A mode of action (MoA) describes a functional or anatomical change, resulting from the exposure of a living organism to a substance.[1] In comparison, a mechanism of action (MOA) describes such changes at the molecular level.[2][1]

A mode of action is important in classifying chemicals, as it represents an intermediate level of complexity in between molecular mechanisms and physiological outcomes, especially when the exact molecular target has not yet been elucidated or is subject to debate. A mechanism of action of a chemical could be "binding to DNA" while its broader mode of action would be "transcriptional regulation".[3] However, there is no clear consensus and the term mode of action is also often used, especially in the study of pesticides, to describe molecular mechanisms such as action on specific nuclear receptors or enzymes.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Disinfectants are commonly used in order to eliminate microorganisms.[11] The effectiveness of a disinfectant is dependent on both the chemical composition of the product as well as the contact time between the microorganism and the disinfectant. There are two main modes of action for disinfectants: growth inhibition and lethal action. In terms of mode of action, disinfectants can act on external bacterial membranes, cytoplasmic membranes, nuclei, and spores. The most common type of disinfectant is chlorine, which acts by inhibiting respiratory enzymes in bacteria. Hydrogen peroxide is another popular disinfectant that works by causing oxidative stress in cells. Quaternary ammonium compounds are often used as surface disinfectants since they can kill a variety of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Phenolic compounds are also effective against a wide range of microorganisms; however, they are corrosive and can cause damage to surfaces. In general, it is important to select a disinfectant that is effective against the specific type of microorganism present as well as taking into account the potential for damage to surfaces.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Grant RL, Combs AB, Acosta D (2010). "Experimental Models for the Investigation of Toxicological Mechanisms". In McQueen CA (ed.). Comprehensive Toxicology (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier. p. 204. ISBN 978-0-08-046884-6.
  2. ^ "Mechanisms and mode of dioxin action" (PDF). US EPA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  3. ^ Ng, Wai-Leung; Krystyna M. Kazmierczak; Gregory T. Robertson; Raymond Gilmour; Malcolm E. Winkler (Jan 2003). "Transcriptional Regulation and Signature Patterns Revealed by Microarray Analyses of Streptococcus Pneumoniae R6 Challenged with Sublethal Concentrations of Translation Inhibitors". Journal of Bacteriology. 185 (1): 359–70. doi:10.1128/JB.185.1.359-370.2003. PMC 141824. PMID 12486074.
  4. ^ "Herbicide Group Classification by Mode of Action". Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. Archived from the original on 2019-01-23. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
  5. ^ FRAC (Fungicide Resistance Action Committee) (March 2021). "FRAC Code List ©*2021: Fungal control agents sorted by cross resistance pattern and mode of action (including coding for FRAC Groups on product labels)" (PDF).
  6. ^ Weed Science Society of America. "Summary of Herbicide Mechanism of Action According to the Weed Science Society of America (WSSA)" (PDF).
  7. ^ Heap, Ian. "HERBICIDE MODE OF ACTION TABLE".
  8. ^ "HRAC MOA 2020 Revision Description and Master Herbicide List". Herbicide Resistance Action Committee. 2020-09-14. Retrieved 2021-04-01.
  9. ^ "Interactive MoA Classification". Insecticide Resistance Action Committee. 2020-09-16. Retrieved 2021-04-01.
  10. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency. "PESTICIDE REGISTRATION NOTICE (PRN) 2017-1 NOTICE TO MANUFACTURERS, PRODUCERS, PRODUCERS AND REGISTRANTS OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS AND DEVICES" (PDF).
  11. ^ Zaib, Aateqah (2022-06-17). "What does 'mode of action' mean?". Test Labs. Retrieved 2022-08-03.