Muda
Native toChina
Native speakers
2,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3ymd
Glottologmuda1235
ELPMuda

Muda (木达 or 母打) is a Loloish language of China.

There are over 2,000 Muda speakers in Nanlianshan Village Community 南联山村委会[2] (formerly Nanlianshan District, 南联山乡, now part of Gasa Township 嘎洒镇), Jinghong City, Yunnan, China (Xu 1991).[3]

Classification

Xu (1991) classifies Muda as a Ha-Ya language (see Hani languages).

Hsiu (2018)[4] classifies Muda as an Akha language containing a Bisoid substratum, with the substrate language being an early split from Bisoid. Muda has Cl- consonant clusters like various Bisoid languages, Siloid languages, and Jinuo, while words of Bisoid origin include 'leg', 'house', and 'smoke'.

Phonology

Muda has the complex consonant onsets /pl, pʰl, bl, ml, pj, pʰj, bj, mj/ (Xu 1991:34).

Vocabulary

The following vocabulary of Muda is from Xu (1991).

English gloss Chinese gloss Muda Page
White pʰlu⁵⁵ 35
Full blaŋ³³ 35
Pus ()blaŋ⁵⁵ 36
Arrow ()mla³¹ 36
Broom 扫帚 ()pʰjɔ⁵⁵ 36
Bee 蜜蜂 bja³¹ 36
Lose, to 遗失 ()bjo̱³³ 36
Fly, to jɔ³³ 36
Monkey 猴子 ()mjo̱³¹ 36
Many mja³¹ 36
Foot kʰɯ⁵⁵ 37
Six ko̱³¹ 37
Gallbladder ()kʰɯ⁵⁵ 37
Star 星星 ()gɯ⁵⁵ 37
Copper gɯ³¹ 37
Tendon ()gu³¹ 37
Manure cçʰe³¹ 38
Root (classifier) 根(量词) cçʰaŋ³¹ 38
Wide ()ɟje⁵⁵ 38
Drop, to ɟja³³ 38
Day (time) 天(日子) naŋ³³ 38
Soft nø̱³¹ 38
Cook, to tɕa̱³¹ 38
Sour tɕʰɛ⁵⁵ 38
Narrow tɕu̱³¹ 38
Lick, to tɕʰy⁵⁵ 38
Stick (classifier) tɕa̱³³ 38
Cry, weep ɴo⁵⁵ 39
Steal, to qʰø³¹ 39
Bitter qʰa³¹ 39
Smoke (fog) 烟(雾) ()qʰø³¹ 39
Nine ɢø³¹ 39
Curved ɢaŋ³¹ 39
Play, to 玩耍 ()ɢa³³ 39
Enter, to aŋ⁵⁵ 40
Horse maŋ³¹ 40
Open (door) 开(门) pʰaŋ³³ 40
Sell, to aŋ³¹ 40
Throat 喉咙 kʰaŋ³¹() 40
Dark jaŋ⁵⁵ 40
Pus ()blaŋ⁵⁵ 40
Full blaŋ³³ 40
Money ()kʰaŋ⁵⁵ 40
Bear 狗熊 ()xum⁵⁵ 40
Otter 水獭 ()ɕum⁵⁵ 40
Iron ɕʰum⁵⁵ 41
Pile (of soil) 堆(土) blum⁵⁵ 41
House 房屋 ʑum⁵⁵ 41
Roast, to lum⁵⁵ 41
Round laŋ³³ 41
Surround, to 包围 ()laŋ⁵⁵ 41
Pond 池塘 laŋ³³() 41
Axe 斧子 ()dzɿ³³ 41
Woman 女人 ()mi³¹ 41
Louse 虱子 ɕɛ⁵⁵() 41
Goose gɛ̱³³() 41
Push, to dɛ³¹ 41
Edge 边上 ()dzɛ⁵⁵() 41
Eagle 老鹰 ()dzɛ⁵⁵ 41
Saddle 鞍子 ()qɔ̱³³ 41
Shallow tɛ̱³³ 41
Change, to pʰa³³ 41
Winnow (rice), to 簸(米) ja⁵⁵ 41
See, to 看见 ()mɔ⁵⁵ 41
Mosquito 蚊子 ()gɔ³¹ 41
Change, to pʰa⁵⁵ 41
Stick (classifier) tɕa̱³³ 41
Leg bɔ⁵⁵() 41
Store, to qʰɔ³¹ 41

References

  1. ^ Muda at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ 景洪市嘎洒镇南联山村委会
  3. ^ Xu Shixuan [徐世璇] (1991). 缅彝语几种音类的演变. Minzu Yuwen.
  4. ^ Hsiu, Andrew. 2018. Classifications of some lesser-known Lolo-Burmese languages.