An updated image of the six largest moons and eight inner moons of Uranus as captured by the James Webb Space Telescope on 4 September 2023.

Uranus, the seventh planet of the Solar System, has 28 confirmed moons. Most of them are named after characters that appear in, or are mentioned in, the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.[1] Uranus's moons are divided into three groups: thirteen inner moons, five major moons, and ten irregular moons. The inner and major moons all have prograde orbits and are cumulatively classified as regular moons. In contrast, the orbits of the irregular moons are distant, highly inclined, and mostly retrograde.

The inner moons are small dark bodies that share common properties and origins with Uranus's rings. The five major moons are ellipsoidal, indicating that they reached hydrostatic equilibrium at some point in their past (and may still be in equilibrium), and four of them show signs of internally driven processes such as canyon formation and volcanism on their surfaces.[2] The largest of these five, Titania, is 1,578 km in diameter and the eighth-largest moon in the Solar System, about one-twentieth the mass of the Earth's Moon. The orbits of the regular moons are nearly coplanar with Uranus's equator, which is tilted 97.77° to its orbit. Uranus's irregular moons have elliptical and strongly inclined (mostly retrograde) orbits at large distances from the planet.[3]

William Herschel discovered the first two moons, Titania and Oberon, in 1787. The other three ellipsoidal moons were discovered in 1851 by William Lassell (Ariel and Umbriel) and in 1948 by Gerard Kuiper (Miranda).[1] These five may be in hydrostatic equilibrium. The remaining moons were discovered after 1985, either during the Voyager 2 flyby mission or with the aid of advanced Earth-based telescopes.[2][3]

Discovery

The first two moons to be discovered were Titania and Oberon, which were spotted by Sir William Herschel on January 11, 1787, six years after he had discovered the planet itself. Later, Herschel thought he had discovered up to six moons (see below) and perhaps even a ring. For nearly 50 years, Herschel's instrument was the only one with which the moons had been seen.[4] In the 1840s, better instruments and a more favorable position of Uranus in the sky led to sporadic indications of satellites additional to Titania and Oberon. Eventually, the next two moons, Ariel and Umbriel, were discovered by William Lassell in 1851.[5] The Roman numbering scheme of Uranus's moons was in a state of flux for a considerable time, and publications hesitated between Herschel's designations (where Titania and Oberon are Uranus II and IV) and William Lassell's (where they are sometimes I and II).[6] With the confirmation of Ariel and Umbriel, Lassell numbered the moons I through IV from Uranus outward, and this finally stuck.[7] In 1852, Herschel's son John Herschel gave the four then-known moons their names.[8]

No other discoveries were made for almost another century. In 1948, Gerard Kuiper at the McDonald Observatory discovered the smallest and the last of the five large, spherical moons, Miranda.[8][9] Decades later, the flyby of the Voyager 2 space probe in January 1986 led to the discovery of ten further inner moons.[2] Another satellite, Perdita, was discovered in 1999[10] by Erich Karkoschka after studying old Voyager photographs.[11]

Uranus was the last giant planet without any known irregular moons until 1997, when astronomers using ground-based telescopes discovered Sycorax and Caliban. From 1999 to 2003, astronomers continued searching for irregular moons of Uranus using more powerful ground-based telescopes, resulting in the discovery of seven more Uranian irregular moons.[3] In addition, two small inner moons, Cupid and Mab, were discovered using the Hubble Space Telescope in 2003.[12] No other discoveries were made until 2021 and 2023, when Scott Sheppard and colleagues discovered one more irregular moon of Uranus (and five more candidates waiting to be announced) using the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea, Hawaii.[13][14][15]

Spurious moons

After Herschel discovered Titania and Oberon on 11 January 1787, he subsequently believed that he had observed four other moons: two on 18 January and 9 February 1790, and two more on 28 February and 26 March 1794. It was thus believed for many decades thereafter that Uranus had a system of six satellites, though the four latter moons were never confirmed by any other astronomer. Lassell's observations of 1851, in which he discovered Ariel and Umbriel, however, failed to support Herschel's observations; Ariel and Umbriel, which Herschel certainly ought to have seen if he had seen any satellites besides Titania and Oberon, did not correspond to any of Herschel's four additional satellites in orbital characteristics. Herschel's four spurious satellites were thought to have sidereal periods of 5.89 days (interior to Titania), 10.96 days (between Titania and Oberon), 38.08 days, and 107.69 days (exterior to Oberon).[16] It was therefore concluded that Herschel's four satellites were spurious, probably arising from the misidentification of faint stars in the vicinity of Uranus as satellites, and the credit for the discovery of Ariel and Umbriel was given to Lassell.[17]

Discovery of outer planet moons

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  Moons of Jupiter
  Moons of Saturn
  Moons of Uranus
  Moons of Neptune

Names

Main article: Naming of moons

See also: Name conflicts with minor planets

Although the first two Uranian moons were discovered in 1787, they were not named until 1852, a year after two more moons had been discovered. The responsibility for naming was taken by John Herschel, son of the discoverer of Uranus. Herschel, instead of assigning names from Greek mythology, named the moons after magical spirits in English literature: the fairies Oberon and Titania from William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, and the sylph Ariel and gnome Umbriel from Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock (Ariel is also a sprite in Shakespeare's The Tempest). The reasoning was presumably that Uranus, as god of the sky and air, would be attended by spirits of the air.[18] It is uncertain if John Herschel was the originator of the names, or if it was instead William Lassell (who discovered Ariel and Umbriel) who chose the names and asked Herschel for permission.[19]

Subsequent names, rather than continuing the airy spirits theme (only Puck and Mab continued the trend), have focused on Herschel's source material. In 1949, the fifth moon, Miranda, was named by its discoverer Gerard Kuiper after a thoroughly mortal character in Shakespeare's The Tempest.[8] The current IAU practice is to name moons after characters from Shakespeare's plays and The Rape of the Lock (although at present only Ariel, Umbriel, and Belinda have names drawn from the latter; all the rest are from Shakespeare). The outer retrograde moons are all named after characters from one play, The Tempest; the sole known outer prograde moon, Margaret, is named from Much Ado About Nothing.[19]

Some asteroids, also named after the same Shakespearean characters, share names with moons of Uranus: 171 Ophelia, 218 Bianca, 593 Titania, 666 Desdemona, 763 Cupido, and 2758 Cordelia.

Characteristics and groups

The Uranian satellite system is the least massive among those of the giant planets. Indeed, the combined mass of the five major satellites is less than half that of Triton (the seventh-largest moon in the Solar System) alone.[a] The largest of the satellites, Titania, has a radius of 788.9 km,[21] or less than half that of the Moon, but slightly more than that of Rhea, the second-largest moon of Saturn, making Titania the eighth-largest moon in the Solar System. Uranus is about 10,000 times more massive than its moons.[b]

Inner moons

See also: Inner moon and Rings of Uranus

Schematic of the Uranian moon–ring system

As of 2024, Uranus is known to have 13 inner moons, whose orbits all lie inside that of Miranda.[12] The inner moons are classified into two groups based on similar orbital distances: these are the Portia group, which includes the six moons Bianca, Cressida, Desdemona, Juliet, Portia, and Rosalind; and the Belinda group, which includes the three moons Cupid, Belinda, and Perdita.[12][22] All of the inner moons are intimately connected with the rings of Uranus, which probably resulted from the fragmentation of one or several small inner moons.[23] The two innermost moons, Cordelia and Ophelia, are shepherds of Uranus's ε ring, whereas the small moon Mab is a source of Uranus's outermost μ ring.[12] There may be two additional small (2–7 km in radius) undiscovered shepherd moons located about 100 km exterior to Uranus's α and β rings.[24]

At 162 km, Puck is the largest of the inner moons of Uranus and the only one imaged by Voyager 2 in any detail. Puck and Mab are the two outermost inner satellites of Uranus. All inner moons are dark objects; their geometrical albedo is less than 10%.[25] They are composed of water ice contaminated with a dark material, probably radiation-processed organics.[26]

The inner moons constantly perturb each other, especially within the closely-packed Portia and Belinda groups. The system is chaotic and apparently unstable.[27] Simulations show that the moons may perturb each other into crossing orbits, which may eventually result in collisions between the moons.[12] Desdemona may collide with Cressida within the next million years,[28] and Cupid will likely collide with Belinda in the next 10 million years; Perdita and Juliet may be involved in later collisions.[29] Because of this, the rings and inner moons may be under constant flux, with moons colliding and re-accreting on short timescales.[29]

Large moons

Uranus and its six largest moons compared at their proper relative sizes and in the correct order. From left to right: Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon

Uranus has five major moons: Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon. They range in diameter from 472 km for Miranda to 1578 km for Titania.[21] All these moons are relatively dark objects: their geometrical albedo varies between 30 and 50%, whereas their Bond albedo is between 10 and 23%.[25] Umbriel is the darkest moon and Ariel the brightest. The masses of the moons range from 6.7 × 1019 kg (Miranda) to 3.5 × 1021 kg (Titania). For comparison, the Moon has a mass of 7.5 × 1022 kg.[30] The major moons of Uranus are thought to have formed in the accretion disc, which existed around Uranus for some time after its formation or resulted from a large impact suffered by Uranus early in its history.[31][32] This view is supported by their large thermal inertia, a surface property they share with dwarf planets like Pluto and Haumea.[33] It differs strongly from the thermal behaviour of the Uranian irregular moons that is comparable to classical trans-Neptunian objects.[34] This suggests a separate origin.

Moons (Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, Miranda)
Modeling (4 May 2023)

All major moons comprise approximately equal amounts rock and ice, except Miranda, which is made primarily of ice.[35] The ice component may include ammonia and carbon dioxide.[36] Their surfaces are heavily cratered, though all of them (except Umbriel) show signs of endogenic resurfacing in the form of lineaments (canyons) and, in the case of Miranda, ovoid race-track like structures called coronae.[2] Extensional processes associated with upwelling diapirs are likely responsible for the origin of the coronae.[37] Ariel appears to have the youngest surface with the fewest impact craters, while Umbriel's appears oldest.[2] A past 3:1 orbital resonance between Miranda and Umbriel and a past 4:1 resonance between Ariel and Titania are thought to be responsible for the heating that caused substantial endogenic activity on Miranda and Ariel.[38][39] One piece of evidence for such a past resonance is Miranda's unusually high orbital inclination (4.34°) for a body so close to the planet.[40][41] The largest Uranian moons may be internally differentiated, with rocky cores at their centers surrounded by ice mantles.[35] Titania and Oberon may harbor liquid water oceans at the core/mantle boundary.[35] The major moons of Uranus are airless bodies. For instance, Titania was shown to possess no atmosphere at a pressure larger than 10–20 nanobar.[42]

The path of the Sun in the local sky over the course of a local day during Uranus's and its major moons' summer solstice is quite different from that seen on most other Solar System worlds. The major moons have almost exactly the same rotational axial tilt as Uranus (their axes are parallel to that of Uranus).[2] The Sun would appear to follow a circular path around Uranus's celestial pole in the sky, at the closest about 7 degrees from it,[c] during the hemispheric summer. Near the equator, it would be seen nearly due north or due south (depending on the season). At latitudes higher than 7°, the Sun would trace a circular path about 15 degrees in diameter in the sky, and never set during the hemispheric summer, moving to a position over the celestial equator during the Uranian equinox, and then invisible below the horizon during the hemispheric winter.

Irregular moons

See also: Irregular moon

Irregular satellites of Jupiter (red), Saturn (green), Uranus (magenta) and Neptune (blue; including Triton), plotted by distance from their planet (semi-major axis) in the horizontal axis and orbital inclination in the vertical axis. The semi-major axis values are expressed as a fraction of the planet's Hill sphere's radius, while the inclination is expressed in degrees from the ecliptic. The radius of the Uranian Hill sphere is approximately 73 million km.[3] The relative sizes of moons are indicated by the size of their symbols, and the Caliban group of Uranian moons is labeled. Data as of February 2024.

Uranus's irregular moons range in size from 120 to 200 km (Sycorax) to under 10 km (S/2023 U 1).[43] Due to the small number of known Uranian irregular moons, it is not yet clear which of them belong to groups with similar orbital characteristics. The only known group among Uranus's irregular moons is the Caliban group, which is clustered at orbital distances between 6–7 million km (3.7–4.3 million mi) and inclinations between 141°–144°.[14] The Caliban group includes three retrograde moons, which are Caliban, S/2023 U 1, Stephano.[14]

The intermediate inclinations 60° < i < 140° are devoid of known moons due to the Kozai instability.[3] In this instability region, solar perturbations at apoapse cause the moons to acquire large eccentricities that lead to collisions with inner satellites or ejection. The lifetime of moons in the instability region is from 10 million to a billion years.[3] Margaret is the only known irregular prograde moon of Uranus, and it has one of the most eccentric orbits of any moon in the Solar System.

List

Orbital diagram of the orbital inclination and orbital distances for Uranus's rings and moon system at various scales. Open the image for full resolution.

The Uranian moons are listed here by orbital period, from shortest to longest. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in light blue and bolded. The inner and major moons all have prograde orbits. Irregular moons with retrograde orbits are shown in dark grey. Margaret, the only known irregular moon of Uranus with a prograde orbit, is shown in light grey. The orbits and mean distances of the irregular moons are variable over short timescales due to frequent planetary and solar perturbations, therefore the listed orbital elements of all irregular moons are averaged over a 8,000-year numerical integration by Brozović and Jacobson (2009). These may differ from osculating orbital elements provided by other sources.[44] The orbital elements of major moons listed here are based on the epoch of 1 January 2000,[45] while orbital elements of irregular satellites are based on the epoch of 1 January 2020.[46]

Key
 
Inner moons

Major moons

Ungrouped prograde irregular moons

Ungrouped retrograde irregular moons

Caliban group
Uranian moons
Label
[d]
Name Pronunciation
(key)
Image Abs.
magn.
[47]
Diameter
(km)[e]
Mass
(× 1016 kg)[f]
Semi-major axis
(km)[g]
Orbital period
(d)[g][h]
Inclination
(°)[g][i]
Eccentricity
[g]
Discovery
year
[50]
Year announced Discoverer
[50]
Group
VI Cordelia /kɔːrˈdliə/ 10.3 40 ± 6
(50 × 36)
≈ 3.4 49800 +0.33457 0.2 0.000 1986 1986 Terrile
(Voyager 2)
ε ring shepherd
VII Ophelia /ˈfliə/ 10.2 43 ± 8
(54 × 38)
≈ 4.2 53800 +0.37686 0.1 0.011 1986 1986 Terrile
(Voyager 2)
ε ring shepherd
VIII Bianca /biˈɑːŋkə/ 9.8 51 ± 4
(64 × 46)
≈ 6.9 59200 +0.43501 0.1 0.001 1986 1986 Smith
(Voyager 2)
Portia
IX Cressida /ˈkrɛsədə/ 8.9 80 ± 4
(92 × 74)
≈ 27 61800 +0.46315 0.1 0.000 1986 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
Portia
X Desdemona /ˌdɛzdəˈmnə/ 9.3 64 ± 8
(90 × 54)
≈ 14 62700 +0.47323 0.1 0.000 1986 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
Portia
XI Juliet /ˈliət/ 8.5 94 ± 8
(150 × 74)
≈ 43 64400 +0.49348 0.0 0.001 1986 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
Portia
XII Portia /ˈpɔːrʃə/ 7.7 135 ± 8
(156 × 126)
≈ 130 66100 +0.51320 0.0 0.000 1986 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
Portia
XIII Rosalind /ˈrɒzələnd/ 9.1 72 ± 12 ≈ 20 69900 +0.55846 0.0 0.000 1986 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
Portia
XXVII Cupid /ˈkjuːpəd/ 12.6 ≈ 18 ≈ 0.31 74400 +0.61317 0.1 0.005 2003 2003 Showalter and
Lissauer
Belinda
XIV Belinda /bəˈlɪndə/
8.8 90 ± 16
(128 × 64)
≈ 38 75300 +0.62353 0.0 0.000 1986 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
Belinda
XXV Perdita /ˈpɜːrdətə/ 11.0 30 ± 6 ≈ 1.4 76400 +0.63841 0.0 0.002 1999 1999 Karkoschka
(Voyager 2)
Belinda
XV Puck /ˈpʌk/
7.3 162 ± 4 191±64 86005 +0.76148 0.3562 0.0002 1985 1986 Synnott
(Voyager 2)
XXVI Mab /ˈmæb/
12.1 ≈ 18 ≈ 0.31 97700 +0.92329 0.1 0.003 2003 2003 Showalter and
Lissauer
μ ring source
V Miranda /məˈrændə/
3.5 471.6 ± 1.4
(481 × 468 × 466)
6293±300 129858 +1.4138 4.4072 0.0014 1948 1948 Kuiper
I Ariel /ˈɛəriɛl/
1.0 1157.8±1.2
(1162 × 1156 × 1155)
123310±1800 190930 +2.5207 0.0167 0.0012 1851 1851 Lassell
II Umbriel /ˈʌmbriəl/
1.7 1169.4±5.6 128850±2250 265982 +4.1445 0.0796 0.0039 1851 1851 Lassell
III Titania /təˈtɑːniə/
0.8 1576.8±1.2 345500±5090 436282 +8.7064 0.1129 0.0012 1787 1787 Herschel
IV Oberon /ˈbərɒn/
1.0 1522.8±5.2 311040±7490 583449 +13.464 0.1478 0.0014 1787 1787 Herschel
XXII Francisco /frænˈsɪsk/ 12.4 ≈ 22 ≈ 0.56 4275700 −267.11 146.8 0.144 2001 2003 Holman et al.
XVI Caliban /ˈkæləbæn/ 9.1 42+20
−12
≈ 3.9 7167000 −579.76 141.4 0.200 1997 1997 Gladman et al. Caliban
XX Stephano /ˈstɛfən/ 9.7 ≈ 32 ≈ 1.7 7951400 −677.55 143.6 0.235 1999 1999 Gladman et al. Caliban
S/2023 U 1 13.7 ≈ 8 ≈ 0.027 7976600 −680.78 143.9 0.250 2023 2024 Sheppard et al. Caliban
XXI Trinculo /ˈtrɪŋkjʊl/ 12.7 ≈ 18 ≈ 0.31 8502600 −749.40 167.1 0.220 2001 2002 Holman et al.
XVII Sycorax /ˈsɪkəræks/ 7.4 157+23
−15
≈ 200 12193200 −1288.40 157.0 0.520 1997 1997 Nicholson et al.
XXIII Margaret /ˈmɑːrɡərət/ 12.7 ≈ 20 ≈ 0.42 14425000 +1655.16 60.5 0.642 2003 2003 Sheppard and
Jewitt
XVIII Prospero /ˈprɒspər/ 10.5 ≈ 50 ≈ 6.5 16221000 −1979.41 149.4 0.441 1999 1999 Holman et al.
XIX Setebos /ˈsɛtɛbʌs/ 10.7 ≈ 47 ≈ 5.4 17519800 −2224.94 153.9 0.579 1999 1999 Kavelaars et al.
XXIV Ferdinand /ˈfɜːrdənænd/ 12.5 ≈ 21 ≈ 0.48 20421400 −2808.70 169.2 0.395 2001 2003 Holman et al.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The mass of Triton is about 2.14 × 1022 kg,[20] whereas the combined mass of the Uranian moons is about 0.92 × 1022 kg.
  2. ^ Uranus mass of 8.681 × 1025 kg / Mass of Uranian moons of 0.93 × 1022 kg
  3. ^ The axial tilt of Uranus is 97°.[2]
  4. ^ Label refers to the Roman numeral attributed to each moon in order of their discovery.[1]
  5. ^ Diameters with multiple entries such as "60 × 40 × 34" reflect that the body is not a perfect spheroid and that each of its dimensions have been measured well enough. The diameters and dimensions of Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, and Oberon were taken from Thomas, 1988.[21] The diameter of Titania is from Widemann, 2009.[42] The dimensions and radii of the inner moons are from Karkoschka, 2001,[11] except for Cupid and Mab, which were taken from Showalter, 2006.[12] The radii of outer moons except Sycorax and Caliban were taken from Sheppard's website.[43] The radii of Sycorax and Caliban are from Farkas-Takács et al., 2017.[48]
  6. ^ Masses of Puck, Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon were taken from Jacobson, 2023 as reported in French, 2024.[49] Masses of all other moons were calculated assuming a density of 1 g/cm3 and using given radii.
  7. ^ a b c d Mean orbits of irregular satellites are taken from JPL Small System Dynamics,[46] while mean orbits of the five major moons and Puck are taken from Jacobson (2014).[45]
  8. ^ Negative orbital periods indicate a retrograde orbit around Uranus (opposite to the planet's orbit).
  9. ^ For regular satellites, inclination measures the angle between the moon's orbital plane and the plane defined by Uranus's equator. For irregular satellites, inclination measures the angle between the moon's orbital plane and the ecliptic.

References

  1. ^ a b c "Planet and Satellite Names and Discoverers". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology. 21 July 2006. Archived from the original on 2010-07-03. Retrieved 2006-08-06.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Smith, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Beebe, A.; Bliss, D.; Boyce, J. M.; Brahic, A.; Briggs, G. A.; Brown, R. H.; Collins, S. A. (4 July 1986). "Voyager 2 in the Uranian System: Imaging Science Results". Science. 233 (4759): 43–64. Bibcode:1986Sci...233...43S. doi:10.1126/science.233.4759.43. PMID 17812889. S2CID 5895824. Archived from the original on 23 October 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Sheppard, S. S.; Jewitt, D.; Kleyna, J. (2005). "An Ultradeep Survey for Irregular Satellites of Uranus: Limits to Completeness". The Astronomical Journal. 129 (1): 518–525. arXiv:astro-ph/0410059. Bibcode:2005AJ....129..518S. doi:10.1086/426329. S2CID 18688556.
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  8. ^ a b c Kuiper, G. P. (1949). "The Fifth Satellite of Uranus". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 61 (360): 129. Bibcode:1949PASP...61..129K. doi:10.1086/126146. S2CID 119916925.
  9. ^ Kaempffert, Waldemar (26 December 1948). "Science in Review: Research Work in Astronomy and Cancer Lead Year's List of Scientific Developments". The New York Times (Late City ed.). p. 87. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 6 February 2018. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  10. ^ Karkoschka, Erich (May 18, 1999). "S/1986 U 10". IAU Circular. 7171: 1. Bibcode:1999IAUC.7171....1K. ISSN 0081-0304. Archived from the original on 2014-05-20. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
  11. ^ a b Karkoschka, Erich (2001). "Voyager's Eleventh Discovery of a Satellite of Uranus and Photometry and the First Size Measurements of Nine Satellites". Icarus. 151 (1): 69–77. Bibcode:2001Icar..151...69K. doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6597.
  12. ^ a b c d e f Showalter, Mark R.; Lissauer, Jack J. (2006-02-17). "The Second Ring-Moon System of Uranus: Discovery and Dynamics". Science. 311 (5763): 973–977. Bibcode:2006Sci...311..973S. doi:10.1126/science.1122882. PMID 16373533. S2CID 13240973.
  13. ^ "MPEC 2024-D113 : S/2023 U 1". Minor Planet Electronic Circular. Minor Planet Center. 23 February 2024. Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  14. ^ a b c "New Uranus and Neptune Moons". Earth & Planetary Laboratory. Carnegie Institution for Science. 23 February 2024. Archived from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  15. ^ "Gemini Observatory Archive Search - Program GN-2021B-DD-104". Gemini Observatory. Archived from the original on 23 February 2024. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
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  18. ^ William Lassell (1852). "Beobachtungen der Uranus-Satelliten". Astronomische Nachrichten. 34: 325. Bibcode:1852AN.....34..325.
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  20. ^ Tyler, G.L.; Sweetnam, D.L.; et al. (1989). "Voyager radio science observations of Neptune and Triton". Science. 246 (4936): 1466–73. Bibcode:1989Sci...246.1466T. doi:10.1126/science.246.4936.1466. PMID 17756001. S2CID 39920233.
  21. ^ a b c Thomas, P. C. (1988). "Radii, shapes, and topography of the satellites of Uranus from limb coordinates". Icarus. 73 (3): 427–441. Bibcode:1988Icar...73..427T. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(88)90054-1.
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