Mīr Qasim
Mir Qasim.jpg
Nawab Nazim of Bengal and Bihar
Reign20 October 1760 – 7 July 1763 (Declared deposed by the East India Company)[citation needed]
PredecessorMir Jafar
SuccessorMir Jafar
Full name
Mīr Muhqammad qasim Ali khan
Native nameমীর কাশিম
Died(1777-05-08)8 May 1777
Kotwal near Delhi
Noble familyNajafi
Spouse(s)Nawab Fatima Begum Sahiba, daughter of Mir Jafar and Shah Khanum
Issue
  • Mirza Ghulam Uraiz Ja'afari
  • Mirza Muhammad Baqir ul-Husain
  • Nawab Muhammad Aziz Khan Bahadur
  • Nawab Badr ud-din Ali Khan Bahadur
FatherMir Razi Khan
Military career
AllegianceMughal Empire
Service/branchNawab of Bengal
RankSubedar, Nawab
Battles/warsBengal War
Battle of Buxar

Mir Qasim (Bengali: মীর কাশিম; died 8 May 1777) was the Nawab of Bengal from 1760 to 1763. He was installed as Nawab with the support of the British East India Company, replacing Mir Jafar, his father-in-law, who had himself been supported earlier by the East India Company after his role in winning the Battle of Plassey for the British. However, Mir Jafar eventually ran into disputes with the East India Company and attempted to form an alliance with the Dutch East India Company instead. The British eventually defeated the Dutch at Chinsura and overthrew Mir Jafar, replacing him with Mir Qasim.[1] Qasim later fell out with the British and fought against them at Buxar. His defeat has been suggested as a key reason in the British becoming the dominant power in large parts of North and East India.[2]

Early life and family

Sayyid Mir Qasim was the son of Mir Muhammad Razi Khan, and claimed descent from Ali al-Ridha.[citation needed] His paternal grandfather, Sayyid Husayn Ridhwi, entered the Mughal Empire during the reign of Aurangzeb, who married him to the daughter of Mir Hadi (Shaikh Sulayman Fazail Khan). Ridhwi was conferred the title of Imtiaz Khan, and made the Waqia-navis (Interior Minister) and subsequently the Dewan of Bihar. Qasim's grandfather also wrote Persian poetry under the pen name of Khalis, and a lengthy diwan is attributed to him.[3]

Qasim was married to Fatima Begum, a daughter of Mir Jafar and Shah Khanum, and a granddaughter of Nawab Alivardi Khan of Bengal.[4][5] Prior to becoming the Nawab of Bengal, he served as the Faujdar of Rangpur for roughly two decades.[6]

Life

The Nawab's arrival before Clive's position.
The Nawab's arrival before Clive's position.

Upon ascending the throne, Mir Qasim repaid the East India Company with lavish gifts, as thanks for their support in his ascension to the throne.[citation needed] However, Qasim soon ran into disputes with the Company over trade issues, as they objected to Qasim's attempt to levy import and export tariffs on their goods. In particular, they objected to a 9% duty imposed of all foreign traders. The relationship between Qasim and the company slowly deteriorated, and he shifted his capital from Murshidabad to Munger in present-day Bihar where he raised an army, financing his new troops by streamlining tax collection.[1]

Qasim vigorously opposed the East India Company's position that their Mughal license (a dastak) meant that they could trade without paying taxes (other local merchants with dastaks were required to pay up to 40% of their revenue as tax). Frustrated at the British refusal to pay these taxes, Mir Qasim abolished taxes on the local traders as well. This upset the advantage that the European traders had been enjoying so far, and hostilities built up. Mir Qasim invaded the Company offices in Patna in 1763, killing several Europeans including the Resident. Mir Qasim allied with Shuja-ud-Daula of Avadh and Shah Alam II, the incumbent Mughal emperor against the British. However, their combined forces were defeated in the Battle of Buxar in 1764.[7] Qasim also launched a brief invasion of Hindu Kingdom of Nepal in 1763 during the reign of Maharajadhiraja Prithvi Narayan Shah, the first King of Nepal. Kanak Singh Baaniya, Chief Minister of Makwanpur, had requested Qasim's intervention against Shah after he had taken Bikram Sen, the king of Makwanpur, hostage. Qasim dispatched a military force under the command of his general Gurgin Khan to invade Nepal. Khan was swiftly defeated by Shah's army, and retreated.[citation needed]

Unlike Siraj-ud-Daulah before him, Mir Qasim was an effective and popular ruler. Their victory at Buxar established the East India Company as a powerful force in the province of Bengal in a much more real sense than at Plassey seven years earlier and at Bedara five years earlier. By 1793 the East India company had abolished the Nizamat (referring to the Mughal suzerainty) and became completely in charge of the former Mughal province.

Death

Having lost all his men and influence after his defeat at Buxar, Qasim was expelled from his camp by Shuja-ud-Daula on 23 October 1764; fleeing to Rohilkhand, Allahabad, Gohad and Jodhpur, and eventually settling at Kotwal, near Delhi ca. 1774.[citation needed]

Mir Qasim died in obscurity and abject poverty possibly from dropsy, at Kotwal, near Delhi on 8 May 1777.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Shah, Mohammad (2012). "Mir Qasim". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  2. ^ McLynn, Frank (2006). 1759: The Year Britain Became Master of the World. Grove Press. p. 389. ISBN 978-0-8021-4228-3.
  3. ^ Askari, Syed Hasan (1946). "Bihar in the time of Aurangzeb". The Journal of the Bihar Research Society. Bihar Research Society. 32: 177.
  4. ^ Ali Khan, Syed Muhammad Reza (1975). The Murshidabad Guide: A Brief Historical Survey of Murshidabad, from 1704 to 1969. Shaykh Pear Mohammed. p. 27.
  5. ^ Mirza, Humayun (2002). From Plassey to Pakistan: The Family History of Iskander Mirza, the First President of Pakistan. University Press of America. ISBN 9780761823490.
  6. ^ Majumdar, A. B. (1970). "Note on the northern frontier of Bengal from Murshid Kuli Khan to Warren Hastings". Proceedings. Indian History Congress. 31: 332.
  7. ^ Gupta, Tapati Das. Through The Ages History & Civics class 8. S. Chand Publishing. ISBN 9789352534173.

Further reading

Mir Qasim Born: (Unknown) Died: 8 May 1777 Preceded bySaulat Jang Faujdar of Rangpur 1740 – 20 October 1760 Succeeded byAbid Ali Khan Preceded byMir Jafar Nawab of Bengal 20 October 1760 – 7 July 1763 Succeeded byMir Jafar