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Muktzeh[a] /mʊktzə/ (Hebrew: מוקצה‎ "separated") is a concept in Jewish rabbinical law (Halakha). Muktzeh objects are subject to use restrictions on the Sabbath. The generally accepted view regarding these items is that they may be touched, though not moved, during Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath) or Yom Tov (Jewish holiday).[1][2] Some extend this prohibition to the actual handling of these items. Halakha defines various categories of objects or substances which are "set aside" on the Jewish Sabbath, as well as various permissible instances of moving these various muktzeh items. For example, one may not handle money, rocks, twigs, etc. on Shabbat, as these items are muktzeh.

The consensus among the halakhic authorities is that muktzeh is an issur d'rabbanan (a rabbinic prohibition), rather than a d'oreisa (biblical prohibition).

There are four main types of "Muktzeh" (items that are set aside and cannot be moved on Shabbat):

  1. Kli SheMelachto LeIsur (כלי שמלאכתו לאיסור) - A tool whose defined use involves work forbidden on Shabbat (for example, a match).
  2. Muktzeh Mechamat Chisaron Kis (מוקצה מחמת חסרון כיס) - An expensive item that requires careful handling and is set aside to avoid damage (for example, a piece of art).
  3. Muktzeh Mechamat Gufo (מוקצה מחמת גופו) - An object that is not a tool and has no defined use on Shabbat (for example, a stone or a dead body).
  4. Basis LeDavar HaAssur (בסיס לדבר האסור) - An item that is not Muktzeh in itself but serves as a base for another item that is considered Muktzeh Machmat Gufo (for example, a tray on which Shabbat candles are placed).

Additional types of Muktzeh:

General concept

Muktzeh is essentially a restriction on objects that were not 'prepared' before the Sabbath. The absence of preparedness in this sense means that when Shabbat began, the vast majority of people would not have expected to use this particular item or substance on Shabbat.


There are six main categories of muktzeh,[3] each one with different halakhic ramifications:

See also


  1. ^ also Muktzah, Muktza, Muktze, Muqtzeh, Muqtzah, Muqtza, Muqtze.
  1. ^ Rabbi Baruch Chait The 39 Avoth Melacha of Shabbat ISBN 0-87306-586-7 Page 42
  2. ^ Muktzah (part 1) – Shabbat with Aish
  3. ^ 1992 Rabbi Baruch Chait The 39 Avoth Melacha of Shabbat the-39-avoth-melacha-of-shabbath ISBN 0-87306-586-7 Page 42