Title page of the first book of J.S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, which covers all 24 major and minor keys.
Title page of the first book of J.S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, which covers all 24 major and minor keys.

There is a long tradition in classical music of writing music in sets of pieces that cover all the major and minor keys of the chromatic scale. These sets typically consist of 24 pieces, one for each of the major and minor keys (sets that comprise all the enharmonic variants include 30 pieces).

Well-known examples include Johann Sebastian Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier and Frédéric Chopin's 24 Preludes, Op. 28. Such sets are often organized as preludes and fugues or designated as preludes or études. Some composers have restricted their sets to cover only the 12 major keys or the 12 minor keys; or only the flat keys (Franz Liszt's Transcendental Études) or the sharp keys (Sergei Lyapunov's Op. 11 set). In yet another type, a single piece may progressively modulate through a set of tonalities, as occurs in Ludwig van Beethoven's Two Preludes through all twelve major keys, Op. 39.

The bulk of works of this type have been written for piano solo, but there also exist sets for piano 4-hands; two pianos; organ; guitar; two guitars; flute; recorder; oboe; violin solo; violin and piano; cello solo; cello and piano; voice and piano; and string quartet. There are examples of attempts to write full sets that, for one reason or another, were never completed (Josef Rheinberger's organ sonatas, Dmitri Shostakovich's string quartets, César Franck's L'Organiste).

Sets that cover all 24 keys

Best-known sets

Some of the best-known examples of works covering all 24 major and minor keys are:

Composers who wrote multiple sets

Picture of Niels Viggo Bentzon, who wrote 14 complete sets of 24 Preludes and Fugues.
Picture of Niels Viggo Bentzon, who wrote 14 complete sets of 24 Preludes and Fugues.

A number of composers have not been content with just one set of works covering all the keys of the scale. For instance, Niels Viggo Bentzon wrote no fewer than 14 complete sets of 24 Preludes and Fugues, a total of 336 pieces in this genre alone.[2][3] Others who have written more than one set include:


Single pieces that modulate through many keys

Ludwig van Beethoven wrote 2 Preludes through all 12 Major Keys, Op. 39 for piano (1789).[b] These two preludes each progressively traverse the 12 major keys. In Prelude No. 1, each key occupies from 2 to 26 bars. The keys of C and D, which are enharmonically equivalent, are both represented. C major both opens and closes the set. In Prelude No. 2, the cycle of keys appears twice; in the first cycle, the number of bars per key ranges from 1 to 8; in the second half, after C every new key signature lasts for only one bar; the cycle concludes with 15 bars of C major. There is no evidence that Beethoven intended to write similar sets in the 12 minor keys.

Giovanni Battista Vitali (1632–1692) included in Artificii musicali, Op. 13 (1689) a passacaglia which modulates through eight major keys (out of twelve) from E major to E major through the cycle of fifths.

The eighth fugue from Reicha's 36 Fugues.

Fugue No. 8 from Anton Reicha's Trente six Fugues pour le Piano-Forté composées d'après un nouveau systême (subtitled Cercle harmonique) modulates through all keys.

The rondo theme of Darius Milhaud's Le bœuf sur le toit is played fifteen times in all 12 major keys (twice in A major and thrice in the tonic, C major). It also passes through every minor key except E minor and B minor.

Works covering all eight church modes

Around 1704, Johann Pachelbel completed his 95 Magnificat Fugues, which covered all eight of the church modes.

Charles-Valentin Alkan composed Petits préludes sur les huit gammes du plain-chant, for organ (1859, no opus number), a sequence of eight organ preludes covering each of the church modes.

In the music of the Eastern Orthodox Church, the doxasticon for Vespers of the Dormition is notable as a single hymn that includes passages in all eight tones of the Byzantine Octoechos.[5]

Other sets of 24 pieces

Not all sets of 24 pieces belong in this category. For example, there was no intention in Niccolò Paganini's 24 Caprices for solo violin, Claude Debussy's 24 Préludes for piano, or Pavel Zemek Novak's 24 Preludes and Fugues for piano[6] to cover all the keys. (Paganini may not have been aware of Pierre Rode's 24 Caprices for violin, which did span the 24 keys and were written almost at the same time as Paganini's.)

Chopin's 24 Études, Opp. 10 & 25 might have originally been planned to be in all 24 keys. In fact, apart from Nos. 7 and 8, the first series (Op. 10) is made of couples of études in a major key and its parallel minor (the major key either preceding the minor key or following it) with none of the tonalities occurring twice (except for C major, which appears in No. 1 and then in the only couple which is not major-minor, i.e. Nos. 7 and 8). But in the second series (Op. 25) this tonal scheme gets more and more loose. It is still possible to see connections on a tonal basis between the couples of études in Op. 25, but they are not based on one principle (e.g. Nos. 3 and 4 in F major – A minor, two tonalities which Chopin likes to put together very often, as in his second Ballade).

One might suppose that Chopin considered writing the études in all the tonalities but eventually came to the conclusion that it wasn't practical and turned back to it later, for the 24 Preludes, Op. 28. The fact that the first étude of Op. 10 is made of arpeggios in C major draws a connection to Bach's first book of The Well-Tempered Clavier and makes it clear that Chopin had the tradition on his mind.[original research?]


Bach and his precursors

See also: The Well-Tempered Clavier § Precursors

Johann Sebastian Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, two complete sets of 24 Preludes and Fugues written for keyboard in 1722 and 1742, and often known as "the 48", is generally considered the greatest example of music traversing all 24 keys. Many later composers clearly modelled their sets on Bach's, including the order of the keys.

It was long believed that Bach had taken the title The Well-Tempered Clavier from a similarly named set of 24 Preludes and Fugues in all the keys, for which a manuscript dated 1689 was found in the library of the Brussels Conservatoire. It was later shown that this was the work of a composer who was not even born by 1689: Bernhard Christian Weber (1712–1758). In fact, the work was written in 1745–50 in imitation of Bach's example.[7][8] While Bach can safely claim the title The Well-Tempered Clavier, he was not the earliest composer to write sets of pieces in all the keys:

As early as 1567, Giacomo Gorzanis [it; de; ca; fr] (c.1520–c.1577) wrote a cycle of 24 passamezzo–saltarello pairs.[citation needed] In 1584, Vincenzo Galilei, father of Galileo Galilei, wrote a Codex of pieces illustrating the use of all 24 major and minor keys.[9][citation needed]

In 1640, Angelo Michele Bartolotti wrote Libro primo di chitarra spagnola, a cycle of passacaglias that moves through all 24 major and minor keys according to the circle of fifths.[10] Also in 1640, Antonio Carbonchi wrote Sonate di chitarra spagnola con intavolatura franzese for guitar.[11]

In 1702, Johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer wrote a cycle of 20 organ pieces all in different keys in his Ariadne musica. These included E major as well as E in Phrygian mode and again in Dorian mode, but not E minor per se. They also excluded C/D major, D/E minor, F/G major, G/A minor, and A/B minor. Bach modelled the sequence of his 48 Preludes on Fischer's example.[3]

In 1735, between Bach's two sets, Johann Christian Schickhardt wrote his L'alphabet de la musique, Op. 30, which contained 24 sonatas for flute, violin, or recorder in all keys.[12] In 1749, the year before Bach's death, Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, the inspiration for J.S. Bach's Goldberg Variations, wrote his own 24 polonaises for keyboard, one in each of the major and minor keys.[13] Other examples include works by John Wilson (1595–1674), Daniel Croner (1682), Christoph Graupner (1718), Johann Mattheson (1719), Friedrich Suppig (1722), and Johann David Heinichen (1683–1729).

After Bach

The following is an incomplete list of works of this type that have been written since the death of J.S. Bach. (Legend: 5C = circle of fifths)

18th and 19th centuries

Composer Work Instrument Date Order Comments
Étienne Ozi Nouvelle méthode de basson bassoon 1787 Also, for two bassoons; or bassoon and cello or double bass[14]
Johann Christian Kittel 16 Preludes in all the keys organ ? These preludes span C to G, major and minor. Kittel evidently intended to write 24 preludes, in honour of his teacher J.S. Bach, but the work was left unfinished.[15]
Lev Gurilyov 24 Préludes et une Fugue piano pub. 1810 5C[c] First mentioned in a MA thesis by Matthew J. Roy, 2012.[16] Further comment on style and importance in an article by Wendelin Bitzan.[17]
Muzio Clementi Préludes et exercices dans tous les tons majeurs et mineurs piano 1811 [d] These were appended to the 5th edition of Clementi's Introduction to the Art of Playing on the Piano Forte[18] There is one prelude and exercise for each key, and the set concludes with a "Grande Exercice" that progressively modulates through all the keys but in a somewhat different order than the foregoing; further, the "Grande Exercice" uses G major where the individual pieces use F major.[19]
Philip Seydler (1765–1819) XXIV grands Caprices pour une Flûte flute 1810–12 5C[e] [20]
Johann Nepomuk Hummel 24 Preludes, Op. 67 piano 1815 5C[e] The first such collection for keyboard in which the preludes are neither paired with fugues nor serve as an introduction to a suite.[21] Some preludes are as short as five bars and unsuitable for concert performance[22]
Pierre Rode 24 Caprices en forme d'études violin solo pub. 1815 5C[e] [23][24][25]
Friedrich Kalkbrenner 24 Etüden durch alle Tonarten, Op. 20 piano 1816 [22]
Charles Chaulieu 24 petits préludes: dans les tons majeurs et mineurs, Op. 9 piano 1820 [3][26]
Christian Heinrich Rinck 30 Préludes dans tous les tons majeurs et mineurs, Op. 55/37–66 organ before 1821 [f] The 30 Préludes for organ are part of Rinck's Practical Organ School, Op. 55, a collection of 117 pieces. They contain both members of all six enharmonically-equivalent key pairs, including the extremely rare keys of A minor and C major[27][28]
Christian Heinrich Rinck Exercices à deux parties dans tous les tons, Op. 67 piano 1821 The set includes a piece in A minor.[29]
Ignaz Moscheles 24 Études, Op. 70 piano 1825–26 [g] Studien für das Pianoforte, zur höhern Vollendung bereits ausgebildeter Clavierspieler, bestehend aus 24 characteristischen Tonstücken[30]
Bartolomeo Campagnoli 30 Preludes in 30 different keys violin ? [h] These cover all 30 keys that use up to 7 sharps or 7 flats[31]
Friedrich Kalkbrenner 24 Preludes, Op. 88 piano 1827 [22]
Joseph Christoph Kessler 24 Études, Op. 20 piano 1827 5C[e] The 24 Études were dedicated to Hummel.
Joseph Christoph Kessler 24 Preludes, Op. 31 piano c. 1829 5C[e] The 24 Preludes were published in 1835[32] and dedicated to Chopin, who a decade later, dedicated the German edition of his 24 Preludes, Op. 28 to Kessler.
Henri Herz Exercices et préludes, Op. 21 piano c. 1830 Dedicated to Hummel[33]
Ignaz Moscheles 50 Preludes, Op. 73 piano c. 1830 This set includes only two enharmonic pairs: D/C major and G/F major. The keys of A minor, D minor, A minor, and C major are not represented.[34]
Johann Nepomuk Hummel 24 Études, Op. 125 piano c. 1834 [35]
Carl Czerny Grand Exercise in All the Keys, major & minor, Op. 152 piano ?
Carl Czerny Grand Exercise in 3rds in all the 24 Keys, Op. 380 piano 1836
Louise Farrenc 30 Études dans tous les tons majeurs et mineurs, Op. 26 piano 1837–38 This set, despite including 30 pieces, includes no enharmonic pairs at all. The versions of the six keys which have enharmonic pairs used are B major, G minor, F major, E minor, D major, and B minor. The thirty pieces are filled out by duplicating six keys with fewer sharps or flats.[36]
Adolf von Henselt 12 Etudes caractéristiques, Op. 2 piano 1838 [i] These two sets collectively cover all 24 major and minor keys
12 Etudes de salon, Op. 5 [j]
Frédéric Chopin 24 Preludes, Op. 28 piano 1835–39 5C[e] Dedicated to Camille Pleyel (French edition) and Kessler (German edition)
Edward Wolff (1816–1880) 24 Études en forme de Préludes, Op. 20 piano ? Wolff was a friend of Chopin's.[37]
Ferdinand David Bunte Reihe, Op. 30 violin and piano c. 1840 Published in 1851.[38] The set was arranged by Franz Liszt for solo piano in 1850 (S. 484)[39]
August Klengel Les Avant-coureurs, 24 canons piano 1841 This was either "patterned after Bach"[40] or "a kind of preparation" for Bach's 48.[41] After Klengel's death, Hauptmann edited and published Klengel's 48 Canons and Fugues, writing "he expressed his own thoughts in the way in which Bach would have done had he lived at the present day"[42]
Stefano Golinelli 24 Preludes, Op. 23 piano 1845 [43]
Caspar Kummer 24 Études mélodiques, Op. 110 flute solo 1846 5C[e] [44] Étude No. 13 is shown in 2 versions, F major and G major; No. 14 as D minor and E minor
Charles-Valentin Alkan 25 Preludes in all major and minor keys, Op. 31 piano 1847 The sequence of keys moves alternately up a fourth and down a third. The 24 keys conclude with a final Prayer in C major.[45][46]
Charles-Valentin Alkan 12 Études in all the major keys, Op. 35 piano 1848 5C[k] These were complemented by the 12 minor key études, Op. 39 (1857)
Anton Bernhard Fürstenau 26 Uebungen (Exercises), Op.107 flute solo ? [47]
Franz Liszt 12 Transcendental Études, S. 139 piano 1826–52 These covered the neutral and flat keys only. Liszt originally planned to write the full suite of 24 études but apparently abandoned this plan. See Sergei Lyapunov below.
William Sterndale Bennett 30 Preludes and Lessons, Op. 33 piano 1851–53 5C[e] Includes major and minor keys with 7 sharps or flats: C major, A minor, C major, A minor.
Stephen Heller 24 Preludes, Op. 81 piano 1853 5C[e] [48]
Ferdinand Hiller 24 Esquisses et études rhythmiques, Op.56 piano 1854 [l] [49]
Charles-Valentin Alkan 12 Études in all the minor keys, Op. 39 piano 1857 5C[m] These complete the sequence that was started with the 12 Études in all the major keys, Op. 35. Études 4–7 comprise the Symphony for Solo Piano, and Études 8–10 make up the Concerto for Solo Piano.
Carl Czerny The Pianist in the Classical Style, 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 856 piano 1857 5C 24 Preludes and 24 Fugues[50]
Giuseppe Concone (1801–61) 24 Brilliant Preludes, Op. 37 piano ? [n] [51]
Heinrich Wilhelm Stolze (1801–1868) 24 Fugues with preludes organ 1861 Pupil of Johann Christian Kittel. The collection was published as part 4 of his organ method and is entitled The Well-Tempered Organ in reference to Bach.
Charles-Valentin Alkan Esquisses, Op. 63, 49 short pieces piano 1861 Consists of 49 pieces in 4 books, which cover all the major and minor keys twice and end with a final Laus Deo in C major.
Jean-Delphin Alard 24 Études-Caprices, Op. 41 violin 1865 [52]
Adolf Jensen 25 Études, Op. 32 piano 1866 5C[e] + 1 This set employs the circle of fifths for the first 24 preludes, and concludes with an additional prelude in C major
Paul Barbot L'art de préluder au piano: 72 préludes mélodiques dans tous les tons, Op. 94 piano 1868 5C There are three preludes in each key, making 72 in all [53]
Ferdinand David Dur und Moll: 25 Etüden, Capricen und Charakterstücke in allen Tonarten, Op. 39 violin solo, or violin and piano ? [54][55]
Ferruccio Busoni 24 Preludes, Op. 37, BV. 181 piano May 1881 5C[e] Busoni had just turned 15 when he wrote this work. It has been recorded by Daniele Petralia,[56] Geoffrey Douglas Madge,[57] Holger Groschopp[58] and Trevor Barnard.[59][60][61]
Adolf von Henselt Préambules dans tous les tons piano 1884 [62]
Sebastian Lee 30 Präludien in allen Tonarten, Op. 122 cello solo 1885 [63]
Richard Hofmann 32 Special-Etüden, Op. 52 piano 1886 [64]
Felix Blumenfeld 24 Preludes, Op. 17 piano 1892 5C[e] Philip Thomson made the world premiere recording in 1999[65]
Emil Krause 24 Praeludien und Cadenzen, Op. 71 piano 1892
José Antonio Santesteban 24 Preludes, Op. 84 piano 1892 [66]
Anton Arensky 24 Morceaux caractéristiques, Op. 36 piano 1894 [o] [67]
Alexander Scriabin 24 Preludes, Op. 11 piano 1893–95 5C[e] Scriabin chose G over F. He seems to have set out to write a further set of 24 preludes, and the 23 preludes of Opp. 13, 15, 16 and 17 (containing 6, 5, 5 and 7 preludes respectively) contain evidence of this, but he obviously moved away from his original idea as the key sequence breaks down.[68]
Max Reger 111 Canons in all major and minor tonalities piano 1895 [69]
August Winding Preludes in all the keys: A Cycle, Op. 26 piano ? [p] The work is in 25 parts: 24 preludes, ordered by ascending fourths (increasing flats, decreasing sharps), and a final Postludium in C major. It is dedicated to Isidor Seiss.
Richard Hofmann 50 leichte, melodische Studien in der ersten Lage u. in allen Tonarten, Op. 107 piano 1899 [64]
40 melodische Studien in allen Lagen u. Tonarten, Op. 108
Johan Adam Krygell Moll und Dur, 24 preludes and fugues organ 1893 [70] All minor keys followed by all major keys
Josef Rheinberger 20 sonatas organ [q] Opp. 27, 65, 88, 98, 111, 119, 127, 132, 142, 146, 148, 154, 161, 165, 168, 175, 181, 188, 193, 196; Rheinberger set out to write 24 organ sonatas, one in each key. He completed 20 of these before his death in 1901.[71]

20th century

Composer Work Instrument Date Order Comments
César Cui 25 Preludes, Op. 64 piano 1903 [r] [72] Cui's order of keys is unique in that each major key is followed by the minor of its mediant (e.g. C major to E minor). It includes a 25th prelude in C major.[73]
Sergei Lyapunov 12 Études d'exécution transcendante, Op. 11 piano 1897–1905 This set complements Franz Liszt's set of 12 Transcendental Études from 1826 to 1852 (which was written in neutral and flat keys only) by employing the remaining sharp keys. It is dedicated to Liszt's memory.[1]
Jean-Henri Ravina 100 Préludes dans tous les tons majeurs et mineurs, Op. 110 piano ? [74]
Reinhold Glière 25 Preludes, Op. 30 piano 1907 [s] [75]
Selim Palmgren 24 Preludes, Op. 17 piano 1907 [t]
Emil Sjögren Legends: Religious Moods (Swedish: Legender: religiösa stämningar) Op. 46 organ 1907 Based on fragments of his famous improvisations in St. John's Church, Stockholm. Divided into two volumes: the first follows the first half of the circle of fifths completely from C major to G minor; in the second volume, the order instead is from F major to E minor.
Richard Hofmann Elementar-Studien für Violine, op. 129 violin solo 1909 [64]
Ludvig Schytte Melodische Vortragsstudien in allen Tonarten, Op. 159 piano 1909 [76]
Hans Sitt Dur und Moll: 28 leichte melodische Etüden für Violine (erste Lage) zur Befestigung der Intonation in allen Tonarten, Op. 107 violin solo 1909 [77]
Sergei Rachmaninoff 24 Preludes, Opp. 3/2, 23, 32 piano 1892–1910 [u] The Prelude in C minor, Op. 3/2, was part of a collection of pieces, and there is no evidence Rachmaninoff had at that stage planned to write 24 preludes traversing all the keys. Between 1901 and 1903, he wrote 10 Preludes, Op. 23, and in 1910, he completed the 24 with his 13 Preludes, Op. 32.[78]
Blas María de Colomer 24 Préludes mélodiques piano 1910 5C[e] [79]
Raoul Koczalski 24 Preludes, Op. 65 piano 1910 5C [80]
Hans Huber 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 100 piano 4-hands [3] Many sources inexplicably say there were only 12 pieces in the set, while at the same time listing 24
Louis Vierne Vingt-quatre Pièces en style libre, Op. 31 organ 1913 [81]
Frederick Septimus Kelly 24 Monographs, Op. 11 piano 1914-16 Brief pieces, all major and minor keys[82]
Erkki Melartin 24 Preludes, Op. 85 piano 1916 [v] [83]
Georg Schumann Durch Dur und Moll, Op. 61 piano 1916 [s] [84]
Walter Niemann 24 Preludes, Op. 55 piano 1918 [85]
Charles Villiers Stanford 24 Preludes, Set I, Op. 163 piano 1918 Set I has been recorded by Peter Jacobs.[86][87]
Charles Villiers Stanford 24 Preludes, Set II, Op. 179 piano 1920 Set II was completed in December 1920, not in 1921 as many sources report.[88]
Robert Casadesus 24 Preludes piano 1924
Alexander Wunderer 24 Etüden in allen Tonarten oboe solo pub. 1924 [s] [89] The 11th Etüde bears a striking similarity to the 11th variation of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov's Variations on a Theme of Glinka, for oboe and military band.[90]
Mieczysław Surzyński (1866-1924) 55 Easy Preludes, Op. 20 piano or organ ? A collection of 55 pieces in all keys, in groups of 2 or 3 in each key; they have titles such as Moderato, Sostenuto, Andante, Allegretto, Lento etc.
Gustav Struempl (1855–1927) 24 Preludes, Op. 16 piano ? [91]
Samuel Maykapar Biriulki (Spillikins), Op. 28, 26 pieces piano 1926 Cycle of 26 children pieces (with program titles) in all 24 major and minor keys (including two times in C major and A minor) in a special order of 3 sets:

Set I: 8 pieces (1–8) in the fifths circle order from C major to F minor

Set II: 8 pieces (9–16) in the fifths circle order from C major to C minor

Set III: 10 pieces (17–26) in the fifths circle order from E major to G minor (17–20), than from A major to B minor (21–24), than the rest 2 pieces in F major and E minor (25–26)[clarification needed]

Louis Vierne Pièces de fantaisie, 4 books, Opp. 51, 53–55 organ 1926–27 [w] [81]
Abram Chasins 24 Preludes piano 1927 [x] Published in 4 books, Opp. 10-13
Manuel Ponce 24 Preludes guitar c. 1929 Twelve of these were published by Andrés Segovia in 1930, but the remainder had to wait for the guitarist Miguel Alcazar to reconstruct them from Ponce's manuscripts before being published in 1981.[92][93]
François Demierre (1893–1976) 24 Préludes dans tous les tons majeurs et mineurs[94] piano 1932 Swiss-French organist and teacher; his first wife was the sister of Ernest Ansermet.[95]
Dmitri Shostakovich 24 Preludes, Op. 34 piano 1932–33 5C[e] [96] See also 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 87 (1950–51).
Ivan Wyschnegradsky 24 Préludes dans tous les tons de l'échelle chromatique diatonisée à 13 sons Op. 22 2 pianos in quarter tones 1934 (revised 1960) Ed. Belaieff. In 13-tone diatonicised chromaticism[97]
Valery Zhelobinsky 24 Preludes, Op. 20 piano 1934 [s] Zhelobinsky uses Bach's sequence of keys, but Prelude No. 22, although it is effectively in B minor, has a key signature with 6 flats, as if it were written in E minor (like Prelude No. 8). Most C naturals in this prelude are arrived at via the use of accidentals, while C, which would have required accidentals had the true key signature with only 5 flats been used, requires no alteration.[98]
Vsevolod Zaderatsky 24 Preludes piano 1934 [99]
Boris Goltz 24 Preludes, Op. 2 piano 1934–35 [100] Goltz used the key order of Chopin [101]
Charles Koechlin Fifteen Vocalises in all major keys, Op. 152 voice and piano Aug–Sep 1935 [102]
Charles Koechlin Fifteen Vocalises in all minor keys, Op. 154 voice and piano Oct. 1935 [102]
Viktor Kosenko Twenty-four Pieces for Children, Op. 25 Piano 1936 5C[e] Erroneously published in 1938 as Op. 15, but later corrected by Musichna Ukraina.
Vsevolod Zaderatsky 24 Preludes and Fugues piano 1937–38 [103]
Algernon Ashton 24 string quartets string quartet ? The set was lost, possibly destroyed in WWII bombing.[104] Ashton also wrote 8 piano sonatas,[104] all in different keys,[105] and it may be that he planned to complete a cycle of 24 of them as well. One source says he wrote 24 Preludes and Fugues,[106] but this is not corroborated.
Semyon Barmotin (1877-1939) 20 Preludes, Op, 12 piano ? [y] Only 20 pieces were ever completed, covering 20 keys
Roger Sacheverell Coke 24 Preludes, Op. 33 and Op. 34 piano 1938–41 5C[e] Two sets, Op. 33 containing eleven, and Op. 34 thirteen.[107][108]
David Diamond 52 Preludes and Fugues piano 1939–42 [3][106] The first recording that Leonard Bernstein ever made included one pair (the Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in C major).[109]
Joseph Jongen Vingt-quatre petits préludes pour piano dans tous les tons, Op. 116[110] piano 1941 [111] At least some of them exist in a version for organ.[112]
Paul Hindemith Ludus Tonalis, 25 movements piano 1942 [z] The work consists of a prelude, 11 interludes, and a postlude, each separated by 12 fugues[3]
Dmitry Kabalevsky 24 Preludes, Op. 38 piano 1943–44 5C[e]
Julius Weismann Der Fugenbaum (The Fugue Tree), 24 Preludes and Fugues in all the keys, Op. 150 piano 1946 [106]
Matvei Gozenpud 24 Preludes, Op. 53 piano 1947 [113]
Craig Sellar Lang A miniature 48; two books of short preludes & fugues in all keys, Op. 64 piano 1949 [3]
York Bowen 24 Preludes, Op. 102 piano 1938–50 [s]
Dmitri Shostakovich 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 87 piano 1950–51 5C[e] See also 24 Preludes, Op. 34 (1932–33). In both these cases, Shostakovich adhered to Chopin's order of keys, although he was greatly influenced by Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier and even quoted parts of that work in Op. 87.
Franciszek Zachara New Well-Tempered Clavicord for the Piano piano 1950s 24 sets of preludes and fugues in all major and minor keys, with an additional 25th prelude and fugue (on a theme from Ernő Dohnányi) added at the end.
Hans Gál 24 Preludes, Op. 83 piano 1959–60 Written during a fortnight's hospital stay, as a birthday present to himself; FP October 1960, composer, Edinburgh Society of Musicians.[114]
Gara Garayev 24 Preludes piano 1951–63 5C[e] [115] [116]
Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco Les Guitares bien tempérées (The Well-Tempered Guitars), 24 préludes et fugues, Op. 199 2 guitars 1962 [aa] Described as "the longest and most important cycle of works for two guitars ever composed", the 200-page score was written between 8 March and 3 June 1962, in response to performances by the popular husband-wife duo Ida Presti and Alexandre Lagoya[117]
Gunnar de Frumerie Circulus Quintus Op. 62, 24 piano pieces piano 1965 Some have names which suggest the character of the piece such as "Siciliano", "Tarantella", or "Gavotte". As in the case of Emil Sjögren's Legends for organ, the collection is divided in two volumes, where the first has the pieces ordered in a perfect half-circle of fifths from C major to G minor, and the second volume is ordered in a half-circle of fifths backwards, i.e. starting with F major and ending with E minor.
Richard Cumming 24 Preludes piano 1966–69 Commissioned by John Browning, who stipulated they should be "as hard as possible", gave the world premiere in 1969 and recorded them[118][119][120]
Rodion Shchedrin 24 Preludes and Fugues, in 2 volumes piano 1964–70 5C[e] Shchedrin premiered Vol. I in Moscow in 1965 and the complete cycle in 1971. Dedicated to the memory of his father.[121]
Dmitri Shostakovich 15 string quartets string quartet 1938–74 Shostakovich planned to write 24 string quartets, one each in a different key, but completed only 15 before his death.[122]
Sulkhan Tsintsadze 24 Preludes piano 1971 5C[e]
Alan Bush 24 Preludes, Op. 84 piano 1977 Composer gave the first performance at the Wigmore Hall on 30 October 1977.[123]
Hans Gál 24 Fugues, Op. 108 piano 1979–80 Written as a 90th birthday present to himself.[124]
Hiroshi Hara (1933–2002) 24 Preludes & Fugues piano 1981 [3]
Jaan Rääts 24 Marginalia, Op. 68 2 pianos 1982 [125]
Alexander Iakovtchouk (b. 1952) 24 Preludes and Fugues piano 1983 [3]
John McLeod (b. 1934) Twelve Preludes[126] piano 1984 Cycle of Preludes related by key. Commissioned by Richard Orlando Thompson. Premiered 30 September 1984, Purcell Room, London
Anthony Burgess The Bad-Tempered Electronic Keyboard piano Nov–Dec 1985 24 preludes and fugues + a closing "Finale: Natale", written for the 300th anniversary of the birth of Johann Sebastian Bach[127]
Geoff Cummings-Knight (b. 1947) 24 Preludes piano 1985 Published by Roberton Publications in 1987. Premiered at the British Music Information Centre, London, 29 October 1991.[128]
Dave Smith (b. 1949) First Piano Concert (24 sonatas in all the keys) piano 1985–86
Igor Rekhin (b. 1941) 24 Preludes and Fugues[129][130][131] guitar 1985–90 [s]
Nikolai Kapustin 24 Preludes in Jazz Style, Op. 53 piano 1988 5C[e] [132]
Jaan Rääts 24 Estonian Preludes, Op. 80 piano 1988 [125]
Igor Rekhin (b. 1941) 24 Caprices[133][134] cello solo 1991 [s]
David Cope The Well-Tempered Disklavier, 48 preludes and fugues piano 1991 [3]
Sergei Slonimsky 24 Preludes and Fugues piano 1994 Inspired to create this cycle after listening to Glenn Gould's recording of The Well-Tempered Clavier on New Year's Eve, 1993. The cycle was dedicated to the memory of A. N. Dolzhansky. It follows Bach's key organization, ascending in chromatic order from C major to B minor.[121]
Trygve Madsen 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 101 piano 1995–96 [3]
Howard Blake Lifestyle, Op. 489: 24 pieces Piano 1996 [135] [136]
Nikolai Kapustin 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 82 piano 1997 The major keys tour the circle of fifths in the flat direction (beginning with C major and ending with G major), while the minor keys tour in the same mode but begin at the other side of the circle (starting with G minor and ending with E minor). This has the effect of juxtaposing very unrelated keys, and spacing relative majors and minors as far apart from one another as possible.[137]
Ron Weidberg Voyage to the End of the Millennium: 24 Preludes and Fugues piano 1997–98 [138]
Lera Auerbach 24 Preludes, Op. 41 piano 1999 5C[e] [92][139]
24 Preludes, Op. 46 violin and piano
24 Preludes, Op. 47 cello and piano
Niels Viggo Bentzon Det temperede klaver, 14 sets each containing 24 Preludes and Fugues piano ? Opp. 157, 379, 400, 409, 428, 470, 530, 532, 541, 542, 546, 554, 633, 638[2][3]
Henry Martin (b. 1950) 24 Preludes and Fugues piano 1990–2000 [3]
John Ramsden Williamson (b. 1929) Palindromic Preludes (at least 8 sets of 12), New Preludes piano 1993–2000 These sets generally consist of 12 major or minor keys[140][141][142][143]

21st century

Composer Work Instrument Date Order Comments
Daniel Padrón (b. 1966) 24 Nocturnes piano c. 2002
Anthony Ritchie (b. 1960) 24 Preludes piano 2002 Using the mathematical concept of the magic square[144]
Rob Peters 24 Preludes, Op. 119 organ 2003 [145]
Wim Zwaag (b. 1960) 24 Preludes piano 2004 Premiered in April 2007 by Paul Komen at the Bethaniënklooster, Amsterdam[146]
Edward Cowie 24 Preludes piano 2004–2005 Vol 1 – Book 1 (Water); Book 2 (Air); Vol 2 – Book 3 (Earth); Book 4 (Fire). [147][148]
Jeroen van Veen 24 Minimal Preludes, 2 Books piano 1999–2006 5C[e] Book I, 1999–2003; Book II, 2004–06 [149]
Mark Alburger Standards: 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 162 piano 2008 [3]
Marc-André Hamelin Twelve Etudes in All the Minor Keys piano 1986–2008 5C[ab] Each etude has a title.
Francis Routh The Well-Tempered Pianist, op 77 piano 2009–2010 These 24 Preludes are based on a seven-note scale consisting of the six notes of the whole–tone scale with the addition of the perfect fourth [150]
Michelle Gorrell Well-Tempered Licks & Grooves: 24 Preludes & Fugues in Jazz Styles piano 2010 [3]
Leslie Howard 24 Classical Preludes for Piano, Op. 25 piano ? Each prelude is written in the style of a different composer
Shuwen Zhang (b. 1991) The 24 Chinese Solar Terms piano or harpsichord 2011–2012 [ac]
Lawrence Chandler The Tuning of the World string quartet 2012
Steven O'Brien 24 Preludes, Op. 2 piano 2012 [151]
Michael Brough (b. 1960) 25 Picture-Preludes for Piano, Op. 19 piano 2013–14 All the major and minor keys and a central piece in no (open) key
Christopher Brown (b. 1943) 24 Preludes and Fugues, Op. 98 piano 2018 [152][153]
Howard Skempton 24 Preludes and Fugues piano 2019 Preludes are all canons – ordered chromatically,

ascending and descending. Duration 23 minutes [154]

Agnes W. Ascher (b. 1980) Alltagsfluchten: 24 wohltemperierte Kontrapunkte, aus dem Leben gegriffen und zu besonderem Zeitvertreib aufgesetzt und verfertigt von Agnes W. Ascher, Op. 2 (Escapes/Fugitives from Everyday-life: 24 Well-tempered Counterpoint, Taken from Life, Composed and Made for Special Diversion by Agnes W. Ascher, Op. 2) piano(s) 2019–2020 Fugues and fugal movements over everyday life melodies (from ringtones and children's songs to popular, film, tv and classical music; simple, double, triple and quadrupel fugues; multithematic fantasies), ordered chromatically, duration ca. 60 minutes[155]


There are 12 notes in the octave, and each of them can be the tonic of one major and one minor key. This gives 24 possible keys, but each note can be represented by several enharmonic note names (note names which designate the same actual note in the 12 note octave such as G and A) and so each key can be represented by several enharmonic key names (e.g. G minor and A minor).

In practice, the choice of key name is restricted to the 30 keys whose signatures have no double flats or double sharps. (Such key signatures are used for so-called theoretical keys which are almost never encountered outside music-theoretical exercises.)[ad] Keys with 6 flats and 6 sharps,[ae] with 7 flats and 5 sharps[af] and with 5 flats and 7 sharps[ag] are enharmonic to one another. Composers will, in most (though not all) cases, choose only one key from each enharmonic pair. But there are also cases of sets covering all 30 keys, which, in other words, include all enharmonic variants.

The table below outlines the choices made in the various collections listed here. The keys are in the order that J.S. Bach used.

Key Key signature Comments
1 C major No sharps or flats
2 C minor 3 flats
3 Either C major 7 sharps Bach and Alkan chose C major, but most composers have preferred D major
or D major 5 flats
4 C minor 4 sharps
5 D major 2 sharps
6 D minor 1 flat
7 E major 3 flats
8 Either D minor 6 sharps Most composers of sets of 24 pieces have preferred E minor over D minor. Bach, Lyapunov and Ponce are among the few who have used D. The first use of D minor was in Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, in Fugue No. 8 from Book 1 (although its corresponding Prelude was written in E minor), while D minor was used for both the Prelude and the Fugue in Book 2. Another is in Lyapunov's Étude d'execution transcendante No. 2, subtitled "Ronde des Fantômes"
or E minor 6 flats
9 E major 4 sharps
10 E minor 1 sharp
11 F major 1 flat
12 F minor 4 flats
13 Either F major 6 sharps F major was the choice of Bach, Hummel, Chopin, Heller, Busoni, Lyapunov, Arensky, Blumenfeld, Ponce and Shostakovich.
G major was preferred by Alkan, Rachmaninoff, Scriabin, Shchedrin, Stanford and Winding.
or G major 6 flats
14 F minor 3 sharps
15 G major 1 sharp
16 G minor 2 flats
17 A major 4 flats
18 Either G minor 5 sharps Alkan wrote a piece in A minor, and Brahms a fugue in this key, but most composers have preferred G minor.
or A minor 7 flats
19 A major 3 sharps
20 A minor No sharps or flats
21 B major 2 flats
22 Either B minor 5 flats No well-known sets of 24 pieces include A minor. Two examples are from Bartolomeo Campagnoli's 30 Preludes for violin, and Christian Heinrich Rinck's 30 Préludes from his Practical Organ School, Op. 55, published before 1821.[27]
or A minor 7 sharps
23 Either B major 5 sharps No well-known sets of 24 pieces include C major. While C major is sometimes used in compositions (particularly for the harp, which is especially suited to this key), it is not generally considered one of the standard keys because it is enharmonically equivalent to B major. With its tonic note C – enharmonically B –- being a white key on the piano, and its parallel minor (relative to E major) having 10 flats, its usage is generally undesirable. It is very rare for a set of pieces covering all the keys to include a piece in C major. C major does appear in Campagnoli's and Rinck's works mentioned above, along with A minor, but those collections include both members of all six enharmonically equivalent pairs.[157]
or C major 7 flats
24 B minor 2 sharps

Order of keys in published works

The circle of fifths, whereby each major key is followed by its relative minor key, is a commonly used schema. Angelo Michele Bartolotti used this approach as early as 1640, and it was also adopted by such later composers as Rode, Hummel, Chopin, Heller, Busoni, Scriabin, Shostakovich, Kabalevsky and Kapustin.

In J.S. Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier and some other earlier sets, major keys were followed by their parallel minor keys. The Bach order was adopted by Arensky, Glière, York Bowen and others.

Other composers derived their own schemas based on certain logical rationales. For example, in Alkan’s 25 Preludes, Op. 31, the sequence of keys moves alternately up a fourth and down a third: the major keys take the odd-numbered positions in the cycle, proceeding chromatically upwards from C to C again, and each major key is followed by its subdominant minor.

Yet others used no systematic ordering. Palmgren, Rachmaninoff and Castelnuovo-Tedesco's works are examples of this.


  1. ^ The number is 48 as preludes and fugues are counted separately
  2. ^ C, G, D, A, E, B, F, C, D, A, E, B, F
  3. ^ Arranged in a circle of fifths with major keys preceding the minor keys: C, G, D, A etc.; a, e, b ... d.
  4. ^ Préludes et exercices: C, a, F, d, G, e, B, g, D, b, E, c, A, f, A, f, E, c, D, b, B, g, F, e; Grande Exercice: C, a, F, d, B, g, E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e, B, g, E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Arranged in a circle of fifths, as alternating major and relative minor keys: C, a, G, e, D, b, A, f, E, c, B, g, F, e, D, b, A, f, E, c, B, g, F, d. Alexander Scriabin, Rodion Shchedrin et al. chose G over F, but this does not affect the essential integrity of the scheme.
  6. ^ C, a, G, e, D, b, A, f, E, c, B, g, F, d, C, a, F, d, B, g, E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e, C, a
  7. ^ C, e, G, E, a, d, B, e, A, b, E, b, D, g, a, B, f, F, A, c, D, F, c, f. The A minor étude is notated with a 4-flat key signature (ostensibly A major) and uses accidentals to achieve the correct tonality.
  8. ^ C, a, G, e, D, b, A, f, E, c, B, g, F, d, C, a, C, a, G, e, D, b, A, f, E, c, B, g, F, d
  9. ^ d, D, b, B, c, F, D, e, F, e, E, b
  10. ^ c, G, a, E, f, A, C, g, A, f, B, g
  11. ^ A, D, G, C, F, B, E, A, C, G, B, E
  12. ^ C, e, F, f, c, E, D, c, f, D, A, a, B, d, g, G, a, F, e, D, A, b, b, B
  13. ^ a, d, g, c, f, b, e, g, c, f, b, e
  14. ^ C, a, F, d, B, g, E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e, B, a (the prelude is headed "A minor or G minor"), E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e
  15. ^ C, c, D, c leading to D, D, d, E, e, E, e, F, f, F, f, G, g, A, g, A, a, B, b, B, b
  16. ^ C, a, F, d, B, g, E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e, B, g, E, c, A, f, D, b, G, e, C
  17. ^ c, A, G, a, F, e, f, e, b, b, d, D, E, C, D, g, B, A, g, F
  18. ^ C, e, G, b, D, f, A, c, E, g, B, e, F, b, D, f, A, c, E, g, B, d, F, a, C
  19. ^ a b c d e f g C, c, D, c, D, d, E, e, E, e, F, f, F, f, G, g, A, g, A, a, B, b, B, b, C; Alexander Wunderer and York Bowen chose G over F; Valery Zhelobinsky notated his B minor prelude with a 6-flat key signature (ostensibly E minor), using accidentals to achieve the correct tonality.
  20. ^ e, f, E, c, G, g, D, b, g, A, C, a, B, d, B, F, f, A, F, e, c, E, b, D
  21. ^ c, f, B, d, D, g, E, c, A, e, G, C, b, E, e, G, f, F, a, A, b, B, g, D
  22. ^ C, c, E, e, F, f, A, a, F, f, A, g, B, b, D, d, G, g, B, b, D, c, E, e
  23. ^ C, a, d, F, g, B, c, e, G, b, D, b, A, f, g, c, e, D, E, F, A, B, f, E
  24. ^ C, a, e, G, D, f, A, E, c, g, B, G, e, b, D, A, f, c, E, B, g, d, F
  25. ^ b, G, g, E, c, f, D, G, g, d, B, f, D, A, b, e, A, C, c, E
  26. ^ C, G, F, A, E, E, A, D, B, D, B, F
  27. ^ g, D, a, E, b, F, c, A, e, B, f, C, G, d, A, e, B, f, C, g, E, b, F, c
  28. ^ a, e, b, c, g, d, e, b, f, f, c, a. The etudes are laid out in four groups of three keys following the ascending circle of fifths separated by a minor third.
  29. ^ C, c, C, c, D, d, E, e, E, e, F, f, F, f, G, g, A, g, A, a, B, b, B, b
  30. ^ In extremely rare cases, theoretical keys do appear with their double-accidental key signatures in real music: an example is John Foulds' A World Requiem, which ends in G-sharp major with F
    in the key signature.[156] However, no set of pieces in all 24 keys that includes a theoretical key is known.
  31. ^ G major and F major, E minor and D minor
  32. ^ C major and B major, A minor and G minor
  33. ^ D major and C major, B minor and A minor


  1. ^ a b "Liszt: The complete music for solo piano, Vol. 4 – Transcendental Studies performed by Leslie Howard", Hyperion-Records.co.uk.
  2. ^ a b "Niels-Viggo Bentzon", Musicweb-international.com. Retrieved 2 February 2015
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Bach cantatas, Arrangements & Transcriptions of Bach's Works: Arrangements & Works inspired by Well-Tempered Clavier BWV 847–869 & BWV 879–893 (WTC)", Bach-Cantatas.com.
  4. ^ Weyer, Martin (2010). "2". In Rudolf Faber (ed.). Handbuch Orgelmusik (in German) (2 ed.). Kassel: Bärenreiter. p. 296. ISBN 9783761822029.
  5. ^ John Sanidopoulos, The Unique Eight Toned Hymn of the Dormition of the Theotokos, August 14, 2013
  6. ^ ArkivMusic. Retrieved 10 April 2013
  7. ^ Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed, 1954, Vol. IX, p. 223.
  8. ^ "The Well-Tempered Clavier I", ERPmusic.com.
  9. ^ Ricercares a quattro voci by Vincenzo Galilei, 1584[dead link]
  10. ^ "Bartolotti, Angelo Michele". Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-20.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  11. ^ ""Antonio Carbonchi, Sonate di chitarra spagnola con intavolatura franzese … (1640)", Library.Appstate.edu". Archived from the original on August 20, 2011. Retrieved 2012-06-20.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. ^ "L'Alphabet de la Musique", Diapason.Xentonic.org (archive from 28 January 2018, accessed 30 August 2018).
  13. ^ Goldberg, 24 Polonaises: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  14. ^ Ozi, Nouvelle méthode de basson: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  15. ^ "Second Wind: John Brock Plays the Juget-Sinclair Organ", RavenCD.com.
  16. ^ Matthew J. Roy, The Genesis of the Soviet Prelude Set for Piano, Eastern Washington University, 2012, p. 11.
  17. ^ Wendelin Bitzan, Durch alle Tonarten: Omnitonale Präludienzyklen für Klavier, Archiv für Musikwissenschaft Vol. 73 (No. 3 / 2016), p. 12f.
  18. ^ Muzio Clementi (1752–1832): Life and Work: 2. Works", ClementiSociety.com.
  19. ^ Clementi, Préludes et exercices: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  20. ^ Seydler, XXIV grands Caprices pour une Flûte: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  21. ^ Chia-Ling Hsieh: An analytical study of York Bowen's Twenty-Four Preludes in all Major and Minor Keys, Op. 102 (Dissertation)
  22. ^ a b c "Golden Fingers: News (2007)". Archived from the original on May 9, 2007. Retrieved 2012-06-20.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  23. ^ ArkivMusic: Pierre Rode, 24 Caprices en forme d'études
  24. ^ amazon
  25. ^ archive.org
  26. ^ RIPM Journal
  27. ^ a b >IMSLP: 16 sharp preludes, Nos. 37–52
  28. ^ IMSLP: 14 flat preludes, Nos. 53–66,
  29. ^ "About Keys and Accidentals", Cisdur.de.
  30. ^ Moscheles, 24 Études, Op. 70: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  31. ^ IMSLP: Campagnoli, 30 Preludes for violin
  32. ^ Maurice Hinson, Guide to the Pianist’s Repertoire
  33. ^ Herz, 24 Exercises et Préludes, Op. 21: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  34. ^ Moscheles, 50 Preludes, Op. 73: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  35. ^ "Error".
  36. ^ Free scores by Louise Farrenc at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP)
  37. ^ Maurice Hinson, Guide to the Pianist's Repertoire
  38. ^ Bunte Reihe, Op.30 (David, Ferdinand): Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  39. ^ Hyperion Records
  40. ^ Thomas Tapper, Percy Goetschius, Essentials in Music History, p. 250
  41. ^ Grove, ed. (1900). A Dictionary of Music and Musicians, p.739.
  42. ^ Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 5th ed, 1954, Vol. IV, p. 780
  43. ^ "Error".
  44. ^ Kummer, 24 Études mélodiques: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  45. ^ Alkan, 25 Preludes in All Major and Minor Keys, Op. 31: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  46. ^ Classics Online Archived 2014-07-12 at the Wayback Machine
  47. ^ Fürstenau, 26 Uebungen für die Flöte: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  48. ^ Heller, 24 Preludes, Op. 81: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  49. ^ "Error".
  50. ^ Recorded by Emanuele Delucchi, Piano Classics PCL10204 (2021)
  51. ^ IMSLP: Concone, 24 Preludes, Op. 37
  52. ^ [1]
  53. ^ IMSLP
  54. ^ List of works by Ferdinand David: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  55. ^ David, 25 Etüden, Capricen und Charakterstücke in allen Tonarten für die Violine allein oder mit Pianofortebegleitung: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  56. ^ OnClassical Archived 2011-12-17 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ ArkivMusic
  58. ^ Busoni: Early Masterpieces, Capriccio C5416
  59. ^ Classical Archives
  60. ^ Music Web International
  61. ^ Busoni, 24 Preludes, Op. 37: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  62. ^ Henselt: Préambules dans tous les tons. Retrieved 22 July 2016
  63. ^ List of compositions by Sebastian Lee: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  64. ^ a b c List of compositions by Richard Hofmann: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  65. ^ Ivory Classics
  66. ^ "Error".
  67. ^ Arensky, 24 Morceaux caractéristiques, Op. 36: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  68. ^ Hyperion Records
  69. ^ Reger, 111 Canons: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  70. ^ Krygell, Moll und Dur: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  71. ^ Worcester American Guild of Organists Archived 2014-02-01 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ IMSLP: Cui, 25 Preludes, Op. 64
  73. ^ "Matthew Roy, Preludophilia: César Cui's Op. 64". Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
  74. ^ List of compositions by Jean Henri Ravina: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  75. ^ Glière, 25 Preludes, Op.30: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  76. ^ List of compositions by Ludvig Schytte: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  77. ^ List of compositions by Hans Sitt: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  78. ^ "Rachmaninov: Preludes, Op 32", Hyperion-records.co.uk.
  79. ^ Colomer, 24 Préludes mélodiques: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  80. ^ "Error".
  81. ^ a b notredamedeparis Archived 2012-06-20 at the Wayback Machine
  82. ^ Recorded by Alex Wilson, Toccata Classics 0525 (2020)
  83. ^ "Error".
  84. ^ IMSLP
  85. ^ "Error".
  86. ^ Bach Cantatas
  87. ^ Stanford, 24 Preludes, Op. 163: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  88. ^ Music Web International
  89. ^ Wunderer, 24 Etüden in allen Tonarten: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  90. ^ "Linwood William Zoller IV, Historical Études for Oboe: 17th–20th Centuries" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-07. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
  91. ^ cisdur
  92. ^ a b Unsung Composers
  93. ^ Liner notes from Naxos, Ponce Guitar Works, Vol. 1, Adam Holzmann
  94. ^ Sheet Music Warehouse
  95. ^ "Bibliothèque Cantonale et Universitaire – Lausanne". Archived from the original on 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
  96. ^ Classical Archives
  97. ^ NewMusic USA
  98. ^ Zhelobinsky, 24 Preludes, Op. 20: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  99. ^ Matthew Roy
  100. ^ Boris Goltz: Complete Works for Solo Piano at AllMusic
  101. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-07. Retrieved 2013-03-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  102. ^ a b List of compositions by Charles Koechlin: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project
  103. ^ Vsevolod Petrovich Zaderatsky (1891–1953) – A Lost Soviet Composer
  104. ^ a b "English Music Festival". Archived from the original on 2014-02-23. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
  105. ^ Music Web International
  106. ^ a b c Fugues and Fugue Sets
  107. ^ Somm Recordings
  108. ^ Planet Hugill. Retrieved 31 October 2018
  109. ^ David Diamond: Preludes and Fugues for piano at AllMusic
  110. ^ "cebedem". Archived from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2012-06-20.
  111. ^ Music Web International
  112. ^ Arkiv Music
  113. ^ "Error".
  114. ^ Hans Gál site
  115. ^ Toccata Classics
  116. ^ MusicWeb International
  117. ^ SoloDuo
  118. ^ Eroica
  119. ^ Sansbaton
  120. ^ ArkivMusic
  121. ^ a b Three Cycles of 24 Preludes and Fugues by Russian Composers: D. Shostakovich, R. Shchedrin and S. Slonimsky, Yun-Jin Seo 2003
  122. ^ Shostakovich: The String Quartets
  123. ^ Alan Bush Trust
  124. ^ Boosey & Hawkes
  125. ^ a b Music Web International: Jaan Rääts (b. 1932)
  126. ^ Review at MusicWeb International
  127. ^ Anthony Burgess Foundation
  128. ^ MusicWeb International, August 2020
  129. ^ Classical Archives
  130. ^ Rekhin.narod.ru
  131. ^ WenatcheeTheHatchet
  132. ^ Naxos
  133. ^ Rekhin.narod.ru
  134. ^ Classical Archives
  135. ^ The keys are arranged in a sequence of falling fifths, starting with B minor and ending in F major
  136. ^ Howard Blake website; Retrieved 12 August 2013
  137. ^ Music Web International
  138. ^ Open University: Dr Ron Weidberg
  139. ^ Lera Auerbach site Archived 2011-10-18 at the Wayback Machine
  140. ^ Classical Archives
  141. ^ Muray McLachlan site Archived 2009-01-05 at the Wayback Machine
  142. ^ Music Web International
  143. ^ iodalliance
  144. ^ Johnson, Henry (June 2008). "Composing Asia in New Zealand: gamelan and creativity" (PDF). New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies. 10 (1): 54–84.
  145. ^ IMSLP: Peters, 24 Preludes for organ
  146. ^ Wim Zwaag site
  147. ^ UMP
  148. ^ Recording by Philip Mead
  149. ^ Jeroen van Veen site
  150. ^ Composer's website
  151. ^ "Error".
  152. ^ Prelude and Fugue in E minor, played by Sarah Beth Briggs
  153. ^ Christopher Brown website
  154. ^ Orchid Classics recording, reviewed at MusicWeb International
  155. ^ "Alltagsfluchten: 24 wohltemperierte Kontrapunkte, aus dem Leben gegriffen (Escapes from Everyday-Life: 24 Well-tempered Counterpoints,Taken from Life) - YouTube". www.youtube.com. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  156. ^ "A World Requiem | John Foulds".
  157. ^ IMSLP: Rinck, 14 flat preludes, Nos. 53–66