Middle management is the intermediate management level of a hierarchical organization that is subordinate to the executive management and responsible for "team leading" line managers and/or "specialist" line managers. Middle management is indirectly (through line management) responsible for junior staff performance and productivity.[1]

Unlike line management, middle management is considered to be a senior (or semi-executive) position as middle managers are authorised to speak and act on behalf of the organisation to line managers, junior staff and customers. Included in this level of management are division, plant and department managers.[2]

A 2023 study in the American Journal of Sociology found that middle management has increased over time and that the role of middle management increasingly revolves around the task of collaboration rather than supervision.[3]

Role in an organization

Functions of a middle manager

A middle manager is a link between the senior management and the lower (junior) levels of the organization. Due to involvement into day-to-day running of a business, middle managers have the opportunity to report valuable information and suggestions from the inside of an organization.[4] They are in charge of putting into practice guidelines established previously in the strategic plans by top level managers. [2] Moreover, the middle manager is a channel of communication within the organization, as they pass on major decisions of executives and the main goals of an organization to lower levels of employees. This contributes to better coordination between workers and makes a company more united.[5]

The primary responsibility of a middle manager is to implement a strategy, created by the executive level, in the most efficient way possible. In order to reach the target goals, a manager may adjust and interpret the initial plan.[6] Other functions can be divided into three main categories:[7]

Middle managers are in charge of facilitating any changes needed in an organization and creating an effective working environment. They administer day-to-day routines, monitor performance and make sure everything is done in compliance with organization's needs.[8]

One of the most important functions of a middle manager is motivating, leading and inspiring their subordinates. This also includes building a team and supporting any team member when necessary.

Strategic functions involve analyzing a subordinate group in terms of productivity and financial effectiveness, creating a strategy of improving the current situation and reporting to the executive management in the form of attending a boardroom meeting or a discussion.


A number of competencies are critical to become an effective middle manager.

Middle manager vs. line manager

A middle management position is often mistakenly described as a similar to the line management one. However, there are some differences:[7]


The role of middle management is subjected to a number of criticisms. This position is often seen as unnecessary and middle managers are blamed for holding back the organization from achieving its full potential and using the influence for their own purposes.


Middle management is often accused of possessing too much influence. Their central position in an organization allows them to influence strategy and actions in "both upward and downward direction".[6] When supplying information to the executive level, middle managers interpret it subjectively and may insinuate it with their own opinion and evaluation.[10] Further, proximity to the boardroom makes it easy for the manager to promote their own interests, by "synthesizing" the information and presenting data from a certain strategic perspective.[11] The same level of influence can be exploited by a middle manager towards the lower staff.[12]


Middle managers' reluctance to lose control in their teams and satisfaction with a settled situation could lead to their resistance in any changes in the strategy or direction of an organization. Usually, the resistance does not take an aggressive form such as refusal to carry out tasks or unconcealed confrontation, but result in a lack of support and eagerness to convey only those tasks, impact of which is clearly visible to the top management.[13] This creates barriers to a growth of a company and lags the overall working process.


The overall necessity of middle managers in an organization is questioned. They are said to be too costly, non-effective and constantly under-performing employees. It has been stated[by whom?] that middle managers do not carry out their main duties of linking the organization and reporting effectively, which leads to a block of communication between different levels of staff.[14] Thus, as rapid growth of globalization put pressures on businesses in terms of cost effectiveness and speed of information flow within the organization, middle management make companies less flexible and competitive.[15]


Development of information technology enabled an increase in the span of control and reduced the need for middle management. Moreover, an increasingly large number of modern organizations become flatter and downsized in the pursuit of flexibility, higher competitiveness and innovation. According to David Williams, flat organizations promote greater intercommunication and efficiency of the workers.[16] As a result, many organizations are being restructured, middle management is being reduced and their roles are thought to be out-dated and unnecessary.

At the same time, there is still a need in a middle manager as an employee and they continue playing a significant role in organizations, specifically in setting an overall strategy and targets.[17] Changes in the global market forced them to become more flexible, stress-resistant, acquire new skills.


  1. ^ Dance, Anthony (2019). Pragmatic Introduction to Middle Management. Amazon: eBookit. pp. 8–14. ASIN B07L4D3QB9.
  2. ^ a b Business / O. C. Ferrell, Geoffrey A. Hirt, Linda Ferrell (6e ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 2019. ISBN 978-1-259-92945-8.
  3. ^ Zhang, Letian (2023). "The Changing Role of Managers". American Journal of Sociology. 129 (2): 439–484. doi:10.1086/727145. ISSN 0002-9602.
  4. ^ Likert, R (1961). New Patterns of Management. New-York: McGraw-Hill.
  5. ^ Barnard, Chester I. (1973). The Functions of the Executive. London: Oxford University Press.
  6. ^ a b Floyd, S. W.; Wooldridge, B. (1992). "Middle management involvement in strategy and its association with strategic type: A research note". Strategic Management Journal. 13 (S1): 153–167. doi:10.1002/smj.4250131012.
  7. ^ a b c Dance, Anthony (2011). "The ambiguity of the middle management role" (PDF). www.managerperformance.co.uk. Manager Performance. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  8. ^ a b Zhang, Ann Yan; Tsui, Anne S.; Song, Lynda Jiwen; Li, Chaoping; Jia, Liangding (2008). "How do I trust thee? The employee‐organization relationship, supervisory support, and middle manager trust in the organization". Human Resource Management. 47 (1): 111–132. doi:10.1002/hrm.20200.
  9. ^ Rouleau, L.; Balogun, J. (2011). "Middle managers, strategic sensemaking, and discursive competence" (PDF). Journal of Management Studies. 48 (5): 953–983. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00941.x. S2CID 145090455.
  10. ^ Ranson, S.; Hinings, B.; Greenwood, R. (1980). "The structuring of organizational structures". Administrative Science Quarterly. 25 (1): 1–17. doi:10.2307/2392223. JSTOR 2392223.
  11. ^ Dutton, J. E.; Duncan, R. B. (1987). "The influence of the strategic planning process on strategic change". Strategic Management Journal. 8 (2): 103–116. doi:10.1002/smj.4250080202.
  12. ^ Floyd, Steven W.; Wooldridge, Bill (1997). "Middle management's strategic influence and organizational performance". Journal of Management Studies. 3 (34): 466–482. doi:10.1111/1467-6486.00059.
  13. ^ Connors, J. L.; Rom berg, T. A. (1991). "Middle management and quality control: Strategies for obstructionism". Human Organization. 50: 61–65. doi:10.17730/humo.50.1.2w81h2l600260704.
  14. ^ Scarbrough, H.; Burrell, G. (1996). Clegg, S.; Palmer, G. (eds.). "The Axeman Cometh: the changing role and knowledge of middle managers". The Politics of Management Knowledge.
  15. ^ Dopson, S.; Stewart, R. (1993). "Information technology, organizational restructuring and the future of middle management". New Technology, Work and Employment. 1 (8): 10–20. doi:10.1111/j.1468-005X.1993.tb00030.x.
  16. ^ Williams, David. "The End Of Middle Managers (And Why They'll Never Be Missed)". forbes.com. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  17. ^ Balogun, J (2003). "From Blaming the Middle to Harnessing its Potential: Creating Change Intermediaries". British Journal of Management. 14 (1): 69–83. doi:10.1111/1467-8551.00266.