Mikis Theodorakis
Theodorakis conducting the orchestra in concert at Cultural Center "Fabrik" in Hamburg, 1971
Michail Theodorakis

(1925-07-29)29 July 1925
Died2 September 2021(2021-09-02) (aged 96)
Athens, Greece
Resting placeGalatas Cemetery, Chania, Crete
  • Composer
  • political activist
Political partyKKE
Other political
New Democracy (1989–1993)
Myrto Altinoglou
(m. 1953)
Musical career
Genres20th-century classical music
Years active1943–2021
Member of the Hellenic Parliament
In office
In office
In office
Minister of State
In office
11 April 1990 – 1 April 1993
Prime MinisterKonstantinos Mitsotakis

Michail "Mikis" Theodorakis (Greek: Μιχαήλ "Μίκης" Θεοδωράκης [ˈmicis θeoðoˈɾacis]; 29 July 1925 – 2 September 2021)[1] was a Greek composer and lyricist credited with over 1,000 works.[2][3][4][5][6]

He scored for the films Zorba the Greek (1964), Z (1969), and Serpico (1973). He was a three-time BAFTA nominee, winning for Z.[7] For the score in Serpico , he earned Grammy nominations.[8] Furthermore, for the score to Zorba the Greek, with its 'Zorba's Dance', he was Golden Globe nominated.[9]

He composed the "Mauthausen Trilogy", also known as "The Ballad of Mauthausen", which has been described as the "most beautiful musical work ever written about the Holocaust" and possibly his best work.[10] Up until his death, he was viewed as Greece's best-known living composer.[3][5][11] He was awarded the Lenin Peace Prize.[12]

Politically, he was associated with the left because of his long-standing ties to the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). He was an MP for the KKE from 1981 to 1990. Despite this however, he ran as an independent candidate within the centre-right New Democracy party in 1989, in order for the country to emerge from the political crisis that had been created due to the numerous scandals of the government of Andreas Papandreou.[13] He helped establish a large coalition between conservatives, socialists and leftists. In 1990 he was elected to the parliament (as in 1964 and 1981), became a government minister under Konstantinos Mitsotakis, and fought against drugs and terrorism and for culture, and education. He continued to speak out in favour of leftist causes, Greek–Turkish–Cypriot relations, and against the War in Iraq.[14][15] He was a key voice against the 1967–1974 Greek junta, which imprisoned him and banned his songs.[16]

Early life

Theodorakis was born on the Greek island of Chios and spent his childhood years in provincial Greek cities including Mytilene,[17] Cephallonia,[17] Patras,[18][19] Pyrgos,[20][21] and Tripoli.[21][22] His father, a lawyer and a civil servant, was from the small village of Galatas on Crete[23] and his mother, Aspasia Poulakis, was from an ethnically Greek family in Çeşme, in what is now Turkey.[11][24][25][26][27] He was raised with Greek folk music and was influenced by Byzantine liturgy; as a child he had already talked about becoming a composer.[28][29]

His fascination with music began in early childhood; he taught himself to write his first songs without access to musical instruments. He took his first music lessons in Patras[18] and Pyrgos,[20] where he was a childhood friend of George Pavlopoulos,[30] and in Tripoli, Peloponnese,[22] he gave his first concert at the age of seventeen. He went to Athens in 1943, and became a member of a Reserve Unit of ELAS. He led a troop in the fight against the British and the Greek right in the Dekemvriana.[31] During the Greek Civil War he was arrested, sent into exile on the island of Icaria[32] and then deported to the island of Makronisos, where he was tortured and twice buried alive.[33]

During the periods when he was not obliged to hide, not exiled or jailed, he studied from 1943 to 1950 at the Athens Conservatoire under Filoktitis Economidis.[34] In 1950, he finished his studies and took his last two exams "with flying colours".[35] He went to Crete, where he became the "head of the Chania Music School" and founded his first orchestra.[36]

Studies in Paris

In Paris, 1957

In 1953, Theodorakis married Myrto Altinoglou.[37] The following year, they travelled to Paris, where he entered the Conservatory and studied musical analysis under Olivier Messiaen[38] and conducting under Eugene Bigot.[39]

His symphonic works: a Piano concerto, his first suite, his first symphony, and his scores for the ballet: Greek Carnival, Le Feu aux Poudres, Les Amants de Teruel, received international acclaim. In 1957, he won the Gold Medal in the Moscow Music Festival.[40] In 1959, after the successful performances of Theodorakis's opera Antigone at Covent Garden in London, the French composer Darius Milhaud proposed him for the American Copley Music Prize – an award of the "William and Noma Copley Foundation",[41] which later changed its name to "Cassandra Foundation" as the "Best European Composer of the Year". His first international scores for the film Ill Met by Moonlight and Honeymoon (aka Luna de Miel), directors: Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger, were successful: The Honeymoon Song, title song of the later, became part of the repertoire of The Beatles.[42]

Back to Greek roots

Mikis Theodorakis shortly after his return to Greece in 1961

In 1960, Theodorakis returned to Greece and his roots in Greek music. With his song cycle Epitaphios, he contributed to a cultural revolution in his country.[43] His most significant and influential works are based on Greek and world poetry – Epiphania (Giorgos Seferis), Little Kyklades (Odysseas Elytis), Axion Esti (Elytis), Mauthausen (Iakovos Kambanellis), Romiossini (Yannis Ritsos), and Romancero Gitano (Federico García Lorca) – he attempted to give back to Greek music a dignity which in his perception it had lost. He developed his concept of "metasymphonic music" (symphonic compositions that go beyond the "classical" status and mix symphonic elements with popular songs, Western symphonic orchestra and Greek popular instruments).[44]

He founded the Athens Little Symphony Orchestra and gave many concerts in the country, trying to familiarize people with symphonic music.[45]

After the assassination of Gregoris Lambrakis in May 1963 he founded the Lambrakis Democratic Youth ("Lambrákides") and was elected its president.[46] Under Theodorakis's impetus, it started a vast cultural renaissance movement and became the greatest political organisation in Greece with more than 50,000 members.[47] Following the 1964 elections, Theodorakis became a member of the Greek Parliament, associated with the left-wing party EDA. Because of his political ideas, the composer was black-listed by the cultural establishment; at the time of his biggest artistic glory, a large number of his songs were censored-before-studio or were not allowed on the radio stations.[48]

During 1964, he wrote the music for the Michael Cacoyiannis film Zorba the Greek, whose main theme, since then, exists as a trademark for Greece. It is also known as "Syrtaki dance", inspired by old Cretan traditional dances.[49]

During the dictatorship

Photo of Mikis Theodorakis
Mikis Theodorakis in 1972

On 21 April 1967 the Regime of the Colonels took power in a putsch. Theodorakis was a symbol of resistance to the military regime. He went into hiding, issued the first call for resistance against the dictatorship on 23 April. and founded the "Patriotic Front" (PAM).[37][50] On 1 June, the Colonels published "Army decree No 13", which banned playing, and even listening to his music. Theodorakis was arrested on 21 August,[51] and jailed for five months. He was released at the end of January 1968, and then deported in August to Zatouna with his wife, Myrto, and their two children, Margarita and Yorgos.[52] Later he was interned in the concentration camp of Oropos.[53]

An international solidarity movement, headed by such personalities as Dmitri Shostakovich, Leonard Bernstein, Arthur Miller, and Harry Belafonte demanded to get Theodorakis freed. On request of the French politician Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, Theodorakis was allowed to go into exile to Paris on 13 April 1970. Theodorakis' flight left secretly from an Onassis-owned private airport outside Athens. He arrived at Le Bourget Airport where he met Costa Gavras, Melina Mercouri and Jules Dassin. Theodorakis was immediately hospitalized with tuberculosis.[54] His wife and children joined him a week later in France, having travelled from Greece via Italy on a boat.[55]

He would compose, alongside Pagani, the anthem of the French Socialist Party, in 1977.[56][57]

Resistance in exile

In 1971, Mikis Theodorakis was invited to Chile by then-president Salvador Allende. In Valparaíso, he listened to a group of young people who introduced him to part of the work of the poet Pablo Neruda. Theodorakis loved it and promised to give Chile his musical opinion on the Canto General. Back to Paris, in 1972 Theodorakis met Pablo Neruda when the Greek composer was rehearsing the musicalization of Canto General. Neruda was impressed and asked him to include poems such as "Lautaro" and "A Emiliano Zapata".[58]

Mikis Theodorakis at a concert in Caesarea, Israel, in the 1970s.

He was received by Gamal Abdel Nasser and Tito, Yigal Allon and Yasser Arafat, while François Mitterrand, Olof Palme and Willy Brandt became his friends. For millions of people, Theodorakis was the symbol of resistance against the Greek dictatorship together with Melina Mercouri.[59][60][61]

Return to Greece

Theodorakis on a visit in East Germany, May 1989

After the fall of the Colonels, Mikis Theodorakis returned to Greece on 24 July 1974 to continue his work and his concert tours, both in Greece and abroad.[62] His return was in triumph, with huge crowds and his music playing on the radio.[63] At the same time he participated in public affairs. In 1978, through his article For a United Left Wing, he had "stirred up the Greek political life. His proposal for the unification of the three parties of the former United Left – which had grown out of the National Liberation Front (N.L.F.) – had been accepted by the Greek Communist Party which later proposed him as the candidate for mayor of Athens during the 1978 elections." (Andreas Brandes)[64] He was later elected several times to the Greek Parliament (1981–1986 and 1989–1993) and for two years, from 1990 to 1992, he was a minister in the government of Constantine Mitsotakis. After his resignation as a member of Greek parliament, he was appointed General Musical Director of the Choir and the two Orchestras of the Hellenic State Radio (ERT), which he reorganised and with which he undertook successful concert tours abroad.[65]

He was committed to raising international awareness of human rights, environmental issues, and the need for peace. For this reason, he initiated, along with the Turkish author, musician, singer and filmmaker Zülfü Livaneli, the Greek–Turkish Friendship Society.[66]

From 1981, Theodorakis had started the fourth period of his musical writing, during which he returned to the symphonic music, while still going on to compose song-cycles. His most significant works written in these years are his Second, Third, Fourth and Seventh Symphony, most of them being first performed in the former German Democratic Republic between 1982 and 1989. It was during this period that he received the Lenin Peace Prize. He composed his first opera Kostas Kariotakis (The Metamorphoses of Dionysus) and the ballet Zorba the Greek, premièred in the Arena of Verona during the Festival Verona 1988. During this period, he also wrote the five volumes of his autobiography: The Ways of the Archangel (Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου).[37]

In 1989, he started the fifth period, the last, of his musical writing: He composed three operas (lyric tragedies) Medea, first performed in Bilbao (1 October 1991), Elektra, first performed in Luxembourg (2 May 1995) and Antigone, first performed in Athens' Megaron Moussikis (7 October 1999). This trilogy was complemented by his last opera Lysistrata, first performed in Athens (14 April 2002): a call for peace... With his operas, and with his song cycles from 1974 to 2006, Theodorakis ushered in the period of his Lyrical Life.[67]

In March 1997, gave a concert at the Berlin Haus der Kulturen der Welt. Afterwards he was hospitalized due to respiratory difficulties and it was when he declared that this was his last concert.[68]

Theodorakis was Doctor honoris causa of several universities.[69]

Theodorakis holding hands with Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou

Later life and death

He later lived in retirement, reading, writing, publishing arrangements of his scores, texts about culture and politics. On occasions he took position: in 1999, opposing NATO's Kosovo war and in 2003 against the Iraq War. In 2005, he was awarded the Sorano Friendship and Peace Award, the Russian International St.-Andrew-the-First-Called Prize, the insignia of Grand Officer of the Order of Merit of Luxembourg, and the IMC UNESCO International Music Prize, while already in 2002 he was honoured in Bonn with the Erich Wolfgang Korngold Prize for film music at the International Film Music Biennial in Bonn[70] (cf also: Homepage of the Art and Exhibition Hall Bonn).[71] In 2007, he received a Lifetime Achievement Award at the distribution of the World Soundtrack Awards in Ghent.[72]

A final set of songs titled: Odysseia was composed by utilizing poetry written by Costas Kartelias for lyrics. In 2009 he composed a Rhapsody for Strings (Mezzo-Soprano or Baryton ad lib.). Created on 30 January 2013, Theodorakis achieved the distinction of producing one of the largest works by any composer of any time.[73]

On 26 February 2019, Theodorakis was hospitalized with heart problems. On 8 March, he underwent surgery for a pacemaker.[74][75] He died of cardiopulmonary arrest at his home in Athens on 2 September 2021, at the age of 96.[37][1] The Greek Prime Minister declared three days of national mourning to honour him,[37][76] and his body lay in state in the chapel of the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens, with thousands of people, including artists, as well as political leaders from all Greek parties paying their last respects. Epitaphs were delivered by the President of the Hellenic Republic, Aikaterini Sakellaropoulou, and the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece, Dimitrios Koutsoumbas. Afterwards, according to his will, his body was transferred by boat overnight to be buried in his hometown of Galatas, near Chania, Crete, where his parents and brother were buried. [37][77]

Political views

Israel and Jews

Theodorakis opposed Israel's occupation of Gaza and the West Bank. He criticised Greek Prime Minister George Papandreou for establishing closer relations with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, who was guilty, he said, of "war crimes in Lebanon and Gaza."[78] Theodorakis was a vocal critic of Zionism, and referred to himself as an "anti-Zionist."[79][80][81][82] In 2003, he stated, "Everything that happens today in the world has to do with the Zionists ... American Jews are behind the world economic crisis that has hit Greece as well." He was accused of saying that "this small nation (Israel) is the root of evil".[83] Theodorakis later clarified his comments, stating in a letter to the Central Council of Jews in Greece that what he had said was: "Unfortunately the state of Israel supports the United States and their foreign policy, which is the root of the Evil and, therefore, it is close to the root of the Evil.”[84] He was also accused of having admitted his anti-Semitism during an interview on Greek TV on February 8, 2011. His controversial statement on television had been: “I should clarify that I am anti-Semite. Essentially, I love the Jewish people, I love the Jews, I have lived long with them but as much as I hate anti-Semitism, I hate Zionism even more so”, being "I am anti-Semite" an obvious slip of the tongue for "anti-Zionist".[84] In 2013, he condemned Golden Dawn for Holocaust denial.[85]

Views of the United States

Theodorakis was a long-time critic of the United States foreign policy. During the invasion of Iraq, he called Americans "detestable, ruthless cowards and murderers of the people of the world". He said he would consider anyone who interacted with "these barbarians", for whatever reason, as his enemy.[86] Theodorakis greatly opposed the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia during the Yugoslav Wars. He participated in a charity concert protesting the bombing in 1999.[87]

2010–2011: Non-political movement

On 1 December 2010, Mikis Theodorakis founded "Spitha: People's Independent Movement", a non-political movement which calls people to gather and express their political ideas. The main goal of "Spitha" is to help Greece stay clear of its economic crisis.[88] On 31 May 2011, Theodorakis gave a speech attended by approximately 10,000 people in the center of Athens, criticising the Greek government for the loan debt it has taken from the International Monetary Fund.[89]

Positions on Macedonia

In 1997 Mikis Theodorakis stated on the Macedonian issue that "The name does not matter so much, as long as the peoples live in peace". Later, in an interview, he stressed "In fact, this country is being pushed towards improving relations with Greece. So why shouldn't it be possible for our relations to prosper at all levels and whatever comes up? The Customs Union, confederation, etc. are just conditions. In any case, I think that the name issue will be overcome when the relations between the two peoples reach such a point that the name will not matter at all".[90]

Theodorakis was one of the main speakers at the Rally for Macedonia in Athens, which took place on 4 February 2018. In his speech, he stated that "Macedonia is one, was, is and will always be Greek."[91][92] The statements garnered support from parties in parliament, while even Golden Dawn MPs welcomed Mikis Theodorakis' shift on the name of Macedonia. Members of SYRIZA and Yiannis Boutaris commented negatively on Theodorakis' statements. Also, the day before the rally, a group of anarchists threw paint at the entrance of his house and then wrote threatening messages, such as: "Your story starts from the mountain and ends in the national swamp of Syntagma Square.[93]


His song cycles are based on poems by Greek authors, as well as by García Lorca and Neruda: Epitaphios, Archipelagos, Politia A-D, Epiphania, The Hostage, Mykres Kyklades, Mauthausen, Romiossini, Sun and Time, Songs for Andreas, Mythology, Night of Death, Ta Lyrika, The Quarters of the World, Dionysos, Phaedra, Mia Thalassa, Os Archaios Anemos, Ta Lyrikotera, Ta Lyrikotata, Erimia, Odysseia. Theodorakis released two albums of his songs and song cycles on Paredon Records and Folkways Records in the early seventies, including his Peoples' Music: The Struggles of the Greek People (1974).[94]

Symphonic works


Chamber music

Cantatas and oratorios




Music for the stage

Classical tragedies

Modern plays

International theatre

Principal film scores



Internationally available CD releases


Written works

Books in Greek by Theodorakis:


Awards and decorations


  1. ^ a b "Mikis Theodorakis, composer of Zorba the Greek, dies aged 96". BBC News. 2 September 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  2. ^ John Chrysochoos, Ph.D. (17 November 2010). Ikaria – Paradise in Peril. Dorrance Publishing. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4349-8240-7. Retrieved 1 November 2012. Theodorakis the internationally renowned Greek composer
  3. ^ a b Maura Ellyn; Maura McGinnis (1 August 2004). Greece: A Primary Source Cultural Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-8239-3999-2. Retrieved 1 November 2012. Considered Greece's greatest living composer, Theodorakis has written many scores.
  4. ^ Athensnews Interview: Theodorakis' call to arms Famous composer Theodorakis addresses protesters during a rally against a new austerity package, outside the University of Athens, in 2011 Archived 3 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ a b Mike Gerrard (3 March 2009). National Geographic Traveler: Greece, 3rd Edition. National Geographic Society. pp. 47–. ISBN 978-1-4262-0396-1. Retrieved 1 November 2012. The most famous Greek musician of contemporary times is undoubtedly Mikis Theodorakis (born 1925), best known for
  6. ^ "Embassy of Greece International conference honors renowned composer Mikis Theodorakis' 80th birthday An international conference dedicated to the work of famous music composer Mikis Theodorakis in honor of his 80th birthday, kicked off on Friday in Hania, Crete". Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  7. ^ "BAFTA - Mikis Theodorakis". 13 September 2021.
  8. ^ "GRAMMY AWARDS - Mikis Theodorakis".
  9. ^ "GOLDEN GLOBES - Mikis Theodorakis".
  10. ^ Αντωνης Μποσκοιτης (2 February 2015). "Αφιέρωμα στη Μπαλάντα του Μάουτχάουζεν του Μίκη Θεοδωράκη και του Ιάκωβου Καμπανέλλη Το ωραιότερο μουσικό έργο για το Ολοκαύτωμα που γράφτηκε ποτέ". Lifo.gr. Retrieved 27 December 2015. Google translation: "A Tribute to Ballad of Mauthausen Mikis Theodorakis and Iakovos Kambanellis The finest musical work about the Holocaust ever written."
  11. ^ a b Dimitris Keridis (28 July 2009). Historical Dictionary of Modern Greece. Scarecrow Press. pp. 150–. ISBN 978-0-8108-5998-2. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  12. ^ Yearbook of the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (in Russian). Moscow: Sovetskaya Enciklopediya. 1983
  13. ^ Theodorakis: Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου V / The Ways of the Archangel, Autobiography, Volume V, p. 331 sq
  14. ^ "Official Website". En.mikis-theodorakis.net. 27 July 2004. Archived from the original on 19 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Official Website". En.mikis-theodorakis.net. 15 September 2005. Archived from the original on 5 February 2012.
  16. ^ Theodorakis: Journal of Resistance
  17. ^ a b Γιωργος ΑρΧιμανδριτης (2007). Σε πρωτο προσωπο: Μικης Θεοδωρακης. Ελληνικα Γραμματα. ISBN 978-960-442-911-0. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  18. ^ a b Theodorakis: Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου Ι / The Ways of the Archangel, Autobiography, Volume I, p. 72 sq.
  19. ^ Mikis Theodorakis (1997). Μελοποιημενη ποιηση. Υψιλον/Βιβλια. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  20. ^ a b Theodorakis, op. cit., p. 82 sq.
  21. ^ a b Μικης Θεοδωρακης; Γιαννης Κουγιουμουτζακης; Ιδρυμα ΤεΧνολογιας και Ερευνας (Greece) (2007). Συμπαντικε αρμονια, μουσικη και επιστημη: στον Μικη Θεοδωρακη. Πανεπιστημιακες Εκδοσεις Κρητης. ISBN 978-960-524-253-4. Retrieved 8 November 2012. ... Σύρος και Αθήνα (1929), Γιάννενα (1930- 1932),Αόλι (1933-1936), Πάτρα (1937-1938), Πύργος (1938-1939), Τρίπολη
  22. ^ a b Theodorakis, op. cit., Chapter II, p. 95 sq.
  23. ^ George Giannaris (1972). Mikis Theodorakis: music and social change. Praeger. Retrieved 3 November 2012. For nearly six months, Mikis remained on the island of Crete trying to put the past behind, and become a human being ... For too long, he had been a drain on hisfather who was finding it difficult to practice his profession in the tiny village of KatoGalata, or even the larger town of Cha- nia. There was no dearth of lawyersestablished in the area for years, and even though Yiorgos had been born there, his
  24. ^ The New York Times Biographical Service. New York Times & Arno Press. April 1970. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  25. ^ Bernard A. Cook (2001). Europe Since 1945: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. pp. 939–. ISBN 978-0-203-80174-1. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
  26. ^ Sir Compton Mackenzie; Christopher Stone (2005). The Gramophone. C. Mackenzie. Retrieved 3 November 2012. MIKIS THEODORAKIS AT 80 Mikis Theodoralris celebrated his 80th birthday on July 29 this year. ... His mother had moved to the Greek islands from Asia Minor just before the Lausanne Peace Conference in 1923 obliged 1.5 million other
  27. ^ Journal of Modern Hellenism. Hellenic College Press. 2001. Retrieved 3 November 2012. While there is no record of a young Mikis Theodorakis being subjected to any serious direct personal physical or psychological trauma, he did grew up in ... His mother, Aspasia Poulakis, was a refugee form Tsemes, a coastal city in Asia Minor
  28. ^ "Schott Music". De.schott-music.com. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  29. ^ Mikis Theodorakis (1973). Journals of resistance. Hart-Davis McGibbon. ISBN 978-0-246-10597-4. Retrieved 3 November 2012. 29 July 1925 Mikis Theodorakis is born on the island of Chios. ... Theodorakis learns to sing Byzantine hymns and, since his father is from Crete and his mother from the Greek colony in Asia Minor, he also gets to know the very varied tradition=
  30. ^ Levi, Peter. (1980) The Hill of Kronos.
  31. ^ Theodorakis: Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου II / The Ways of the Archangel, Autobiography, Volume II, Ch. 3, p. 11 sq; cf. also p. 174sq; Mikis Theodorakis, Τα δικά μου Δεκεμβριανά / My December '44, 1944: Ο Μοιραίος Δεκέμβριος / The Fateful December, special supplement of newspaper 'Vima', Sunday, 5 December 2010, p. 54.
  32. ^ Theodorakis, op. cit., Ch. 4, p. 95 sq.
  33. ^ Theodorakis: Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου III / The Ways of the Archangel, Autobiography: Read the complete, deeply moving Volume III ("The Nightmare")
  34. ^ "Mikis Theodorakis – The Home Page – About the Trio". En.mikis-theodorakis.net. 30 July 2004. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  35. ^ George Giannaris: Mikis Theodorakis. Music and Social Change, p. 81
  36. ^ Theodorakis: Οι δρόμοι του αρχάγγελου IV / The Ways of the Archangel, Autobiography, Volume IV, p. 259 sq
  37. ^ a b c d e f McFadden, Robert D. (3 September 2021) [2 September 2021]. "Mikis Theodorakis, Greek Composer and Marxist Rebel, Dies at 96". The New York Times. p. A20. ISSN 0362-4331. Gale A674108918. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  38. ^ Jean Boivin, 'Messiaen's Teaching at the Paris Conservatoire: A Humanist Legacy', in Siglind Bruhn, Messiaen's Language of Mystical Love (New York, Garland, 1998), p.10
  39. ^ George Giannaris, op. cit., p. 90 sq
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Ο Μίκης Θεοδωράκης με δικά του λόγια". Kathimerini. 2 September 2021.
  41. ^ "Inventory of the William and Noma Copley Foundation and Collection Records, 1954–1980". Oac.cdlib.org. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
  42. ^ "The Honeymoon Song". The Beatles Bible. 16 March 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  43. ^ George Giannaris, op. cit., p. 118 sq
  44. ^ "Mikis Theodorakis: Music, politics, passion". Greek News Agenda. 29 July 2019. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  45. ^ Λάδης, Φώντας (2005). Μίκης Θεοδωράκης το χρονικό μιας επανάστασης 1960–1967. Αθήνα. σελ. 20–250. ISBN 978-960-256-468-4
  46. ^ Gail Holst. Mikis Theodorakis. Myth & Politics in Modern Greek Music, p. 74 sq
  47. ^ Mikis Theodorakis: Journal of Resistance, (Dictionary), p. 328
  48. ^ Gail Holst, op. cit., p. 78
  49. ^ "Mikis Theodorakis: Greek Patriot, Renowned Composer Dead at 96". Greek Reporter. 2 September 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  50. ^ Trousas, Fondas (16 November 2018). "Ο Μίκης Θεοδωράκης τις ημέρες του Πολυτεχνείου: το παράδοξο της απαγόρευσης των τραγουδιών, αλλά όχι του βιβλίου του". Lifo (in Greek).
  51. ^ Mikis Theodorakis: Journal of Resistance, p. 71 sq
  52. ^ Mikis Theodorakis, op. cit., p. 169 sq
  53. ^ Mikis Theodorakis, op. cit., p. 263 sq
  54. ^ Mikis Theodorakis, op. cit, p. 280sq
  55. ^ The story of this rescue in French, cf. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. Une vie pour la Grèce, p. 387 sq.; in German, cf. Guy Wagner: Mikis Theodorakis. Ein Leben für Griechenland, p. 420 sq
  56. ^ Ina.fr, Institut National de l'Audiovisuel-. "1977 : Mikis Theodorakis présente l'hymne du PS, "Changer la vie" – Archives vidéo et radio Ina.fr". Ina.fr (in French). Retrieved 4 September 2021.
  57. ^ Gaffney, J. (9 April 2010). Political Leadership in France: From Charles de Gaulle to Nicolas Sarkozy. Springer. ISBN 978-0-230-27478-5.
  58. ^ "La fascinante historia de la amistad entre Mikis Theodorakis y Pablo Neruda que llevó al compositor griego a musicalizar el poemario "Canto General"". BBC in Spanish (in Spanish). 2 September 2021.
  59. ^ Gail Holst, op. cit, p. 206 sq
  60. ^ François Mitterrand: Je peux me dire son ami (Preface to: Mikis Theodorakis: Les Fiancés de Pénélope)
  61. ^ D. McFadden, Robert (2 September 2021). "Mikis Theodorakis, 'Zorba' Composer and Marxist Rebel, Dies at 96". The New York Times.
  62. ^ Gail Holst, op. cit, p. 271 sq
  63. ^ "Theodorakis Expresses Joy on Return to Athens". The New York Times. 26 July 1974.
  64. ^ "Mikis Theodorakis – The Home Page – "I Gitonies tou Kosmou"". En.mikis-theodorakis.net. 24 August 2004. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
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Further reading