Monetary Policy Committee
Committee overview
Committee executive
Parent departmentReserve Bank of India

The Monetary Policy Committee is responsible for fixing the benchmark interest rate in India. The meetings of the Monetary Policy Committee are held at least 4 times a year (specifically, at least once a QUARTER) and it publishes its decisions after each such meeting.

The committee comprises six members - three officials of the Reserve Bank of India and three external members nominated by the Government of India. They need to observe a "silent period" seven days before and after the rate decision for "utmost confidentiality". The Governor of Reserve Bank of India is the chairperson ex officio of the committee. Decisions are taken by majority with the Governor having the casting vote in case of a tie. The current mandate of the committee is to maintain 4% annual inflation until 31 March 2021 with an upper tolerance of 6% and a lower tolerance of 2%.[1]

The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 was amended by Finance Act (India), 2016 to constitute MPC which will bring more transparency and accountability in fixing India's Monetary Policy.[2] The monetary policy are published after every meeting with each member explaining his opinions. The committee is answerable to the Government of India if the inflation exceeds the range prescribed for three consecutive quarters.[3]

Establishment and purpose

Key decisions pertaining to benchmark interest rates used to be taken by the Governor of Reserve Bank of India alone prior to the establishment of the committee. The Governor of RBI is appointed and can be disqualified by the Government anytime. This led to uncertainty and resulted in friction between the Government and the RBI, especially during the times of low growth and high inflation. Before the constitution of the MPC, a Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) on monetary policy with experts from monetary economics, central banking, financial markets and public finance advised the Reserve Bank on the stance of monetary policy. However, its role was only advisory in nature.[4]

The setting up of a committee to decide on Monetary Policy was first proposed by the Urjit Patel Committee. The Committee suggested a five-member MPC - three members from the RBI and two nominated by the Government. The Government initially proposed a seven-member committee[5] - three from the RBI and four nominated by it. Subsequent negotiations led to the current composition of the committee, with the external members having a four-year term.[citation needed]

The Reserve Bank’s Monetary Policy Department (MPD) assists the MPC in formulating the monetary policy. Views of key stakeholders in the economy, and analytical work of the Reserve Bank contribute to the process for arriving at the decision on the policy repo rate. The Financial Markets Operations Department (FMOD) operationalises the monetary policy, mainly through day-to-day liquidity management operations. The Financial Markets Committee (FMC) meets daily to review the liquidity conditions so as to ensure that the operating target of monetary policy (weighted average lending rate) is kept close to the policy repo rate. Monetary Policy Committee came into force on 27 June 2016.[2]

Suggestions for setting up a Monetary policy committee is not new and goes back to 2002 when YV Reddy committee proposed to establish a MPC, then Tarapore committee in 2006, Percy Mistry committee in 2007, Raghuram Rajan committee in 2009 and then Urjit Patel Committee in 2013.[citation needed]


The composition of the current monetary policy committee is as follows:[1]

  1. Governor of the Reserve Bank of India – Chairperson, ex officio - Shaktikanta Das
  2. Deputy Governor of the Bank in charge of monetary policy — Michael Debrata Patra[6]
  3. Executive director of the Bank in charge of monetary policy — M K Saggar
  4. Ashima Goyal is a member of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's economic advisory council. Ms Goyal is a professor at the Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research in Mumbai and was a visiting fellow at Yale University.[]
  5. Shashanka Bhide is a senior advisor at the National Council for Applied Economic Research, a New Delhi-based think-tank, whose work has involved research into agriculture, poverty analysis and macroeconomics.
  6. Jayanth Varma is a finance and accounting professor at the Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad. He was formerly on the board of the country's capital markets' regulator.

Members referred from 4 to 6 above, will hold office for a period of four years from the date of appointment while the other three members are official. None of the central government nominees are eligible to be re-appointed.[7]

See also


  1. ^ a b "Monetary Policy Committee constitution under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 notified". Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b "Government initiates process to constitute Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) under the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934". Press Bureau of India. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  3. ^ ET Bureau (6 August 2016). "India adopts inflation target of 4% for next five years under monetary policy framework". The Economic Times. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Reserve Bank of India - Function Wise Monetary". Retrieved 17 September 2019.
  5. ^ Reporter, B. S. (24 July 2015). "No veto power for RBI governor in deciding interest rates, says draft code". Business Standard India. Retrieved 24 June 2017.
  6. ^ "Newly appointed deputy governor to look after RBI's monetary policy division". Livemint. Mumbai: Vivek Khanna. Press Trust of India. 15 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  7. ^ "MPC members to get Rs. 1.5 lakh per meet, must disclose assets". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 July 2017.