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Moscow Peace Treaty
Finnish areas ceded in 1940.png
Areas ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union
TypeBilateral treaty
Signed12 March 1940 (1940-03-12)
LocationMoscow, Russian SFSR, USSR
Original
signatories
Ratifiers

The Moscow Peace Treaty was signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on 12 March 1940, and the ratifications were exchanged on 21 March.[1] It marked the end of the 105-day Winter War, upon which Finland ceded border areas to the Soviet Union. The treaty was signed by Vyacheslav Molotov, Andrei Zhdanov and Aleksandr Vasilevsky for the Soviet Union, and Risto Ryti, Juho Kusti Paasikivi, Rudolf Walden and Väinö Voionmaa for Finland. The terms of the treaty were not reversed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The Karelian question refers to the debate within Finland over the possible reacquisition of this ceded territory.

Background

The Finnish government received the first tentative peace conditions from the Soviet Union (through Stockholm) on 31 January 1940. By then, the Soviets made larger claims than they had before the war started. The demands were for Finland to cede the Karelian Isthmus, including the city of Viipuri, and Finland's shore of Lake Ladoga. The Hanko Peninsula was to be leased to the Soviet Union for 30 years.

Finland rejected the demands and intensified its pleas to Sweden, France and the United Kingdom for military support by regular troops. The reports from the front still held out hope for Finland, anticipating a League of Nations intervention. Positive signals, however inconstant, from France and Britain and more realistic expectations of troops from Sweden, for which plans and preparations had been made throughout the 1930s, were further reasons for Finland not to rush into peace negotiations. (See Winter War § Foreign support for more details.)

In February 1940, Finland's commander-in-chief, Marshal Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim expressed his pessimism about the military situation, which prompted the government to start peace talks on 29 February, the same day the Red Army started an attack on Viipuri (now Vyborg).

Terms

Finnish Foreign Minister Väinö Tanner reading the terms of the peace treaty on the Finnish radio at noon on 13 March 1940.[2]
Finnish Foreign Minister Väinö Tanner reading the terms of the peace treaty on the Finnish radio at noon on 13 March 1940.[2]

On 6 March, a Finnish delegation, led by Finnish Prime Minister Risto Ryti, travelled to Moscow.[3] During the negotiations, the Red Army broke through the Finnish defence lines around Tali and were close to surrounding Viipuri.

The treaty was signed on the evening of 12 March, Moscow Time, or 1 hour on 13 March, Finnish time. The protocol appended to the treaty stipulated that the fighting should end at noon, Leningrad time (11:00 Finnish time),[inconsistent][4] and the fighting continued until then.[5]

Finland ceded approximately half of Finnish Karelia, exceeding the amount of territory demanded by the Soviets before the war. The ceded area included Finland's industrial centre, the city of Viipuri (Finland's second-largest city [Population Register] or fourth-largest city [Church and Civil Register], depending on the census data[6]), Käkisalmi, Sortavala, Suojärvi, and the whole of Viipuri Bay (with its islands). Much of this territory was still held by the Finnish Army. Military troops and remaining civilians were hastily evacuated inside the new border: 422,000 Finns, i.e. 12% of Finland's population, left their homes.

There was also an area that the Russians captured during the war that remained in Finnish hands according to the treaty: Petsamo. The treaty also stipulated that Finland would grant free passage for Soviet civilians through Petsamo to Norway.

Finland also had to cede a part of the Salla area, the Finnish part of the Kalastajansaarento (Rybachi) Peninsula in the Barents Sea, and in the Gulf of Finland the islands of Suursaari, Tytärsaari, Lavansaari (now Moshchny Island о. Мощный), Peninsaari (now Maly Island, о. Малый) and Seiskari. Finally, the Hanko Peninsula was leased to the Soviet Union as a naval base for 30 years at an annual rent of 8 million marks. The total area ceded by Finland amounted to approximately 9% of its territory.

Contrary to a common belief, the Soviet troops' transfer rights by railway to the Hanko base were not granted in the peace treaty, but they were demanded on 9 July, after Sweden had acknowledged the railway transit of Wehrmacht troops to occupied Norway.

Additional demands were the handing over any equipment and installations on the territories that were ceded. Thus Finland had to hand over 75 locomotives, 2,000 railroad cars, and a number of cars, trucks and ships. The Enso industrial area, which was clearly on the Finnish side of the border, as it was drawn in the peace treaty, was also soon added to the Finnish losses of territory and equipment.

Aftermath

The harsh terms imposed on the Finns led them to seek support from Nazi Germany.[citation needed] The Winter War and the subsequent peace treaty were core factors in leading to what would become the Continuation War, when hostilities resumed in 1941.

See also

References

  1. ^ First published in English as Finland – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Treaty of Peace. Signed at Moscow, 12 March 1940; ratifications exchanged, 21 March 1940. The American Journal of International Law 34 (3), Supplement: Official Documents. (July 1940), pp.127–131.
  2. ^ Pietinen Otso, kuvaaja. "ulkoministeri Väinö Tanner Yleisradiossa ja talvisodan rauhanehdot". www.finna.fi. Retrieved 31 December 2019.
  3. ^ Jussila, Osmo; Hentilä, Seppo; Nevakivi, Jukka (1999). From Grand Duchy to Modern State: A Political History of Finland since 1809. London: Hurst & Company. p. 187. ISBN 1-85065-421-2.
  4. ^ "Protocol appended to the treaty of peace concluded between Finland and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on 12 March 1940".
  5. ^ Степаков, Виктор, Евгений Балашов. В «Новых районах»: Из истории освоения карельского перешейка, 1940–1941, 1944–1950 Archived 2 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Saint Petersburg: Нордмедиздат, 2001. p. 5
  6. ^ Statistics Finland (1941). Suomenmaan Tilastollinen Vuosikirja 1940 [Finnish Statistics Yearbook 1940] (PDF) (in Finnish). pp. 14–15.