Third Floor"
  100. ^ "Office Locations." Hewlett Packard. Retrieved on August 29, 2011. "Hewlett-Packard Latin America Waterford Building, 9th Floor 5200 Blue Lagoon Drive Miami, Florida 33126 USA"
  101. ^ "USA." AstraZeneca. Retrieved on March 11, 2010.
  102. ^ "Contact Us Archived March 3, 2012, at the Wayback Machine." Gate Group. Retrieved on September 17, 2011. "North America Regional Office11710 Plaza America Drive, Suite 800 Reston, VA 20190 USA"
  103. ^ "Prelude Archived February 2, 2011, at the Wayback Machine." (Select "English", then select the mail icon in the upper right hand corner of the screen) Unicomer Group. Retrieved on March 4, 2010.
  104. ^ "Contact Us." Goya Foods. Retrieved on March 26, 2016. "Goya Foods of Miami 13300 NW 25th Street Miami, FL 33182"
  105. ^ "Contact Us." Arrow Air. Retrieved on January 7, 2010.
  106. ^ "Walkout by 3,500 Cancels All Flights Of National Airlines." The New York Times. Sunday February 1, 1970. Page 58. Retrieved on September 24, 2009.
  107. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 14–20, 1990 "Airlift International" 57.
  108. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 23–29, 1994. 114. "Head office: PO Box 522067, 5400 NW 36th St, Miami, Florida 33152, USA."
  109. ^ Bernstein, Aaron. Grounded: Frank Lorenzo and the Destruction of Eastern Airlines. Beard Books, 1999. 22. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
  110. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight International. March 30, 1985. 72." Retrieved on June 17, 2009.
  111. ^ Stieghorst, Tom. "Sings of decline." Sun Sentinel. May 6, 1991. Weekly Business 8. Retrieved on August 28, 2009.
  112. ^ "Welcome to ResidenSea." ResidenSea. January 18, 2006. Retrieved on January 20, 2010.
  113. ^ a b Beacon Council Archived September 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Beacon Council. Retrieved on May 4, 2013.
  114. ^ a b "Southern Florida 2005 Okra PMSP". Regional Integrated Pest Management Centers Database. 2022. Retrieved June 30, 2022.
  115. ^ a b c d "HS-857/TR009: Okra Production in Miami-Dade County, Florida". Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS). Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), UF. 2021. HS-857 TR009. Retrieved September 17, 2022.
  116. ^ a b c d Dittmar, Peter; Agehara, Shinsuke; Dufault, Nicholas (August 16, 2022). "Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida 2022–2023". Edis. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), UF. doi:10.32473/edis-cv292-2022. ISSN 2576-0009 – via University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
  117. ^ a b c
  118. ^ a b c "Bactrocera zonata". Purdue University. pp. 1–12.
  119. ^ a b Wetterer, James; Porter, Sanford (2003). "The Little Fire Ant Wasmannia auropunctata: Distribution, Impact and Control". Sociobiology. 41 (3). ISSN 0361-6525. S2CID 53132506. CABI ISC # 20043012612. AGRIS ID US201300806939.
  120. ^ "little fire ant - Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger)". University of Florida Entomology and Nematology. April 2021. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
  121. ^ "Census of Agriculture - State and County Profiles - Florida". 2017 Census Publications. United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA NASS). 2017. cp12086. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  122. ^ "Locations". Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department. Miami-Dade County. Archived from the original on June 15, 2006. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
  123. ^ "Airport Fire Rescue Division". Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department. Miami-Dade County. Archived from the original on March 8, 2005. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
  124. ^ "Cities Served". Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department. Miami-Dade County. Archived from the original on October 22, 2004. Retrieved August 30, 2006.
  125. ^ "Miami-Dade County News Releases" (PDF). Miami-Dade County. January 28, 2016.
  126. ^ "Water & Sewer - Miami-Dade County". Archived from the original on October 9, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2007.
  127. ^ "Miami International Airport".
  128. ^ "Miami-Dade Regional Juvenile Detention Center." Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. Retrieved on June 4, 2010.
  129. ^ "front cover". Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  130. ^ "page 03". Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  131. ^ "About Us - Miami-Dade Public Library System". Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  132. ^ "CONTENTdm". Retrieved February 2, 2022.
  133. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Miami-Dade County, FL" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 22, 2022. - Text list - As "Dade County School District"
  134. ^ "Digest of Education Statistics, 2016". Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  135. ^ "Find a Branch | Locations of the Miami-Dade Public Library System". Retrieved November 27, 2018.
  136. ^ "Transportation & Public Works".
  137. ^ "Miami-Dade County News" (PDF). February 1, 2016.
  138. ^ "General highway map Dade County".
  139. ^ Google (June 2022). "CR 905A sign". Google Street View. Google. Retrieved April 25, 2015.
  140. ^ Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, U.S.A. Coconut Grove, Florida: Hurricane House Publishers. Pp. 136–7.
  141. ^ "Sister Cities". Miami-Dade County. Retrieved November 9, 2023.