This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Military history of the Philippines" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

The military history of the Philippines is characterized by wars between Philippine kingdoms and its neighbors in the precolonial era and then a period of struggle against colonial powers such as Spain and the United States, occupation by the Empire of Japan during World War II and participation in Asian conflicts post-World War II such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War. The Philippines has also battled a communist insurgency and a secessionist movement by Muslims in the southern portion of the country.

Prehistoric period (before 1000 BC – 900 AD)

Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul area around 48,000 to 5000 BC.[1] The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon.[2][3] From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines. They assimilated earlier Negritos that arrived during the Paleolithic, resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups that all display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.[4]

By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago had developed into four distinct kinds of peoples: tribal groups, such as the Aetas, Ilongots and the Mangyan who depended on hunter-gathering and were concentrated in forests; warrior societies, such as the Isneg and Kalinga who practiced social ranking and ritualized warfare and roamed the plains; the petty plutocracy of the Ifugao Cordillera Highlanders, who occupied the mountain ranges of Luzon; and the harbor principalities of the estuarine civilizations such as the Tagalogs, Visayans, Taūsugs, Maranaos and the Maguindanaons that grew along rivers and seashores while participating in trans-island maritime trade.[5] It was also during the first millennium BC that early metallurgy was said to have reached the archipelagos of maritime Southeast Asia via trade with India.[6][7]

Archaeological findings dating from prehistoric eras have discovered a variety of stone and metal weaponry, such as axes, arrows and spearheads. Usually used for hunting, they also allowed tribes to battle with each other. Some more elaborate bronze pieces, such as axes and swords, were also part of the native weaponry. The making of swords involved elaborate rituals that were based mainly on the auspicious conjunctions of planets. The passage of the sword from the maker entailed a mystical ceremony that was coupled with tribal beliefs. The lowlanders of Luzon use the kampilan, bararao and panabas, while the Moros and animists of the South still continue the tradition of making kris.[citation needed]

Pre-colonial period (900 AD to 1565)

Further information: Warfare in pre-colonial Philippines

Further information: List of conflicts in the Philippines

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (September 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Ma-i and Bruneian alliance against China

By the 800s, British Historian Robert Nicholl citing Arab chronicler Al Ya'akubi, had written that on those years, the kingdoms of Muja (Then Pagan Brunei/Vijayapura) and Mayd (Ma-i) waged war against the Chinese Empire.[8]

Champa-Sulu War

The Chams who migrated to Sulu were called Orang Dampuan.[9] [10] The Champa Civilization and the port-kingdom of Sulu engaged in commerce with each other which resulted in merchant Chams settling in Sulu where they were known as Orang Dampuan from the 10th–13th centuries. The Orang Dampuan were slaughtered by envious native Sulu Buranuns due to the wealth of the Orang Dampuan.[11] The Buranun were then subjected to retaliatory slaughter by the Orang Dampuan. Harmonious commerce between Sulu and the Orang Dampuan was later restored.[12] The Yakans were descendants of the Taguima-based Orang Dampuan who came to Sulu from Champa.[13] Sulu received civilization in its Indic form from the Orang Dampuan.[14]

Visayan Raids against China

A Visayan kadatuan (royal) and his wife wearing red, the distinctive color of their class. He is wielding a golden sword.
A Visayan kadatuan (royal) and his wife wearing red, the distinctive color of their class. He is wielding a golden sword.

Antecedent to this raids, sometime between A.D. 1174 and 1190, a traveling Chinese government bureaucrat Chau Ju-Kua reported that a certain group of "ferocious raiders of China's Fukien coast" which he called the "Pi-sho-ye", believed to have lived on the southern part of Formosa.[15]

In A.D. 1273, another work written by Ma Tuan Lin, which came to the knowledge of non-Chinese readers through a translation made by the Marquis D'Hervey de Saint-Denys, gave reference to the Pi-sho-ye raiders, thought to have originated from the southern portion of Formosa. However, the author observed that these raiders spoke a different language and had an entirely different appearance (presumably when compared to the inhabitants of Formosa). Some scholars have put forth the theory that the Pi-sho-ye were actually people from the Visayas islands.[15] Furthermore, Boholano oral legends say that people from the Kedatuan of Dapitan were the ones that lead the raids on China.[16]

War between Sulu and Majapahit

In the mid 14th century, the Majapahit empire mentioned in its manuscript Nagarakretagama Canto 14, written by Prapanca in 1365, that the area of Solot (Sulu) was part of the empire.[17][18] Nagarakretagama was composed as a eulogy for their emperor Hayam Wuruk.[19] However, Chinese sources then report that in 1369, the Sulus regained independence and in vengeance, assaulted Majapahit and its province, Po-ni (Brunei), looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from the Majapahit capital succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack. The Majapahit Empire, attempted to reconquer the kingdoms of Sulu and Manila but they were permanently repulsed.[20]

War between the Maguindanao and Cebu

Main article: Rajahnate of Cebu

During the early 1400s, Rajamuda Sri Lumay, a Chola dynasty prince who rebelled against the Cholas and sided with his Malay subjects established an independent Tamil-Malay Indianized kingdom in Cebu called the Rajahnate of Cebu, he established his country by waging scorched earth tactics against raiders from Mindanao mainly against the Sultanate of Maguindanao. War between Maguindanao and Cebu lasted until the Spanish era.[21]

Collection of Philippine lantaka in a European museum
Collection of Philippine lantaka in a European museum

Brunei's invasion of Tondo, incorporation of Sulu and establishment of Manila

The Battle of Manila (1500s) was fought in Manila between citizens of the Kingdom of Tondo led by their Lakan, Sukwu and the soldiers of the Sultanate of Brunei led by Sultan Bolkiah the singing captain. The aftermath of the battle was the formation of an alliance between the newly established Kingdom of Maynila (Selurong) and the Sultanate of Brunei, to crush the power of the Kingdom of Tondo and the subsequent installation of the Pro-Islamic Rajah Sulaiman into power. Furthermore, Sultan Bolkiah's victory over Sulu and Seludong (modern day Manila),[22] as well as his marriages to Laila Mecanai the daughter of Sulu Sultan Amir Ul-Ombra (an uncle of Sharifa Mahandun married to Nakhoda Angging or Maharaja Anddin of Sulu), and to the daughter of Datu Kemin, widened Brunei's influence in the Philippines.[23]

Territorial conflict between Manila and Tondo

According to the account of Rajah Matanda as recalled by Magellan expedition members Gines de Mafra, Rodrigo de Aganduru Moriz, and expedition scribe Antonio Pigafetta, Maynila had a territorial conflict with Tondo in the years before 1521.

At the time, Rajah Matanda's mother (whose name was not mentioned in the accounts) served as the paramount ruler of the Maynila polity, taking over from Rajah Matanda's father (also unnamed in the accounts), who had died when Rajah Matanda was still very young. Rajah Matanda, then simply known as the "Young Prince" Ache, was raised alongside his cousin, who was ruler of Tondo – presumed by some to be a young Bunao Lakandula, although not specifically named in the accounts.

During this time, Ache realized that his cousin, who was ruler of the Tondo polity, was "slyly" taking advantage of Ache's mother by taking over territory belonging to Maynila. When Ache asked his mother for permission to address the matter, his mother refused, encouraging the young prince to keep his peace instead. Prince Ache could not accept this and thus left Maynila with some of his father's trusted men, to go to his "grandfather", the Sultan of Brunei, to ask for assistance. The Sultan responded by giving Ache a position as commander of his naval force.

In 1521, Prince Ache was coming fresh from a military victory at the helm of the Bruneian navy and was supposedly on his way back to Maynila with the intent of confronting his cousin when he came upon and attacked the remnants of the Magellan expedition, then under the command of Sebastian Elcano. Some historians[24] suggest that Ache's decision to attack must have been influenced by a desire to expand his fleet even further as he made his way back to Lusong and Maynila, where he could use the size of his fleet as leverage against his cousin, the ruler of Tondo.

Battle of Mactan

Main article: Battle of Mactan

The Battle of Mactan on April 27, 1521, is celebrated as the earliest reported resistance[dubious ] of the natives in the Philippines against western invaders.[according to whom?] Lapu-Lapu, a Chieftain of Mactan Island, defeated Christian European explorers led by the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan.[25][26]

On March 16, 1521, the island of Samar was sighted. The following morning, March 17, Magellan landed on the island of Homonhon.[27][28] He parleyed with Rajah Calambu of Limasawa, who guided him to Cebu Island on April 7. With the aid of Magellan's Malay interpreter, Enrique, Rajah Humabon of Cebu and his subjects converted to Christianity and became allies. Suitably impressed by Spanish firearms and artillery, Rajah Humabon suggested that Magellan project power to cow Lapu-Lapu, who was being belligerent against his authority.

Magellan deployed 49 armored men, less than half his crew, with crossbows and guns, but could not anchor near land because the island is surrounded by shallow coral bottoms and thus unsuitable for the Spanish galleons to get close to shore. His crew had to wade through the surf to make a landing and the ship was too far to support them with artillery. Antonio Pigafetta, a supernumerary on the voyage who later returned to Seville, Spain, records that Lapu-Lapu had at least 1500 warriors in the battle. During the battle, Magellan was wounded in the leg, while still in the surf. As the crew were fleeing to the boats, Pigafetta recorded that Magellan covered their retreat, turning at them on several occasions to make sure they were getting away, and was finally surrounded by a multitude of warriors and killed. The total toll was of eight crewmen killed on Magellan's side against an unknown number of casualties from the Mactan natives.

The Kedatuan of Dapitan vs the Ternate and Lanao Sultanates

Kampilan Swords in Display
Kampilan Swords in Display

By 1563, before the full Spanish colonization agenda came to Bohol, the Kedatuan of Dapitan was at war with the Sultanate of Ternate, a Papuan speaking Muslim state in the Moluccas, which was also raiding the Rajahnate of Butuan. At the time, Dapitan was ruled by two brothers named Dalisan and Pagbuaya. The Ternateans at the time were allied to the Portuguese. Dapitan was destroyed by Ternateans and Datu Dalisan was killed in battle. His brother, Datu Pagbuaya, together with his people fled to Mindanao and established a new Dapitan in the northern coast of the Zamboanga peninsula and displaced its Muslim natives. In the process, waging war against the Sultanate of Lanao and conquering territories from the Sultanate.[16]

Lucoes Mercenary Activity

Main article: Lucoes

Due to the conflict-ridden nature of the Philippine archipelago, warriors were forged in the many wars in the islands, thus the islands acquired a reputation for its capable mercenaries, which were soon employed all across Southeast Asia with some influence even manifested in East Asia at Japan where Lucoes sailors initially guided Portuguese ships to the Shogunate[29] and even South Asia in Sri Lanka where Lungshanoid pottery from Luzon were found in burials there.[30] Lucoes (warriors from Luzon) aided the Burmese king in his invasion of Siam in 1547 AD. At the same time, Lusung warriors fought alongside the Siamese king and faced the same elephant army of the Burmese king in the defense of the Siamese capital at Ayuthaya.[31] The former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 AD.[a]

Pinto noted that there were a number of them in the Islamic fleets that went to battle with the Portuguese in the Philippines during the 16th century. The Sultan of Aceh gave one of them (Sapetu Diraja) the task of holding Aru (northeast Sumatra) in 1540. Pinto also says one was named leader of the Malays remaining in the Moluccas Islands after the Portuguese conquest in 1511.[33] Pigafetta notes that one of them was in command of the Brunei fleet in 1521.[31] One famous Lucoes is Regimo de Raja, who was appointed by the Portuguese at Malacca as Temenggung (Jawi: تمڠݢوڠ[34]) or Supreme Governor and Chief General. The Lucoes were so commercially and militarily influential that the Portuguese soldier Joao de Barros considered them, "the most warlike and valiant of these parts."[35] Yet among themselves the Lucoes were not united and the Portuguese soldier, Mendes Pinto noted that Muslim and Non-Muslim Lucoes rivaled each other.[33]

Spanish colonial period (1565–1898)

Early Spanish Conquest

Major Revolts (1567–1872)

Main article: Philippine revolts against Spain

Moro campaign (1569–1898)

Limahong campaign (1574–1576)

Main article: Limahong

Castilian War (1578)

Main article: Castilian War

Cagayan battles (1582)

Main article: 1582 Cagayan battles

The 1582 Cagayan battles were a series of clashes between the forces of Colonial Philippines led by Captain Juan Pablo de Carrión and wokou (possibly led by Japanese pirates) headed by Tay Fusa. These battles, which took place in the vicinity of the Cagayan River, finally resulted in a Spanish victory.

Cambodian-Spanish War (1593–1597)

Main articles: Cambodian–Spanish War and Luis Pérez Dasmariñas

Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)

Main article: Eighty Years' War

Chinese insurrections (1603–1640)

Seven Years' War (1756–1763)

Main article: Seven Years' War

Wars in the Americas (1812–1821)

Main article: Philippine military activities in the Americas

Cochinchina Campaign (1858–1862)

Main article: Cochinchina campaign

Taiping Rebellion (1850–1864)

Philippine Revolution and Declaration of Independence (1896–1898)

Philippine Revolution (1896–1898)

Main article: Philippine Revolution

The Armed Forces of the Philippines began with the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in August 1896, when the Spanish authorities upon the discovered they called the Katipunan, an anti-colonial secret organization. At the peak of the revolution, some Filipinos and a few Spaniards in the Spanish Army, Guardia Civil, and Navy defected to the Philippine Revolutionary Army. The Katipunan, led by the founder Andres Bonifacio and patriots, was a secessionist movement and shadow government spread throughout much of the islands, and began to influence much of the Philippines taking full advantage advantage of Spanish failures against Cuban nationalists, whose goal was independence advocating independence through armed revolt against Spain through a revolution. During a mass gathering in the city of Caloocan, the members of the Katipunan organized themselves into a revolutionary government, named the newly established government "Haring Bayang Katagalugan", and openly declared a nationwide armed revolution. On August 24th, Bonifacio called for a simultaneous coordinated attack and the surrounding towns on the capital Manila. Bonifacio appointed generals to lead rebel forces in Manila. This attack has failed, however, the surrounding provinces began to revolt. In particular, rebels in Cavite led by led by Mariano Álvarez and Baldomero Aguinaldo (who were leaders from two different factions of the Katipunan) won early major victories won early victories. A power struggle among the revolutionaries led to a schism among Katipunan leadership followed by Bonifacio's execution in 1897, with command shifting to Aguinaldo who led his own newly formed of the revolutionary government. That year, the revolutionaries are trucing the Spanish was officially signed the Pact of Biak-na-Bato, which temporarily reduced hostilities. General Aguinaldo and his Filipino revolutionary officers are exiled themselves to the British Hong Kong, though hostilities between Filipino rebels and the Spanish government never actually completely a ceased.

Spanish–American War (1898)

Main article: Spanish–American War

The first military action between American and Spanish forces was in Manila Bay and entering the Philippine theater on May 1st, 1898, under Commodore George Dewey, commanding the U.S. Navy's Asiatic Squadron aboard the USS Olympia, in a matter of hours, Spanish squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo has been defeated, effectively seizing control of Manila. Dewey's force sustaining only a single casualty a heart attack aboard one of his vessels and managed this with only nine wounded. On May 19th after the battle, Emilio Aguinaldo was transported by Commodore Dewey, a Filipino leader and its unofficially allies who led rebellion and, after assuming command of Filipino forces, on May 24th, initiated land campaigns against Spanish rule in the Philippines in 1896, from exile in Hong Kong and return to the Philippines to rally more Filipinos against the Spanish colonial government. By June 9th, Aguinaldo's forces gained control of seven provinces with Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bataan, Zambales, Pampanga, Pangasinan, and Mindoro, with the exception had laid a siege of Manila. Although this signified the end date of the revolution, neither Spain nor the United States recognized Philippine independence. This battle marked the end of Filipino–American collaboration, as the American action of preventing Filipino forces from entering the captured city of Manila was deeply resented by the Filipinos. After the Battle of Manila on the morning of August 13th, the Spanish governor, Captain-General Fermin Jaudenes, surrendered Manila to U.S. forces under Dewey, and accepted the surrender and declared the establishment of a U.S. military government in occupation. The Declaration was signed by ninety-eight persons, among them an American army officer who witnessed the proclamation. The Spanish rule of the Philippines officially ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1898, which also ended the Spanish-American War. The insurgent First Philippine Republic was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23rd, 1899. In that treaty, the Spanish government ceded the Philippine Archipelago and other territories to the United States in the Treaty of Paris put the independence of the newly declared Southeast Asian republic in grave danger, and agreed to pay US$20 million dollars to the Spanish colonial government. Angered by the betrayal, Filipinos declared war. Conflict was inevitable.

American colonial period (1899–1941) and Japanese occupation (1942–1945)

Philippine–American War (1899–1913)

Main article: Philippine–American War

The Philippine–American War[b] was a conflict between the United States and the First Philippine Republic from 1899 through at least 1902, when the Filipino leadership generally accepted American rule. A Philippine Constabulary organized in 1901 to deal with the remnants of the insurgent movement and gradually assumed the responsibilities of the United States Army. Skirmishes between government troops and armed groups lasted until 1913, and some historians consider these unofficial extensions part of the war.[45]

World War I (1914–1918)

Main article: World War I

In 1917 the Philippine Assembly created the Philippine National Guard with the intent to join the American Expeditionary Force. By the time it was absorbed into the National Army it had grown to 25,000 soldiers. However, these units did not see action. The first Filipino to die in World War I was Private Tomas Mateo Claudio who served with the U.S. Army as part of the American Expeditionary Forces to Europe. He died in the Battle of Chateau Thierry in France on June 29, 1918.[46][47] The Tomas Claudio Memorial College in Morong Rizal, Philippines, which was founded in 1950, was named in his honor.[48]

Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)

Main article: International response to the Spanish Civil War

During the Spanish Civil War, Filipino volunteers fought for both sides in the war. Over 1,000 volunteers from other nations served in the Nationalist forces, including Filipino Mestizos, Britons, Finns, Norwegians, Swedes, White Russians, Haitians, Welsh People, Americans, Mexicans, Belgians, Venezuelans, Puerto Ricans, Belgians, Hungarians, Romanians and Turks.[49]

World War II (1941–1945)

Main article: Military history of the Philippines during World War II

The first Filipino military casualty during the Second World War was serving as an aviator with British forces. First Officer Isidro Juan Paredes of the Air Transport Auxiliary was killed on November 7, 1941, when his aircraft overshot a runway and crashed at RAF Burtonwood. He was buried at Great Sankey (St Mary) Churchyard Extension, but later repatriated to the Philippines.[50] Paredes Air Station in Ilocos Norte, was named in his honor.

World War II Veterans are members of the following:

Related articles:

Korean War (1950–1953)

Main article: Korean War

The Philippines joined the Korean War in August 1950. The Philippines sent an expeditionary force of around 7,500 combat troops. This was known as the Philippine Expeditionary Forces To Korea, or PEFTOK. It was the 4th largest force under the United Nations Command then under the command of US General Douglas MacArthur that were sent to defend South Korea from a communist invasion by North Korea which was then supported by Mao Zedong's China and the Soviet Union. The PEFTOK took part in decisive battles such as the Battle of Yultong, Battle of the Imjin River, and the Battle of Hill Eerie. This expeditionary force operated with the United States 1st Cavalry Division, 3rd Infantry Division, 25th Infantry Division, and 45th Infantry Division.[51]

Vietnam War (1964–1969)

Main article: Vietnam War

The Philippines was involved in the Vietnam War, supporting civil and medical operations. Initial deployment in 1964 amounted to 28 military personnel, including nurses, and 6 civilians. The number of AFP battalion troops who served in Vietnam swelled to 182 officers and 1,882 enlisted personnel during the period 1966-1968. Some 10,450 Philippine Armed Forces troops were dispatched to South Vietnam and primarily supported medical and other civilian pacification projects. These forces operated under the designation A or Philippine Civic Action Group-Vietnam or PHILCAG-V. Nine Filipinos were killed in the conflict. Filipino troops withdrew from Vietnam on December 12th, 1969. AFP units were also sent at the same time to the Spratly Islands. The naval base at Subic Bay was used for the U.S. Seventh Fleet from 1964 until the end of the war in 1975. Subic Bay and Clark Air Base achieved maximum functionality during the war, as well as supporting an estimated 80,000 locals in allied tertiary businesses that ranged from shoe making to prostitution.

EDSA Revolution (February 22–25, 1986)

Main article: People Power Revolution

On February 22, 1986, former Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) Vice Chief of Staff and chief of the Philippine Constabulary (PC) (now the Philippine National Police) Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos withdrew their support for President Ferdinand Marcos and led the EDSA Revolution by Corazon Aquino (Ninoy's widow). On February 25, 1986, Corazon Aquino was sworm in as the 11th president of the Philippines. Marcos and his family were ousted from power by a combination of the military, people and church members to end the 20-year dictatorship of Marcos.

Persian Gulf War (1990–1991)

Main article: Gulf War

The Philippines sent 200 medical personnel to assist coalition forces in the liberation of Kuwait from the stranglehold of Iraq then led by Saddam Hussein.

Iraq War (2003–2004)

Main article: Iraq War

The Philippines sent 60 medics, engineers and other troops to assist in the invasion of Iraq. The troops were withdrawn on the 14th of July, 2004, in response to the kidnapping of Angelo dela Cruz, a Filipino truck driver. When insurgent demands were met (Filipino troops out of Iraq), the hostage was released. While in Iraq, the troops were under Polish command (Central South Iraq). During that time, several Filipino soldiers were wounded in an insurgent attack, although none died.

Communist rebellion in the Philippines

Early 1950s to present

Moro conflict

Late 1960s to present

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The former sultan of Malacca decided to retake his city from the Portuguese with a fleet of ships from Lusung in 1525 AD.[32]
  2. ^ This conflict is also known as the 'Philippine Insurrection'. This name was historically the most commonly used in the U.S., but Filipinos and some American historians refer to these hostilities as the Philippine–American War, and, in 1999, the U.S. Library of Congress reclassified its references to use this term.

References

  1. ^ Solheim, Wilhelm G. II (2006). Archaeology and Culture in Southeast Asia: Unraveling the Nusantao. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. pp. 57–139. ISBN 971-542-508-9.
  2. ^ Chambers, Geoff (2013). "Genetics and the Origins of the Polynesians". eLS. John Wiley & Sons. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0020808.pub2. ISBN 978-0470016176.
  3. ^ Mijares, Armand Salvador B. (2006). "The Early Austronesian Migration To Luzon: Perspectives From The Peñablanca Cave Sites". Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association (26): 72–78. Archived from the original on July 7, 2014.
  4. ^ Lipson, Mark; Loh, Po-Ru; Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Ko, Ying-Chin; Stoneking, Mark; Berger, Bonnie; Reich, David (2014). "Reconstructing Austronesian population history in Island Southeast Asia" (PDF). Nature Communications. 5 (1): 4689. Bibcode:2014NatCo...5E4689L. doi:10.1038/ncomms5689. PMC 4143916. PMID 25137359.
  5. ^ Legarda, Benito, Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 45.
  7. ^ Glover, Ian; Bellwood, Peter, eds. (2004). Southeast Asia: From Prehistory to History. Psychology Press. pp. 36, 157. ISBN 978-0-415-29777-6.
  8. ^ Nicholl, Robert (1983). "Brunei Rediscovered: A Survey of Early Times". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 14 (1): 38. doi:10.1017/S0022463400008973. JSTOR 20174317.
  9. ^ History of the Philippines. Chapter 3: Our Early Ancestors.
  10. ^ UNDERSTANDING HISTORY.
  11. ^ Sagmit, Rosario S.; Sagmit-Mendoza, Ma. Lourdes (2007). The Filipino Moving Onward: Worktext in Geography, History, and Civics for Grade Five. Manila: Rex Book Store. p. 3. ISBN 978-971-23-4154-0.
  12. ^ Ongsotto, Rebecca Ramilo; Ongsotto, Reena R. (2002). Philippine History Module-based Learning. Manila: Rex Book Store. p. 39. ISBN 971-23-3449-X.
  13. ^ Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Manila: Rex Book Store. p. 46. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  14. ^ Flores, Magelende; Tayao, Lourdes; Erestain, Teresita; Otero, Marietta; Donkor, Melanie; Soro, Delia; Jaras, Sharmaine; Maminta, Rosario (2001). Study Skills in English for a Changing World. Manila: Rex Book Store. p. 23. ISBN 971-23-3225-X.
  15. ^ a b Bersales, Jobers (June 6, 2013). "Raiding China". Past Forward. Inquirer.net. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  16. ^ a b "The Gravesite of a One Great Kingdom". discoverbohol.com. Retrieved February 3, 2017.
  17. ^ "A Complete Transcription of Majapahit Royal Manuscript of Nagarakertagama". Jejak Nusantara (in Indonesian).
  18. ^ Malkiel-Jirmounsky, Myron (1939). "The Study of The Artistic Antiquities of Dutch India". Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies. 4 (1): 59–68. doi:10.2307/2717905. JSTOR 2717905.
  19. ^ Day, Tony; Reynolds, Craig J. (2000). "Cosmologies, Truth Regimes, and the State in Southeast Asia". Modern Asian Studies. 34 (1): 1–55. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00003589. JSTOR 313111. S2CID 145722369.
  20. ^ History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing Our Past. Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education. 2009. p. 44. ISBN 978-99917-2-372-3.
  21. ^ Celestino C. Macachor (2011). "Searching for Kali in the Indigenous Chronicles of Jovito Abellana". Rapid Journal. 10 (2). Archived from the original on July 3, 2012.
  22. ^ History for Brunei Darussalam 2009, p. 41.
  23. ^ "Brunei". CIA World Factbook. 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  24. ^ Jose Rizal, as cited by Dery, 2001
  25. ^ Halili 2004, p. 74
  26. ^ Ongsotto & Ongsotto 2002, p. 63
  27. ^ Halili 2004, p. 72
  28. ^ Ongsotto & Ongsotto 2002, p. 62
  29. ^ Bayao, Bras, Letter to the king dated Goa 1 November 1540, Archivo Nacional de Torre de Tombo: Corpo Cronologico, parte 1, maco 68, doc. 63, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
  30. ^ "Quest of the Dragon and Bird Clan; The Golden Age (Volume III)" -Lungshanoid (Glossary)- By Paul Kekai Manansala
  31. ^ a b Pigafetta, Antonio (1969) [1524]. "First voyage round the world". Translated by J. A. Robertson. Manila: Filipiniana Book Guild. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ Barros, Joao de, Decada terciera de Asia de Ioano de Barros dos feitos que os Portugueses fezarao no descubrimiento dos mares e terras de Oriente [1628], Lisbon, 1777, courtesy of William Henry Scott, Barangay: Sixteenth-Century Philippine Culture and Society, Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1994, page 194.
  33. ^ a b Pinto, Fernão Mendes (1989) [1578]. "The Travels of Mendes Pinto". Translated by Rebecca Catz. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  34. ^ Turnbull, C. M. (1977). A History of Singapore: 1819–1975. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580354-X.
  35. ^ The Mediterranean Connection by William Henry Scott Page 138 (Published By: Ateneo de Manila University) Taken from "Translated in Teixera, The Portuguese Missions, p. 166."
  36. ^ Williams, Rudi (June 3, 2005). "DoD's Personnel Chief Gives Asian-Pacific American History Lesson". American Forces Press Service. U.S. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on June 15, 2007. Retrieved August 26, 2009.
  37. ^ Delgado de Cantú, Gloria M. (2006). Historia de México. México, D. F.: Pearson Educación.
  38. ^ Mercene, Manila men, p. 52.
  39. ^ "Mexican Embassy unveils commemorative plaque in honor of PH war hero". Manila Times. October 4, 2021. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
  40. ^ Filipinos in Nueva España Filipino-Mexican Relations, Mestizaje, and Identity in Colonial and Contemporary Mexico by Rudy P. Guevarra Jr. "According to Ricardo Pinzon, these two Filipino soldiers—Francisco Mongoy and Isidoro Montes de Oca—were so distinguished in battle that they are regarded as folk heroes in Mexico. General Vicente Guerrero later became the first president of Mexico of African descent. See Floro L. Mercene, "Central America: Filipinos in Mexican History," "(https://muse.jhu.edu/article/456194/pdf)
  41. ^ a b Gooding, Nigel. "Filipino Involvement in the French-Spanish Campaign in Indochina". nigelgooding.co.uk. Retrieved July 4, 2008.
  42. ^ Carr, Caleb (1992). The Devil Soldier: The Story of Frederick Townsend Ward. New York: Random House. p. 91.
  43. ^ "6 Famous Foreign Wars You Didn't Know Filipinos Fought In".
  44. ^ "Beyond Golan: Filipino global soldiers in the eyes of history".
  45. ^ Constantino, Renato (1975). The Philippines: A Past Revisited. ISBN 971-8958-00-2.
  46. ^ Zena Sultana-Babao, America's Thanksgiving and the Philippines' National Heroes Day: Two Holidays Rooted in History and Tradition, Asian Journal, archived from the original on January 11, 2009, retrieved January 12, 2008
  47. ^ Source: Philippine Military Academy
  48. ^ "Schools, colleges and Universities: Tomas Claudio Memorial College". Manila Bulletin Online. Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
    - "Tomas Claudio Memorial College". www.tcmc.edu.ph. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved July 4, 2007.
  49. ^ Othen, Christopher. Op. cit. p.217
  50. ^ Casualty Details: Paredes, Isidro Juan, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, retrieved January 12, 2008 His death was registered at the Maidenhead Register of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission, where his nationality is recorded as "United Kingdom".
  51. ^ Art Villasanta, The Philippines in the Korean War, archived from the original on October 22, 2009, retrieved July 4, 2008
  52. ^ "Operation Ripper - Korean War". WorldAtlas. Retrieved September 20, 2021.