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Millard Caldwell
Millard F. Caldwell.jpg
Administrator of the Federal Civil Defense Administration
In office
December 1, 1950 – November 15, 1952
PresidentHarry S. Truman
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byJames Jeremiah Wadsworth (Acting)
Chair of the National Governors Association
In office
May 26, 1946 – July 13, 1947
Preceded byEd Martin
Succeeded byHorace Hildreth
29th Governor of Florida
In office
January 2, 1945 – January 4, 1949
Preceded bySpessard Holland
Succeeded byFuller Warren
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Florida's 3rd district
In office
March 4, 1933 – January 3, 1941
Preceded byTom Yon
Succeeded byBob Sikes
Member of the Florida House of Representatives
In office
Personal details
Millard Fillmore Caldwell

(1897-02-06)February 6, 1897
Beverly, Tennessee, U.S. (now Knoxville)
DiedOctober 23, 1984(1984-10-23) (aged 87)
Tallahassee, Florida, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
Mary Harwood
(m. 1925)
EducationCarson–Newman University
University of Mississippi
University of Virginia
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/service United States Army
Years of service1918–1919
US-O2 insignia.svg
First Lieutenant
Battles/warsWorld War I

Millard Fillmore Caldwell (February 6, 1897 – October 23, 1984) was an American politician, lawyer, and jurist. He was the 29th governor of Florida (1945–1949) and served in all three branches of government at various times in his life, including as a U.S. representative and Florida Supreme Court justice.

Early life

Caldwell was born in the rural area of Beverly, Tennessee, outside Knoxville. There he attended public schools and attended Carson-Newman College, the University of Mississippi, and the University of Virginia.[1] During World War I, Caldwell enlisted in the U.S. Army on April 3, 1918. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Field Artillery, and was discharged on January 11, 1919.[2] Caldwell moved to Milton, Florida in 1924, practicing law there.[3]


Portrait of Caldwell
Portrait of Caldwell

Early career

In 1926, Caldwell began serving as prosecutor and county attorney of Santa Rosa County; in 1929, he was elected as a Democrat to the state House, where he was a member until 1932.

US Congress and gubernatorial interim

Caldwell would enter the 1932 Democratic primary late for Florida's 3rd Congressional District. In the end he would end up defeating Tom Yon and in congress he would serve as a member on two committees: Foreign Affairs and Appropriations. While serving in Congress he would urge that the US be self-sufficient for its war resources by 1934. He would unsuccessfully try to place an embargo on shipments to Japan and he did advocate for expanding both the Navy and Army. He would retire from Congress on January 1, 1941, and move to Tallahassee where he would practice law along with operate a dairy and raise cattle.[4]


In 1944, Caldwell was elected governor of Florida. Taking office in 1945, Caldwell's term is noted for his segregationist beliefs, as well as his support for road construction projects and the establishment of the Educational Minimum Foundation Program, which gave education funds to rural counties. One of the more colorful aspects of Caldwell's term came on August 10, 1945, during the surrender of Japan in World War II, when Caldwell issued a proclamation urging bars and other alcohol-selling establishments to close in order to prevent a frenzy of drunken celebration in the streets.[citation needed]

Caldwell would support Harry S. Truman's run for president in 1948 as many Southern Democrats had left the party.[5]

Post-governorship activities

After leaving office in 1949, Caldwell was appointed the administrator of the Federal Civil Defense Administration by then-President Harry S. Truman in 1950. After leaving this post in 1952, Caldwell served as a justice – and later chief justice – on the State Supreme Court from 1962 to 1969.[3]

On May 14, 1953, Caldwell was initiated as an honorary brother in the Alpha Phi chapter of Alpha Kappa Psi at the University of Florida[6]


Caldwell died in Tallahassee on October 23, 1984.[3] He is interred at Blackwood-Harwood Plantations Cemetery in Leon County in Tallahassee, Florida.[citation needed]

Personal life

Caldwell was married to Mary Harwood Caldwell; the couple's three children were Susan, Millard, and Sally.[citation needed]

During his life, Caldwell was a member of the Newcomen Society, Freemasons, Shriners, Elks, and Knights of Pythias. He was also a member of Kappa Sigma and Phi Alpha Delta.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^ "Florida Governor Millard Fillmore Caldwell Jr". National Governors Association. Retrieved September 16, 2012.
  2. ^ National Governors Association
  3. ^ a b c "Millard Fillmore Caldwell - Florida Department of State". Florida Department of State. Retrieved September 29, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ Evans, Jon S. (2011). "Weathering the Storm: Florida Politics during the Administration of Spessard L. Holland in World War II (thesis)". Florida State University Libraries.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. ^ Grossman, Andrew (Spring 2000). "Segregationist Liberalism: The NAACP and Resistance to Civil-Defense Planning in the Early Cold War, 1951-1953". International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society. 13 (3): 477–497. doi:10.1023/A:1022918208104. JSTOR 20020039. S2CID 141255765 – via JSTOR.
  6. ^ Alpha Phi Chapter Roll
U.S. House of Representatives Preceded byTom Yon Member of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Florida's 3rd congressional district 1933–1941 Succeeded byBob Sikes Party political offices Preceded bySpessard Holland Democratic nominee for Governor of Florida 1944 Succeeded byFuller Warren Political offices Preceded bySpessard Holland Governor of Florida 1945–1949 Succeeded byFuller Warren Preceded byEd Martin Chair of the National Governors Association 1946–1947 Succeeded byHorace Hildreth New office Administrator of the Federal Civil Defense Administration 1950–1952 Succeeded byJames Jeremiah WadsworthActing