Republic of Indonesia
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Kementerian Luar Negeri
Republik Indonesia
Seal of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia.svg
Gedpancasila.jpg

Gedung Pancasila, part of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs' building complex.
Ministry overview
FormedAugust 19, 1945; 76 years ago (1945-08-19)
JurisdictionGovernment of Indonesia
HeadquartersPejambon 6
Central Jakarta, Jakarta Capital Region, Indonesia
Employees3,349 Civil Service employees[1]
Annual budget$549.2 million (FY 2019) [2]
Ministers responsible
Websitewww.kemlu.go.id

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia (Kementerian Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia) or commonly known by its abbreviations as Kemlu or MoFA, is an Indonesian government ministry responsible for the country's foreign politics and diplomacy. The ministry was formerly known as the Department of Foreign Affairs (Departemen Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia, abbreviated as Deplu), until 2008 when the nomenclature changed with the enactment of the 2008 State Ministry Act (Undang-Undang Nomor 39 Tahun 2008 tentang Kementerian Negara).[3]

Ministry of Foreign Affairs is one of three ministries, along with Ministry of Defense and Ministry Home Affairs, that is explicitly mentioned in the Constitution of Indonesia, hence the president has no authority to dissolve the ministry.

According to Article 8 of the Constitution, in case that both the president and the vice president can no longer serve at the same time, the line of succession temporarily falls to a troika of minister of foreign affairs, minister of home affairs, and minister of defense who would govern concurrently until the succeeding President and Vice President are elected by the People's Consultative Assembly within thirty days of the posts' vacancy.[4]

Since October 2014, Retno Marsudi has served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, succeeding Marty Natalegawa.

History

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was founded in 1945 following the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence from the Netherlands.[5] The headquarters was initially located in the garage of the country's first Minister of Foreign Affairs, Achmad Soebardjo, at Jl. Cikini 80–82 in Jakarta.[5] The Ministry started with just six employees, including Hadi Thayeb.[5]

First five years (1945-1950)

During the first five years of the Ministry's existence, the supreme task was to gain overseas recognition and international sympathy of Indonesian struggle for independence, all while during ongoing armed conflict with the Dutch colonial forces.

The young government managed to held peace talks and conferences with several parties, such as at Linggadjati (1946)[6] or onboard USS Renville (1948).[7] It actively supported high-level meeting such as the Round Table Conference (1949), where Indonesian independence was finally acknowledged by the Netherlands.[8]

Liberal Democracy Period (1950-1959)

During this period, Indonesian diplomatic corps further pursued international recognition for Indonesia. It successfully managed to apply for Indonesian membership in the United Nations (1950),[9] hosted a high-level conference of Asian and African countries in Bandung (1955),[10] conclude an important nationality agreement with People's Republic of China (1955),[11] and abandoned Dutch-Indonesian Union in 1956.[12][13]

Despite some successes in other subjects, the New Guinea Question as the most important diplomacy goal remained unresolved throughout this period.

Guided Democracy Period (1959-1966)

Sukarno's disappointment with what he perceived as weakness of western-style parliamentary democracy, led him to restore Indonesia's 1945 presidential constitution. Along with it was a shift in Indonesian foreign policy, where Indonesia pursued a closer relations with the Soviet Union, People's Republic of China, and the Eastern Bloc in general; Although Indonesia would also participate in the foundation of the Non-Aligned Movement in Belgrade (1961).[14][15] It also demanded a resolution on Dutch continued presence and occupation in the Western New Guinea, where Indonesia would consider a military approach in order to assert Indonesian rights over the territory.[16] Dutch presence on the island would end following the New York Agreement (1962), where the Dutch New Guinea administration will transfer from the Netherlands to the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA), then to Indonesia.[17][18]

Following the formation of Malaya, Singapore, Sabah, and North Borneo (Sabah) into the Federation of Malaysia (1963), Indonesia entered into a period of low-level confrontation with Malaysia, citing British imperialism in the region.[19] Also during this period, Indonesia would suspend its membership in the United Nations, the only country to do so.[20] The Konfrontasi would last until 1966, when the Sukarno administration was replaced, with Suharto became head of government, later President.

New Order Period (1966-1998)

Under Suharto, many of foreign policy overtures under Sukarno was revamped. The "Free-and-Active" foreign policy was reconfirmed, although at the cost of relations with many communist countries; no formal diplomatic relations between Indonesia and the PRC existed until 1990.[21]

Suharto's militarist administration would held a referendum in West New Guinea to fulfill a requirement regarding the transfer of administration. Although the Act of Free Choice (1969) was highly suspected to be held under threat of violence by the Indonesian military, the result was unanimous in support of Indonesian integration, and was accepted and adopted by the UN General Assembly in November 1969.[18]

Another one of this period's diplomatic activities is the formation of ASEAN in 1967, following the conclusion of Bangkok Declaration by the delegates of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, and the Philippines.[22] Indonesian government would also continue active participation in the Non-Aligned Movement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, becoming its chairman for multiple times.

In 1975, Indonesia would invade and occupy East Timor until 1999. Throughout the New Order period, Indonesian foreign policy would promote and gain international recognition for the eventual annexation of East Timor.[23]

Indonesia would also actively promote compliance of existing international law of the sea as prescribed under the UNCLOS, where Indonesia heavily contributed in the newly created 'archipelagic states' concept.[24]

Present day (1998-now)

Present-day Indonesian foreign policy was the reconfirmation of 'Free-and-Active' foreign policy.

Habibie Administration allowed a referendum to be conducted in East Timor, whether they prefer autonomy in Indonesia or independence.[25]

Indonesia was invited into the Group of 20, as the only Southeast Asian countries in the group. In 2021, Indonesia held the G20 presidency with the topic 'Recover Together, Recover Stronger'.[26]

Duties and responsibilities

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs have statutory responsibilities for Indonesian foreign policy. The head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, is the President's principal foreign policy advisor. The Ministry advances Indonesian objectives and interests in the world through its primary role in developing and implementing the President's foreign policy. It also provides important services to Indonesian citizens and to foreigners seeking to visit Indonesia. All activities—bilateral programs, consular affairs, Indonesian representation abroad—are paid for by the budget, which represents a little more than 0.30% of the total government budget.

According to Foreign Ministerial Regulation No. 9/2021 concerning the Organization and Management of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs,[27] its purpose includes:

The Foreign Ministry advances Indonesian foreign policy by promoting (1) 'Maritime diplomacy and strong border'; (2) 'Advancing Indonesian leadership in ASEAN'; (3) 'Advancing Indonesian role in the international community'; (4) 'Stronger economic diplomacy'; (5) 'Prime service and protection of Indonesian citizens (Warga Negara Indonesia), legal entities (Badan Hukum Indonesia), and Indonesian Diaspora'; (6) 'Enhanced foreign policy'; (7) 'Significant national support and commitment for foreign policy and international agreements'; and (8) 'Monitoring efficient diplomatic results.[28]

Organization

The Minister of Foreign Affairs is the head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and a member of the Cabinet that answers directly to, and advises, the President of the Republic of Indonesia on matters of Indonesian foreign policy and foreign relations. The minister organizes and supervises the Ministry and its entire staff.[27] As of 2020, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has 3,349 Civil Service employees.[1]

The Ministry is organized into:

Executives

Secretariat

Directorates General

Inspectorate

Agency

Advisors to the Minister

Centers

Diplomats

Education and training

Professional diplomats of the Foreign Ministry are part of the Indonesian Civil Service (Aparatur Sipil Negara), and thus trained and educated by the Ministry after passing the National Civil Service Examination (Seleksi Calon Aparatur Sipil Negara) and completing the National Civil Service Basic Training Program (Pelatihan Dasar Calon Aparatur Sipil Negara). The Foreign Ministry's Education and Training Center offers three education and training programs for the diplomats to participate in:

  1. Junior Foreign Service School (Sekolah Dinas Luar Negeri, abbreviated as Sekdilu), aimed for diplomat candidates to rise to first diplomats;
  2. Staff Foreign Service School (Sekolah Staff Dinas Luar Negeri, abbreviated as Sesdilu), aimed for first diplomats to rise to junior diplomat; and
  3. Staff and Leadership Foreign Service School (Sekolah Staf dan Pimpinan Luar Negeri, abbreviated as Sesparlu), aimed for junior diplomats to rise to senior and principal diplomats, in order to fill in key leadership positions in the Ministry and Missions.

Foreign Ministry Building Complex

The Foreign Ministry Building Complex is located on No. 6 Taman Pejambon Street in Central Jakarta. It is built around the historic Gedung Pancasila, which used to host the Dutch colonial assembly (the Volksraad) and the BPUPK committee during the Japanese occupation, as well as the Gedung Garuda next door, which used to host the Council of the Indies (the Raad van Indie).

1971 Construction

The construction of current modern structures first began on 7 January 1971 during the tenure of Foreign Minister Adam Malik. The buildings were designed by a team of architects from Perentjana Djaja. During this phase, four different structure was refurbished or completed:

By 1975, all construction and refurbishment project has been completed. The project was jointly executed by PT. Hutama Karya and PT. Moeladi, with a budget of IDR 2.5 billion per August 1972. President Soeharto and Foreign Minister Adam Malik officially inaugurate the Foreign Ministry Building Complex on 19 August 1975, the 30th Anniversary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.[29]

1988 Fire

On the early hours of 10 November 1988, a fire broke out in the East Wing and the Main Building. Firefighters managed to put the fire under control in an hour, with around ten offices heavily damaged. Several agendas of the Ministry have to move their venue or be cancelled.

1991 Renovation

Following the 1988 fire, several Foreign Ministry units and personnel were forced to work in separate office for some times, such as in Sam Ratulangi office (Menteng) or in Sisingamangaraja office (Kebayoran Baru), which resulted with disturbances and disorganized workflow within the Ministry.

In order to address this issue, a major renovation is planned, with PT. Pasaraya Tosersajaya assigned as the project developer; designs inspired by the original 1970s draft by Perentjana Djaja team were implemented by a team of architects of Parama Loka Consultants. A special attention and consideration was made during designing phase to properly present the Gedung Pancasila as the face of the Ministry. The renovated building would be painted white, rather than the previous light brown.

The renovation was executed by private contractor Total Bangun Persada, with an estimated budget of IDR 40 billion. It began on May 1991 with the cleanup of the fire-damaged East Wing and completed by August 1992, and inaugurated by President Soeharto on 19 August 1992, the 47th Anniversary of the Ministry, and just before the opening of 1992 Non-Aligned Movement Summit in Jakarta.[29][30]

List of foreign ministers

# Minister Term in Office Cabinet
Portrait Name Term start Term end Term length
1
Achmad soebardjo.jpg
Achmad Soebardjo
19 August 1945
14 November 1945
87 days Presidential Cabinet
2
SoetanSjahrir.jpg
Sutan Sjahrir

as Prime Minister and Foreign Minister

14 November 1945
3 July 1947
231 days First Sjahrir Cabinet

Second Sjahrir Cabinet

Third Sjahrir Cabinet

3
Agus Salim.jpg
Agus Salim
3 July 1947
19 December 1948
2 years, 169 days First Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet

Second Amir Sjarifuddin Cabinet

First Hatta Cabinet (ad interim)

Mr. Sjafruddin Prawiranegara.jpg
Sjafruddin Prawiranegara

as Chairman of the Emergency Government and ad interim Foreign Minister

19 December 1948
31 March 1949
102 days Sjafruddin Emergency Cabinet
Alexander andries maramis.jpg
Alexander Andries Maramis
31 March 1949
13 July 1949
104 days
(3)
Agus Salim.jpg
Agus Salim
4 August 1949
14 December 1949
132 days Second Hatta Cabinet
Hamengku Buwono IX, sultan van Djokjakarta, minister in het kabinet Sjahrir III, Bestanddeelnr 11872.jpg
Hamengkubuwana IX

as Acting Prime Minister and Acting Foreign Minister

21 October 1949
14 December 1949
54 days
Hatta-1.jpg
Mohammad Hatta

as Prime Minister of RUSI and Foreign Minister

20 December 1949
6 September 1950
260 days Federal Cabinet
4
Mohammad Roem.jpg
Mohammad Roem
6 September 1950
20 March 1951
195 days Natsir Cabinet
(1)
Achmad soebardjo.jpg
Achmad Soebardjo
4 August 1951
20 December 1952
1 year, 138 days Soekiman Cabinet
5
Wilopo.jpg
Wilopo

as Prime Minister and Foreign Minister

3 April 1952
29 April 1952
26 days Wilopo Cabinet
6
MUKARTO NOTOWIDIGDO.jpg
Moekarto Notowidigdo
29 April 1952
30 July 1953
1 year, 92 days
7
Sunario, Pekan Buku Indonesia 1954, p249.jpg
Soenario Sastrowardoyo
30 July 1953
12 August 1955
2 years, 13 days First Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet
8
Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung, Round Table Conference 1948.jpg
Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung
12 August 1955
24 March 1956
225 days Burhanuddin Harahap Cabinet
9
Roeslan Abdulgani, Kami Perkenalkan (1954), p37.jpg
Ruslan Abdulgani
24 March 1956
9 April 1957
1 year, 16 days Second Ali Sastroamidjojo Cabinet
10
Subandrio 1964.jpg
Subandrio
9 April 1957
28 March 1966
8 years, 353 days Djuanda Cabinet

First Working Cabinet

Second Working Cabinet

Third Working Cabinet

Fourth Working Cabinet

Dwikora Cabinet

Revised Dwikora Cabinet

11
Adammalik2.jpg
Adam Malik
28 March 1966
1 October 1977
11 years, 187 days Revised Dwikora Cabinet

Second Revised Dwikora Cabinet

Ampera Cabinet

Revised Ampera Cabinet

First Development Cabinet

Second Development Cabinet

21 teukusyarifthayeb.jpg
Syarif Thayeb

as Acting Foreign Minister [31]

1 October 1977
23 March 1978[citation needed]
173 days Second Development Cabinet
12
Mochtar Kusumaatmadja (1978).jpg
Mochtar Kusumaatmadja
29 March 1978
21 March 1988
9 years, 358 days Third Development Cabinet

Fourth Development Cabinet

13
Ali Alatas, Kabinet Reformasi Pembangunan.jpg
Ali Alatas
21 March 1988
20 October 1999
11 years, 213 days Fifth Development Cabinet

Sixth Development Cabinet

Seventh Development Cabinet

Development Reform Cabinet

14
Alwi Shihab.jpg
Alwi Shihab
29 October 1999
23 July 2001
1 year, 267 days National Unity Cabinet
15
Hassan Wirajuda, Foreign Minister.jpg
Hassan Wirajuda
9 August 2001
20 October 2009
8 years, 72 days Mutual Assistance Cabinet

First United Indonesia Cabinet

16
Marty Natalegawa.jpg
Marty Natalegawa
22 October 2009
20 October 2014
4 years, 363 days Second United Indonesia Cabinet
17
Retno L. P. Marshudi minister official portrait (2021).jpg
Retno Marsudi
27 October 2014
Present
7 years, 238 days Working Cabinet

Onward Indonesia Cabinet

See also

Literature

References

  1. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs (22 June 2020). Diplomasi 101 Ep 1: Kementerian Luar Negeri (in Indonesian). MoFA Indonesia. Event occurs at 2:53. Retrieved 22 September 2020. Jumlah total PNS Kemenlu saat ini adalah 3.349 orang
  2. ^ Ariesta, Marcheilla (6 September 2018). "Komisi I Setujui Pagu Anggaran Kemenlu RP 7,8 T Tahun Depan". medcom.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  3. ^ "UU No. 39 Tahun 2008 tentang Kementerian Negara [JDIH BPK RI]". peraturan.bpk.go.id. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  4. ^ Article 8 of The 1945 Constitution of The Republic of Indonesia  – via Wikisource.
  5. ^ a b c "Senior diplomat Thayeb dies at 91". Jakarta Post (in Indonesian). 11 January 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
  6. ^ van der Kroef, Justus M. (1953). "Dutch Policy and the Linggadjati Agreement, 1946-1947". The Historian. 15 (2): 163–187. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1953.tb00146.x. ISSN 0018-2370. JSTOR 24436182.
  7. ^ Emerson, Rupert (October 1948). "Reflections on the Indonesian Case". World Politics. 1 (1): 59–81. doi:10.2307/2009158. ISSN 1086-3338. JSTOR 2009158.
  8. ^ "Hague Agreement | Netherlands-Indonesia [1949] | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  9. ^ United Nations General Assembly (1950). A/RES/491 (V).
  10. ^ "Milestones: 1953–1960 - Office of the Historian". history.state.gov. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  11. ^ Mozingo, David (31 May 1932). "The Sino-Indonesian Dual Nationality Treaty". Far Eastern Survey. 1 (10): 25–31. doi:10.2307/3023470. ISSN 0362-8949. JSTOR 3023470.
  12. ^ Vandenbosch, Amry (11 January 1950). "The Netherlands-Indonesian Union". Far Eastern Survey. 19 (1): 1–7. doi:10.2307/3024693. ISSN 0362-8949. JSTOR 3024693.
  13. ^ Meijer, Hans, historicus (1994). Den Haag-Djakarta : de Nederlands-Indonesische betrekkingen 1950-1962 (1e dr ed.). Utrecht: Het Spectrum. ISBN 90-274-4051-4. OCLC 782175124.
  14. ^ Vandenbosch, Amry (1961). ""Guided Democracy" in Indonesia". Current History. 41 (244): 329–340. ISSN 0011-3530. JSTOR 45310622.
  15. ^ "Non-Aligned Movement | Definition, Mission, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  16. ^ Prinada, Yuda. "Sejarah Operasi Trikora: Latar Belakang, Isi, Tujuan, dan Tokoh". tirto.id (in Indonesian). Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  17. ^ "Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the Kingdom of the Netherlands Concerning West New Guinea (New York Agreement) | UN Peacemaker". peacemaker.un.org. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  18. ^ a b Webster, David (2013). "Self-Determination Abandoned: The Road to the New York Agreement on West New Guinea (Papua), 1960–62". Indonesia (95): 9–24. doi:10.5728/indonesia.95.0009. ISSN 0019-7289. JSTOR 10.5728/indonesia.95.0009.
  19. ^ Hindley, Donald (27 March 1935). "Indonesia's Confrontation with Malaysia: A Search for Motives". Asian Survey. 4 (6): 904–913. doi:10.2307/3023528. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 3023528.
  20. ^ Livingstone, Frances (1965). "Withdrawal from the United Nations: Indonesia". The International and Comparative Law Quarterly. 14 (2): 637–646. doi:10.1093/iclqaj/14.2.637. ISSN 0020-5893. JSTOR 756973.
  21. ^ Visscher, Sikko (June 1993). "Sino-Indonesian Relations". China Information. 8 (1–2): 93–106. doi:10.1177/0920203x9300800104. ISSN 0920-203X. S2CID 144721474.
  22. ^ Liow, Joseph Chinyong (2015). Dictionary of the modern politics of Southeast Asia. Michael Leifer (4th ed.). Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-62233-8. OCLC 896794811.
  23. ^ Lawless, Robert (21 May 1947). "The Indonesian Takeover of East Timor". Asian Survey. 16 (10): 948–964. doi:10.2307/2643535. ISSN 0004-4687. JSTOR 2643535.
  24. ^ "The archipelagic-state concept a quid pro quo". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  25. ^ "Agreement between the Republic of Indonesia and the Portuguese Republic on the Question of East Timor | UN Peacemaker". peacemaker.un.org. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  26. ^ "Indonesia and G20: Jokowi on the world stage". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 10 January 2022.
  27. ^ a b "Peraturan Menteri Luar Negeri Republik Indonesia Nomor 9 Tahun 2021 tentang Organisasi dan Tata Kelola Kementerian Luar Negeri" [Foreign Ministerial Regulation No. 9/2021 concerning Organization and Management of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs]. Foreign Ministerial Regulation No. 9 of 2021 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  28. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs Strategic Goals". 26 March 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  29. ^ a b "Kementerian Luar Negeri RI". Setiap Gedung Punya Cerita (in Indonesian). 2 August 2019. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  30. ^ Morphet, Sally (1 April 1993). "The Non-Aligned in 'the New World Order': the Jakarta Summit, September 1992". International Relations. 11 (4): 359–380. doi:10.1177/004711789301100406. ISSN 0047-1178. S2CID 143649984.
  31. ^ Pewarta Departemen Luar Negeri (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1977. p. 64.