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A multi-way bridge is a bridge with three or more distinct and separate spans, where one end of each span meets at a common point near the centre of the bridge. Unlike other bridges which have two entry-exit points, multi-way bridges have three or more entry-exit points. For this reason, multi-way bridges are not to be confused with commonly found road bridges which carry vehicles in one direction from one entry point, and then bifurcate into two other one-way bridges.[1]

Description

Multi-way bridges are located throughout the world, though they are rare. Some are as small as a footbridge, while others are multi-lane roadways.

Three-way bridges are often referred to as "T-bridges" or "Y-bridges", due to their shape when viewed from above. Three cities in Michigan each have a three-way bridge named "Tridge", combining "tri" and "bridge":[1] The Tridge (Midland, Michigan), The Tridge (Ypsilanti, Michigan) and The Tridge in Brighton, Michigan.

The unique shape of a multi-way bridge makes it easy to identify from an airplane. Pilot Amelia Earhart described Zanesville, Ohio as "the most recognizable city in the country" because of its Y-shaped bridge,[2] and the pilots of Enola Gay aimed for Hiroshima's T-shaped Aioi Bridge when they dropped the atom bomb.[3]

While designing the Tripartite Bridge in 1846—a Y-bridge proposed to span the Allegheny River and Monongahela River in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania—engineer John A. Roebling identified one of the challenges of erecting a three-way suspension-type bridge. Suspension-bridge cables on two-way bridges support heavy loads and are anchored solidly at either end,[4] while on a three-way bridge the cables of each of the three spans need to anchor at a central pier in the water, where cable forces from each span would have to balance each another: "the intersection of the cables at the top of the center pier...would have created enormous horizontal forces, and the stone arches connecting the three towers could hardly have resisted the tensions imposed by the cables radiating from their tops."[4][5] The bridge was never built.[4]

Three-way bridges

Bridge name Location Coordinates Description Image
Aioi Bridge Hiroshima, Japan 34°23′47″N 132°27′09″E / 34.3964°N 132.4526°E / 34.3964; 132.4526 (Aioi Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge. Built in 1932, heavily damaged by atomic bombing in 1945, reconstructed 1983.
Aioi Bridge, Hiroshima (2016).jpg
Alsen Bridge Berlin, Germany 52°31′25″N 13°22′20″E / 52.5235°N 13.3722°E / 52.5235; 13.3722 (Alsen Bridge) T-shaped bridge. Built in 1858; damaged by exposure to shipping, and torn down in 1890.
F Albert Schwartz - Alsenbrücke, 1875.jpg
Andorra Bridge Madrid, Spain 40°24′18″N 3°43′22″W / 40.405114°N 3.722811°W / 40.405114; -3.722811 (Andorra Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge over Manzanares River.
Madrid ahorra 25,7 millones de euros al año gracias a su bosque urbano 03.jpg
Bergues Bridge (fr:Pont des Bergues) Geneva, Switzerland 46°12′21″N 6°08′49″E / 46.20593°N 6.147054°E / 46.20593; 6.147054 (Bergues Bridge (Pont des Bergues)) Pedestrian Y-bridge over the Rhône.
Pont des Bergues.JPG
BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee building footbridge Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States 35°03′08″N 85°19′05″W / 35.05223°N 85.31798°W / 35.05223; -85.31798 (BlueCross BlueShield of Tennessee building footbridge) T-shaped footbridge
Bow River Pathway bridge Calgary, Canada 51°02′56″N 114°06′34″W / 51.048807°N 114.109497°W / 51.048807; -114.109497 (Bow River Pathway bridge) T-shaped footbridge
Bridge With 3 Branches (Le pont à 3 branches) Pont-de-Veyle, France 46°15′59″N 4°52′45″E / 46.266467°N 4.879134°E / 46.266467; 4.879134 (Bridge With 3 Branches) Pedestrian Y-bridge over the Veyle.
Le pont à 3 branches Pont de Veyle.JPG
Bridge With Three Entrances (Ponte das Três Entradas) Oliveira do Hospital Municipality, Portugal 40°18′24″N 7°52′16″W / 40.306739°N 7.871198°W / 40.306739; -7.871198 (Bridge with Three Entrances) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge.
Calatrava Bridge Petah Tikva, Israel 32°05′30″N 34°51′59″E / 32.091803°N 34.86641°E / 32.091803; 34.86641 (Caltrava Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge designed by Santiago Calatrava.
Caltrava bridge in Petah Tikva01.jpg
Camp Evergreen Girl Scouts Camp bridge Cowlitz County, Washington, United States 46°12′40″N 123°12′24″W / 46.211098°N 123.206755°W / 46.211098; -123.206755 (Bridge at Camp Evergreen Girl Scouts Camp) Pedestrian Y-bridge over Mill Creek.
Chincoteague Road Chincoteague, Virginia, United States 37°56′15″N 75°22′54″W / 37.937603°N 75.381620°W / 37.937603; -75.381620 (Chincoteague Road) Vehicle T-bridge.
Chu Y Bridge Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 10°45′03″N 106°41′01″E / 10.750946°N 106.683653°E / 10.750946; 106.683653 (Chu Y Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge built in 1937.[6]
Cầu chữ Y (bridge 1968).jpg
Colin Glen Forest Park Tri-Bridge Dunmurry, Northern Ireland 54°34′38″N 6°02′04″W / 54.577218°N 6.034307°W / 54.577218; -6.034307 (Raehills Three-Way Footbridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Eco-Viikki Three Way Bridge Helsinki, Finland 60°13′34″N 25°02′03″E / 60.226107°N 25.034079°E / 60.226107; 25.034079 (Eco-Viikki 3-way Bridge) Pedestrian Y-bridge.
Fogelsangh State Three Way Bridge Veenklooster, Netherlands 53°15′48″N 6°06′35″E / 53.263396°N 6.109713°E / 53.263396; 6.109713 (Fogelsangh State) Pedestrian Y-bridge.
Driearmige brug Fogelsangh State in Veenklooster.jpg
Galena Y-Bridge Galena, Missouri, United States 36°48′19″N 93°27′40″W / 36.805393°N 93.460998°W / 36.805393; -93.460998 (Galena Y-Bridge) Y-shaped bridge historically used for vehicle traffic, now a footbridge.
Y-Bridge 2.JPG
Jasenovac Tri-Bridge Between Jasenovac, Sisak-Moslavina County, Slavonia and Uštica, Bosnia and Herzegovina 45°16′05″N 16°55′01″E / 45.267997°N 16.916949°E / 45.267997; 16.916949 (Jasenovac Tri-Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge originally built in 1973, destroyed in 1991, then re-built in 2005.[7]
Kang Ding Tri-Bridge Kang Ding Xian, Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, China 30°03′21″N 101°57′55″E / 30.05592°N 101.965254°E / 30.05592; 101.965254 (Kang Ding Tri-Bridge) Pedestrian Y-bridge.
Kikko Bridge Aoyamakogen Country Club, Mie Prefecture, Japan 34°42′01″N 136°24′04″E / 34.700234°N 136.401003°E / 34.700234; 136.401003 (Kikko Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge built in 1991.[6]
Krestovy Bridge Saint Petersburg, Russia 59°42′55.61″N 30°23′24.93″E / 59.7154472°N 30.3902583°E / 59.7154472; 30.3902583 (Krestovy Bridge) Built in 1779, the Krestovy Bridge is a pedestrian Y-bridge over Krestovy Canal in Alexander Park.[8]
314. Pushkin. Cross bridge with gazebo.jpg
Lune Millennium Bridge Lancaster, Lancashire, England 54°03′08″N 2°48′09″W / 54.052191°N 2.802525°W / 54.052191; -2.802525 (Lune Millennium Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Lune Millennium Bridge from northern bank.jpg
Louisa/Fort Gay Tri-Bridge Between Fort Gay, West Virginia and Louisa, Kentucky, United States 38°06′59″N 82°35′59″W / 38.11632°N 82.599821°W / 38.11632; -82.599821 (Louisa/Fort Gay Tri-Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge opened in 1906.[7]
Lowell T Bridge Lowell, Ohio, United States 39°31′35″N 81°30′25″W / 39.526465°N 81.50698°W / 39.526465; -81.50698 (Lowell T Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge over Muskingum River.
Malvina Footbridge Malvina, Mississippi, United States 33°51′08″N 90°55′09″W / 33.852288°N 90.919145°W / 33.852288; -90.919145 (Malvina Footbridge) Wooden vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge built in the late 1920s, and demolished in 1972.[9]
Mangakahia Twin Bridges Nukutawhiti, New Zealand 35°37′26″S 173°50′48″E / 35.623797°S 173.846626°E / -35.623797; 173.846626 (Mangakahia Twin Bridges) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge over Mangakahia River.
Mangakahia Twin Bridges, Nukutawhiti, New Zealand.jpg
Margaret Bridge Budapest, Hungary 47°30′53″N 19°02′37″E / 47.514722°N 19.043611°E / 47.514722; 19.043611 (Margaret Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge.
Margaret Bridge, Budapest.jpg
Miyoshi Bridge Tokyo, Japan 35°40′16.44″N 139°46′19.11″E / 35.6712333°N 139.7719750°E / 35.6712333; 139.7719750 (Miyoshi Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge (1929) over a bend in the Tsukiji canal.[10]
nl:Noabers Badde, also called Mercedesbrug Veelerveen, Netherlands 53°03′12″N 7°07′39″E / 53.053361°N 7.127363°E / 53.053361; 7.127363 (Noabers Badde of Mercedesbrug) Pedestrian Y-bridge built in 1989 at the convergence of the Mussel, Diamonds, and During canals.[11]
Noabers Badde.png
Overseas Highway Pigeon Key, Florida,United States 24°42′15″N 81°09′22″W / 24.704289°N 81.155974°W / 24.704289; -81.155974 (Overseas Highway) Partially abandoned vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge.
Pigeon Key, Florida (2011).jpg
Pierre Corneille Bridge Rouen, France 49°26′09″N 1°05′44″E / 49.435948°N 1.095497°E / 49.435948; 1.095497 (Pierre Corneille Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge over the Seine.
Bridge over Seine-River in Rouen (France), "Pont Pierre-Corneille".jpg
Raehills Three-Way Footbridge Lockerbie, Scotland 55°13′38″N 3°27′55″W / 55.227105°N 3.465388°W / 55.227105; -3.465388 (Raehills Three-Way Footbridge) Y-shaped footbridge built in the late 1800s.[12]
Sancha Zijin Bridge/Hama Bridge Xingtai, Hebei, China 37°31′19″N 114°29′08″E / 37.522016°N 114.485609°E / 37.522016; 114.485609 (Sancha Zijin Bridge/Hama Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian stone Y-bridge built in 1691.[13]
Sheikh Hasina Titas Bridge Charlohania, Bangladesh 23°43′36.56″N 90°50′56.67″E / 23.7268222°N 90.8490750°E / 23.7268222; 90.8490750 (Sheikh Hasina Titas Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge opened in 2018 over Titas River and Sadarghat-Ramchandrapur Ferry Path.[14]
Staniastate footbridge Staniastate, Oentsjerk, Netherlands 53°15′25″N 5°53′50″E / 53.257006°N 5.897111°E / 53.257006; 5.897111 (Staniastate footbridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Strömsborgsbron Gamla stan, Sweden 59°19′38″N 18°03′51″E / 59.327304°N 18.064282°E / 59.327304; 18.064282 (Strömsborgsbron) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge.
Strömsborgsbron februari 2007.JPG
Thetford Footbridge Thetford, England 52°24′48″N 0°44′49″E / 52.413277°N 0.746904°E / 52.413277; 0.746904 (Thetford Footbridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Footbridge at Thetford - geograph.org.uk - 426302.jpg
Three-Legged Bridge Milton Keynes, England 52°02′49″N 0°44′03″W / 52.047022°N 0.734279°W / 52.047022; -0.734279 (Three-Legged Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge
Three-Way Bridge Lyons Falls, New York, United States 43°37′01″N 75°21′26″W / 43.616879°N 75.357202°W / 43.616879; -75.357202 (Three-Way Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian wooden T-bridge opened in 1849, replaced with steel in 1916, and demolished in 1965.[15]
The Tridge (Brighton) Brighton, Michigan, United States 42°31′50″N 83°46′59″W / 42.530473°N 83.783022°W / 42.530473; -83.783022 (The Tridge (Brighton)) Y-shaped footbridge.[16]
Millpond - Brighton, Michigan.jpg
The Tridge (Midland) Midland, Michigan, United States 43°36′40″N 84°14′55″W / 43.611052°N 84.248689°W / 43.611052; -84.248689 (The Tridge (Midland)) Y-shaped footbridge.
Tridge Undercarriage.jpg
The Tridge (Ypsilanti) Ypsilanti, Michigan, United States 42°14′44″N 83°36′42″W / 42.24561°N 83.6116°W / 42.24561; -83.6116 (The Tridge (Ypsilanti)) Y-shaped footbridge.
The Tridge (Ypsilanti).jpg
Trangrav Bridge (Trangravsbroen) Copenhagen, Denmark 55°40′40″N 12°35′56″E / 55.677694°N 12.598943°E / 55.677694; 12.598943 (Trangrav Bridge) Pedestrian and cyclist Y-bridge over Christianshavn Canal and Trangraven. Two of the bridge spans may open for passing sailboats. When both spans open at the same time the bridge resembles a butterfly.[17]
Kopenhagen (DK), Christianshaven, Trangravsbroen -- 2017 -- 1520.jpg
Trinity Bridge (Crowland) Crowland, Lincolnshire, England 52°40′33″N 0°10′06″W / 52.6757°N 0.168281°W / 52.6757; -0.168281 (Trinity Bridge) Y-shaped stone footbridge.
Trinity Bridge (Crowland).JPG
Trinity Bridge (Greater Manchester) Greater Manchester, England 53°28′58″N 2°15′04″W / 53.482717°N 2.251098°W / 53.482717; -2.251098 (Caltrava Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge over River Irwell, designed by Santiago Calatrava.
Trinity Bridge - geograph.org.uk - 332253.jpg
Tripartite Bridge Saint Petersburg, Russia 59°56′29.64″N 30°19′43.89″E / 59.9415667°N 30.3288583°E / 59.9415667; 30.3288583 (Tripartite Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge over Moyka River and Griboyedov Canal.
Трёхколенный мост и дом Адамини.jpg
Vijversburg Estate Tri-Bridge Tytsjerk, Netherlands 53°13′01″N 5°54′28″E / 53.217052°N 5.907743°E / 53.217052; 5.907743 (Vijversburg Estate Tri-Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Driearmige brug.JPG
Vines Mansion Bridge Loganville, Georgia, United States 33°51′43″N 83°55′25″W / 33.862035°N 83.923614°W / 33.862035; -83.923614 (Vines Mansion Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Ypsilon Bridge Drammen, Norway 59°44′40″N 10°11′43″E / 59.744396°N 10.195313°E / 59.744396; 10.195313 (Ypsilon Bridge) Y-shaped footbridge.
Ypsilon Bridge.jpg
Zanesville Y-Bridge Zanesville, Ohio, United States 39°56′26″N 82°00′52″W / 39.940417°N 82.014306°W / 39.940417; -82.014306 (Zanesville Y-Bridge) Vehicle and pedestrian Y-bridge.
Ohio-Zanesville-Y bridge on M River.jpg

Four-way bridges

Bridge name Location Coordinates Description Image
Bridge over Fondamenta Tre Ponti Venice, Italy 45°26′13.49″N 12°19′11.74″E / 45.4370806°N 12.3199278°E / 45.4370806; 12.3199278 (Bridge over Fondamenta Tre Ponti) Four-way footbridge over the intersection of three canals.
Ponte dei Tre Ponti (Venice).jpg
Bridge over two canals at Les Attaques, France Les Attaques, France 50°53′35.63″N 1°58′11.89″E / 50.8932306°N 1.9699694°E / 50.8932306; 1.9699694 (Bridge over two canals at Les Attaques, France) Four-way vehicle and pedestrian T-bridge over two canals.
Pont sans pareil 01 09.jpg
The Three Bridges (De Tre Broer) Aarhus, Denmark 56°08′38″N 10°10′24″E / 56.14380°N 10.17347°E / 56.14380; 10.17347 (The Three Bridges) Bikeway bridge in H-shape over Arhus River. The bridge has two spans to each of the river banks. They are connected by a longer fifth span in the middle of the river. The middle span passes under 3 railway bridges which crosses the river.
De tre broer.jpg

Five-way bridge

Bridge name Location Coordinates Description Image
Ponte dei Trepponti Comacchio, Italy 44°41′35″N 12°11′00″E / 44.692984°N 12.18329°E / 44.692984; 12.18329 (Treponti) Five-way stone footbridge at the intersection of five canals, built in 1634.[7]
Comacchio-Trepponti-IMG 0231-ter.JPG

References

Media related to Multi-way bridges at Wikimedia Commons

  1. ^ a b "The Tridge – Michigan's Three Way Bridge". Kuriositas. January 2, 2012.
  2. ^ "Y Bridge". Zanesville-Muskingum County Visitors Bureau. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  3. ^ "Aioi Bridge". Hiroshima & Nagasaki Remembered. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  4. ^ a b c Lienhard, John H. "A Tripartite Bridge". The Engines of Our Ingenuity. Retrieved February 23, 2022.
  5. ^ Fenves, Steven J. (1989). "The Greatest Bridge Never Built?". Invention & Technology.
  6. ^ a b "Beautiful Tri-Bridges Around the World". Emorfes. October 21, 2010.
  7. ^ a b c "Tri-Bridges Around the World". November 3, 2012.
  8. ^ "The Krestovy Bridge". The Tsarskoye Selo State Museum-Preserve. Retrieved June 28, 2017.
  9. ^ "Phalia / Malvina" (PDF). Msgw.org. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  10. ^ "Miyoshibashi (the "Y" Bridge), Kyobashi, c. 1930". Old Tokyo. Retrieved May 31, 2021.
  11. ^ "Noabers Badde". Structure. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  12. ^ "Raehills, Wallace's Loup, Footbridge". Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  13. ^ "Sancha Zijin Bridge aka Hama Bridge". Robert Cortright. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  14. ^ Masud Alam, Comilla (September 15, 2018). "PM to open country's first Y-shaped bridge Sunday". Dhaka Tribune.
  15. ^ "Three-Way Bridge". Village of Lyons Falls. Retrieved September 10, 2016.
  16. ^ "Brighton Downtown Development Authority - Standard Streetscape Details" (PDF). City of Brighton. July 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-19. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
  17. ^ "Butterfly Bridge / Dietmar Feichtinger Architectes". ArchDaily. April 19, 2015.