Pineapple is a kind of multiple fruit
Pineapple is a kind of multiple fruit

Multiple fruits, also called collective fruits, are fruiting bodies formed from a cluster of flowers, the inflorescence. Each flower in the inflorescence produces a fruit, but these mature into a single mass.[1] After flowering the mass is called an infructescence.[2][3] Examples are the fig, pineapple, mulberry, osage-orange, and jackfruit.

In contrast, an aggregate fruit such as a raspberry develops from multiple ovaries of a single flower. In languages other than English, the meanings of "multiple" and "aggregate" fruit are reversed, so that multiple fruits merge several pistils within a single flower.[4]

In some cases, the infructescences are similar in appearance to simple fruits. One example is pineapple (Ananas), which is formed from the fusion of the berries with receptacle tissues and bracts.[5][6]

In some plants, such as this noni, flowers are produced continuously and it is possible to see examples of flowering, fruit development and fruit ripening together on a single stem.
In some plants, such as this noni, flowers are produced continuously and it is possible to see examples of flowering, fruit development and fruit ripening together on a single stem.

As shown in the photograph of the noni, stages of flowering and fruit development in the noni or Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia) can be observed on a single branch. First an inflorescence of white flowers called a head is produced. After fertilization, each flower develops into a drupe, and as the drupes expand, they become connate (merge) into a multiple fleshy fruit called a syncarp. There are also many dry multiple fruits.[citation needed]

Other examples of multiple fruits:

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Schlegel (2003-05-13). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Plant Breeding and Related Subjects. p. 282. ISBN 9781560229506.
  2. ^ Hickey, M.; King, C. (2001). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ Beentje, H.; Williamson, J. (2010). The Kew Plant Glossary: an Illustrated Dictionary of Plant Terms. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew: Kew Publishing.
  4. ^ Spjut, R.; Thieret, J. (1989). "Confusion between multiple and aggregate fruits". The Botanical Review. 55 (1): 53–72. doi:10.1007/bf02868781. S2CID 24994626.
  5. ^ "Multiple Fruits, Pineapple Multiple Fruit, Examples of Multiple Fruits, Types of Multiple Fruits". www.fruitsinfo.com. Retrieved 2022-03-18.
  6. ^ "Multiple Fruits". science.jburroughs.org. Retrieved 2022-03-18.