Myanmar Air Force
Emblem of the Myanmar Air Force
Founded15 January 1947; 77 years ago (1947-01-15)
Country Myanmar
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
  • 15,000 personnel[1]
  • 348 aircraft[1]
Part ofMyanmar Armed Forces
Commander-in-Chief of Myanmar Armed ForcesSenior General Min Aung Hlaing
Minister of DefenceGeneral Mya Tun Oo
Commander-in-Chief of the Air ForceGeneral Htun Aung
Fin flash
Aircraft flown
AttackNanchang Q-5
FighterSukhoi Su-30, Mikoyan MiG-29, JF-17 Thunder
HelicopterMil Mi-2, Mil Mi-17, Bell UH-1 Iroquois, Aérospatiale Alouette III, PZL W-3 Sokół
Attack helicopterMil Mi-35P
PatrolBritten-Norman BN-2 Islander
TrainerYak-130,FTC 2000G, K-8W, Grob G 120TP, HAL HJT-16 Kiran, K-8 Karakorum
TransportShaanxi Y-8, Harbin Y-12, Beechcraft 1900, ATR 42, ATR 72, Fokker 70

The Myanmar Air Force (Burmese: တပ်မတော် (လေ), pronounced [taʔmədɔ̀ (le)]), known until 1989 as the Burmese Air Force, is the aerial branch of Myanmar's armed forces, the Tatmadaw. The primary mission of the Myanmar Air Force (MAF) since its inception has been to provide transport, logistical, and close air support to the Myanmar Army in counter-insurgency operations.[2] It is mainly used in internal conflicts in Myanmar, and, on a smaller scale, in relief missions,[3] especially after the deadly Cyclone Nargis of May 2008.


Post-Independence era (1948–1990)

The Myanmar Air Force (MAF) was formed as the Burmese Air Force on 16 January 1947, while Burma (as Myanmar was known until 1989) was still under British rule. By 1948, the fleet of the new air force included 40 Airspeed Oxfords, 16 de Havilland Tiger Moths, four Austers, and three Supermarine Spitfires transferred from the Royal Air Force, and had a few hundred personnel.[2]

The Mingaladon Air Base HQ, the main air base in the country, was formed on 16 June 1950. No.1 Squadron, Equipment Holding Unit and Air High Command - Burma Air Force, and the Flying Training School, were placed under the jurisdiction of the base. A few months later, on 18 December 1950, No. 2 Squadron was formed with nine Douglas Dakotas as a transport squadron. In 1953, the Advanced Flying Unit was formed under the Mingaladon Air Base with de Havilland Vampire T55s, and by the end of 1953 the Burmese Air Force had three main airbases, at Mingaladon, Hmawbi, and Meiktila, in central Burma.[2]

In 1953, the Burmese Air Force bought 30 Supermarine Spitfires from Israel and 20 Supermarine Seafires from the United Kingdom, and in 1954 it bought 40 Percival Provost T-53s and 8 de Havilland Vampire Mark T55s from the United Kingdom. In late 1955, the Burmese Air Force formed a Maintenance Air Base in Mingaladon, No. 501 Squadron Group (Hmawbi Airbase) and No. 502 Squadron Group (Mingaladon Air Base). In 1956, the Burmese Air Force bought 10 Cessna 180 aircraft from the United States. The same year, 6 Kawasaki Bell 47Gs formed its first helicopter unit. The following year, the Burmese Air Force procured 21 Hawker Sea Fury aircraft from the United Kingdom and 9 de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otters from Canada. In 1958, it procured 7 additional Kawasaki Bell 47Gs and 12 Vertol H-21 Shawnees from the United States.[2] Five years later, No. 503 Squadron Group was formed with No. 51 Squadron (de Havilland Canada DHC-3 Otters and Cessna 180s) and No. 53 Squadron (Bell 47Gs, Kaman HH-43 Huskies, and Aérospatiale Alouettes) in Meiktila.[2]

On 15 February 1961, an unmarked Republic of China Air Force Consolidated PB4Y Privateer came into Burmese air space carrying supplies for Chinese Kuomintang forces fighting in northern Burma, and was intercepted by three Hawker Sea Fury fighters of the Burmese Air Force. The intruding bomber and one Burmese fighter crashed in Thailand during the incident.[4] On 17 February, a team from Burmese 9th Front Brigade left for the crash site. A 12.7mm bullet was fired into the fuselage of UB-466, hitting pilot officer Peter as well, breaking five of his ribs. Peter was recorded in the history of Burmese Air Force as an airman who gave his life for the country and the people.[5] In 1962, a new radar station in Mingaladon and a mobile radar station in Lwemwe (near Tachileik) were put into operation. By December 1964, the Burmese Air Force had 323 officers and 5,677 other ranks and it acquired Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star jet trainers and a new radar station, which could operate within a 120-mile (193-km) radius, was opened in Namsang. In 1966, the radar arm of the air force underwent a complete overhaul and upgrade, with new radar stations being operated. The Namsang Radar station was upgraded to cover about a 200-mile (322-km) radius and renamed No.71 Squadron. In the same year, the Burmese Air Force formed the No. 1 Airborne Battalion with 26 officers and 750 other ranks.[citation needed]

On 1 January 1967, the Burmese Air Force reorganized its command structure. No. 501 Squadron Group in Hmawbi became No. 501 Air Base HQ; No. 502 Squadron Group in Mingalardon became No. 502 Air Base HQ; and No. 503 Squadron Group in Meiktila became No. 503 Air Base HQ in Meiktila. It also maintained airfield detachments in Lashio and Kengtung to cope with the insurgency of Communist Party of Burma in the northeast border region of the country.[2]

In 1975, the Burmese Air Force took delivery of 18 Bell 205A and seven Bell 206B helicopters from the United States under the International Narcotic Control Program (INCP). In March 1975, it bought 20 SIAI-Marchetti SF.260 trainers from Italy.[2]

Between 1976 and 1987, the Burmese Air Force bought seven Pilatus PC-6 Turbo porter STOL aircraft; and 16 Pilatus PC-7 and 10 Pilatus PC-9 turboprop trainers from Switzerland. These aircraft were deployed in Lashio for close air support in counter-insurgency operations.[2]

Modernisation programme (1990–present)

In the early 1990s, the Burmese Air Force upgraded its facilities and introduced two new air base headquarters and existing air base headquarters were renamed. It also significantly upgraded its radar and electronic warfare facilities. The Burmese Air Force bought more than 100 aircraft from the People's Republic of China, which included F7 IIK interceptors, FT-7 Trainers, A-5C Ground Attack Aircraft, FT-6M trainers, K-8 trainers and Y-8 transport aircraft.

In 1989, the Burmese Air Force was renamed the Myanmar Air Force in accordance with the country changing its name from Burma to Myanmar.

In December 1990, the Myanmar Air Force took the first delivery from China of 10 F7 IIK interceptors and two FT-7 Trainers followed by another batch of 12 F7 IIK interceptors in May 1993. Further deliveries of F7 IIK interceptors were made in 1995, 1998 and 1999.

By 2000, the Myanmar Air Force has received 62 F7 IIK interceptors from China.[2] Israel was contracted to refurbish and upgrade all operational F-7s and FT-7s: these were to get the Elta EL/M-2032 air-to-air radar,[6][unreliable source?] Rafael Python Mk. III and even Litening laser-designator pods. The same equipment was then installed on the two-seater FT-7 fighter trainers as well. In a related deal, Israel delivered to Myanmar at least one consignment of laser-guided bombs, but no deliveries of any other weapons are known. Since the Elbit contract was won in 1997, the air force has acquired at least one more squadron of F-7 and FT-7 aircraft from China, but these were not upgraded.

Between 1992 and 2000, the Myanmar Air Force took delivery of 36 A-5C Ground Attack Aircraft from China. In addition, the Myanmar Air Force also bought 20 Soko G-4 Super Galeb armed jet trainers from Yugoslavia in 1991, but only approximately 6 aircraft were delivered due to the break up of Yugoslavia.

President Htin Kyaw and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, pass in front of the MAF Honour Guards during an arrival ceremony at the Presidential Palace, Naypyidaw in 2017.

The Myanmar Air Force procured a range of helicopters from Russia and Poland between 1991 and 1997; it bought 20 PZL-Swidnik Mil Mi-2 and 13 PZL W-3 Sokol helicopters from Poland and 13 Mil Mi-17 from Russia. These helicopters were put into counter-insurgency operations against ethnic rebels in the Irrawaddy River delta. Four Mil Mi-2, four PZL W-3 Sokol, and two Bell 205 helicopters were grouped as an air detachment stationed in Bogalay for "Operation Monediang" in October 1991. During this operation, Mil Mi-2 helicopters were fitted with a wide range of weapons to provide ground attack and air cover for heliborne air assault operations. Four Mil Mi-2s of the air detachment made a total of 80 sorties over 17 targets with nearly 82 flying hours. Four PZL W-3 Sokol helicopters, unarmed and used for troop transport carrying 20 airborne commandos, each flew 443 missions with 197 flying hours. Bell 205 helicopters carried out search and rescue, and they flew 263 missions with over 114 flying hours.[2]

In 2001, the Myanmar Air Force bought 12 MiG-29 Fighter Aircraft (10 MiG-29Bs and two MiG-29UB two seats trainers)[2] from Belarus. This was followed by an additional order of 20 MiG-29 (10 MiG-29B, 6 MiG-29SE and 4 MiG-29UB) as part of a $570 million defence package in December 2009. 10 MiG-29B were upgraded to SM (mod) standard in 2017.[7] Myanmar Air Force also ordered 10 Mil Mi-35 gunship helicopters as part of a $71 million defence package signed in December 2009.[8]

Despite these modernisation measures, the capability of the Myanmar Air Force remained questionable, due to its absence during the Battle of Border Post 9631 with Thailand and the rescue missions related to Cyclone Nargis in May 2008.

A contract had been signed in December 2015 with Pakistan for the purchase of JF-17 Thunder multirole fighter, which was jointly developed by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group and Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, to Myanmar Air Force. However, in March 2018 it was reported that the deal for the purchase of JF-17 Thunder has been suspended by Pakistan.[9] However, four JF-17IIs were seen at Air Force Day celebrated in December 2018. Under a bilateral contract, the MAF ordered six Su-30SM fighters from Russia in 2018.[10]

Since the military coup in February 2021, Myanmar Air Force aircraft have been used in airstrikes on villages,[11] killing noncombatant civilians including elders, humanitarian workers and children while forcing thousands of others to flee their homes.

Commanders in Chief and Chiefs of Air Staff since 1948

Commander-in-Chief and Chief of Air Staff in chronological order:

ID Rank Name Serial
1 Wing Commander Saw Shi Sho BAF1020
2 Major Tommy Clift (T. Clift) BAF1005
3 Lieutenant Colonel Thura Selwyn James Khin BAF1009
4 Brigadier General Thura Tommy Clift BAF1005
5 Brigadier General Thaung Dan BAF1042
6 Major General Thura Saw Phyu BAF1047
7 Major General Ko Gyi BAF1059
8 Lieutenant General Tin Tun BAF1127
9 Lieutenant General Thein Win BAF1193
10 Lieutenant General Tin Ngwe BAF1312
11 Lieutenant General Kyaw Than BAF1334
12 Major General Myint Swe BAF1587
13 General Myat Hein BAF1682
14 General Khin Aung Myint BAF1754
15 General Maung Maung Kyaw BAF1925
16 General Htun Aung BAF1982

Rank structure

Main article: Military ranks of Myanmar

Commissioned officer ranks

The rank insignia of commissioned officers.

Rank group General / flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Myanmar Air Force
bauilaʻ khayupaʻ mahūʺkarīʺ
ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်မှူးကြီး
dautaiya bauilaʻ khayupaʻ mahūʺkarīʺ
bauilaʻ khayupaʻ karīʺ
ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ်ချုပ်ကြီး
dautaiya bauilaʻ khayupaʻ karīʺ
bauilaʻ khayupaʻ
bauilaʻ mahūʺkhayupaʻ
bauilaʻ mahūʺkrīʺ
ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ်မှူးကြီး
dautaiya bauilaʻ mahūʺ krīʺ
bauilaʻ mahūʺ
bauilaʻ krīʺ
ဒုတိယ ဗိုလ်
dautaiya bauilaʻ
bauilaʻ laeāṅaʻʺ

Other ranks

The rank insignia of non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel.

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
 Myanmar Air Force
No insignia No insignia
’araākhaṃ bauilaʻ
dautaiya ’araākhaṃ bauilaʻ
aupaʻ khavai tapaʻ karpaʻ karīʺ
tapaʻ karpaʻ karīʺ
tapaʻ karpaʻ
dautaiya tapaʻ karpaʻ
tapaʻ saāʺ
tapaʻ saāʺ sacaʻ


Air bases

Meiktila Shante Air Base

Myanmar Air Force also utilised civilian airfields as front-line air fields in case of foreign invasion.

Air Defence

Main article: Office of the Chief of Air Defence (Myanmar)

The Office of the chief of Air Defence is one of the major branches of the Tatmadaw. It was established as the Air Defence Command in 1997 but was not fully operational until late 1999. It was renamed the Bureau of Air Defence in the early 2000s.In early 2000s, the Tatmadaw established the Myanmar Integrated Air Defence System (MIADS) with help from Russia, Ukraine and China. It is a tri-service bureau with units from all three branches of Myanmar Armed Forces. All Air Defence assets except Anti-Aircraft Artillery are integrated into MIADS.[12]



A MiG-29B sits on the tarmac
A Shaanxi Y-8 lifts off from Yangon International Airport
A Nanchang A-5C Fantan
A retired Myanmar Air Force Fokker F27
Aircraft Origin Type Variant In service Notes
Combat Aircraft
MiG-29 Russia multirole SMT/SM/UB 38[13] 5 used for conversion training[13]
Sukhoi Su-30 Russia multirole Su-30SME 8 4 on order
Nanchang Q-5 China attack A-5 24[13]
Chengdu J-7 China fighter F-7M 36[13] 6 used for conversion training[13]
Shenyang J-6 China fighter F-6 1[13] Chinese built version of the MiG-19
JF-17 Thunder Pakistan multirole JF-17E 11 5 on order[13]
ATR-42 / ATR 72 France / Italy VIP transport 10[13] of which four are ATR-72s[14]
Shaanxi Y-8 China transport 6[13]
Harbin Y-12 China transport 7[13]
Fokker 70 Netherlands VIP transport 2[15]
Pilatus PC-6 Switzerland utility / transport 5[13] STOL capable aircraft
Beechcraft 1900 United States utility / transport 7[13]
Britten-Norman BN-2 United Kingdom maritime patrol 5[13]
CASA-295 Spain tactical transport 2 on order
Mil Mi-2 Poland utility / liaison 22[13]
Mil Mi-17 Russia utility 20+[13]
Mil Mi-24 Russia attack Mi-35P 24
Bell 206 United States utility 3[13]
Bell UH-1 United States utility 2[13]
Alouette III France utility 13[13]
Kamov Ka-27 Russia utility / CSAR Ka-28 2[16]
PZL W-3 Sokół Poland utility 12[13]
Trainer Aircraft
Yak-130 Russia advanced trainer 22[13]
Soko G-4 Yugoslavia trainer / light attack 3[13]
Hongdu JL-8 China jet trainer K-8 60[13] unknown number on order[13]
Grob G 120TP Germany basic trainer 20[13]
Pilatus PC-7 Switzerland light trainer 16[13]
Guizhou JL-9 China advanced trainer FTC 2000G 6[13] 60 on order[17]
Pilatus PC-9 Switzerland trainer 10[13]
Eurocopter EC120 France rotorcraft trainer 3[13]
Sky 02 China surveillance 11[18]
CASC Rainbow China UCAV CH-3A unknown [18]
CASC Rainbow[19] China UCAV CH-4 produced under license[20]
Yellow Cat A2 Myanmar surveillance 22[18] domestic variant of the CH-3A


Name Origin Type Notes
Air-to-air missile
PL-2 China air to air missile 340 missiles obtained[21]
PL-5 China Air to air missile 200 missiles obtained[22]
PL-12 China Air to air BVR missile 60 missiles obtained[22]
R-27 Russia Air to air BVR missile 100 missiles obtained[22]
R-73 Russia Air to air Short range IR Missile 285 missiles obtained[22]
Anti-ship missile
YJ-83 China 30 missiles obtained[21]
Aerial bomb
LY-502 China unknown[23]


The Air Force has several radar installations including the three-dimensional surveillance YLC-2 Radar, the P-37 Early-warning radar system, the JLP-40 defensive radar, and the Galaxy EWR system, which is linked with Integrated Air Defence office.[12][24][25][26][27][21]


Myanmar national insignia (white triangle with yellow field in the centre and borders in blue) is usually applied on six positions. The serialling system of Myanmar Air Force aircraft is suggested to serve as both – unit and individual aircraft identity, this could not be confirmed so far, however. Most of the older aeroplanes carried the serials with the prefix "UB" and the numbers in Burmese. Sometimes the serials were outlined in white. Combat aircraft generally carry serials in black.

Accidents and incidents

On 11 June 2014, a Mig-29UB caught fire and crashed on to farmland near Myothit township of Magway at 8:30 a.m. (local time). Two pilots safely ejected.[28] [29] [30]

On 10 February 2016, a Beech 1900 aircraft crashed after taking off from Naypidaw Airport, killing 5 military personnels.[31]

On 14 June 2016, a Mi-2 helicopter crashed near the Yangon–Mandalay Expressway at being refueled at the Taungngu airbase, killing three military servicemen on board.[32]

2017 Myanmar Air Force Shaanxi Y-8 crash: On 7 June 2017, a Shaanxi Y-8 was reported missing 30 nautical miles (56 km) west to Dawei. The aircraft was carrying 122 people. There were no survivors.

On 3 April 2018, An F-7 fighter aircraft of Taungoo Air Base has crashed into a farm near KyunKone Village in Taungoo. It is learned that the F-7, which is used as a training aircraft, was believed to have crashed while trying to land the ground at around 11:30 am. It is reported that a pilot was killed on the spot during the crash.[33]

On 16 October 2018, two Myanmar F-7Ms crashed near Magway, Myanmar, killing both pilots and a civilian on the ground. Both aircraft struck a broadcast tower. One plummeted into a rice paddy, while the other nose-dived near a Buddhist pagoda in the Magway region of central Myanmar.[34]

On 3 May 2021, one Mi-35 helicopter was shot down near the town of Moemauk in Kachin province by the Kachin Independence Army in response to the MAF's air raid. There was no confirmation from the MAF nor the KIA on which AA system was used by the KIA in the incident.[35][36]

On 11 June 2021, a Beechcraft 1900 crashed on its landing approach to Pyin Oo Lwin's airport, killing 12 people including a senior Buddhist monk, the abbot of Zay Kone Monastery in Pyinmana.[37]

On 16 February 2022, an A-5 fighter jet crashed near Ohn Taw village in Sagaing Region.[38]

On 29 March 2022, a Mi-17 helicopter crashed and injured five people on board near Hakha, Chin State.[39]

On 11 November 2023, a K-8W trainer aircraft of the Myanmar Air Force crashed in Hpruso Township, Karenni State. Local rebels claimed to have shot it down, while the Myanmar Air Force claimed that it was a mechanical failure, and the pilot was later captured.[40]

On 3 January 2024, a Mi-17 was shot down by the Kachin Independence Army using FN-6 MANPAD in Waimaw Township, Kachin State, killing all seven people on board.[41]

On 16 January 2024, the Kachin Independence Army successfully shot down an FTC-2000G trainer/fighter of the Myanmar Air Force in the Namhpatkar area of northern Shan State.[42]

In January 2024, a Myanmar Air Force Y-8 on a mission to evacuate troops who had sought refuge in Mizoram, India, overshot its landing in Lengpui Airport. There were no deaths but the plane was badly damaged.[43]

On 29 January 2024, the Karen National Liberation Army shot down a Junta helicopter above Myawaddy Township near the Thai border. During the incident Brigadier General Aye Min Naung, the 44th LI Division commander, Colonel Soe Tun Lwin, LI Battalion 9's acting commander, pilot Colonel Toe Oo and two army captains were supposedly killed according to military sources.[44]

On 29 February 2024, one MiG-29SMT fighter of Myanmar Air Force crashed in southwest of Salin District, Magway Region. This aircraft crashed when it was on its way to combat mission, Myanmar military blamed the crash on a technical failure. One pilot ejected successfully and escaped the crash.[45][46]

See also


  1. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies (13 February 2024). The Military Balance 2024 (1st ed.). London: Routledge. pp. 297–298. ISBN 978-1032780047.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Aung Myoe, Maung (22 January 2009). Building the Tatmadaw: Myanmar Armed Forces Since 1948. ISEAS Publishing. doi:10.1355/9789812308498. ISBN 978-981-230-849-8.
  3. ^ "Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination in Emergencies: Towards a Predictable Model" (PDF). Regional Consultative Group on Humanitarian Civil-Military Coordination for Asia and the Pacific. 2017. pp. 79–82. Retrieved 6 June 2019.
  4. ^ "Intrusions, Overflights, Shootdowns and Defections During the Cold War and Thereafter." Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 28 May 2013.
  5. ^ [in Myanmar]"Three Burmese airmen fight in the first air battle in Southeast Asia". 19 October 2017.
  6. ^ "MiG-21 2000 Fighter Ground Attack, Russia." Retrieved: 1 December 2010.
  7. ^ "Myanmar MiG-29 Upgrade Revealed". Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  8. ^ "Russia, Burma sign arms deal". 23 December 2009. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
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  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Hoyle, Craig (2023). "World Air Forces 2024". FlightGlobal. Retrieved 15 March 2024.
  14. ^ "Myanmar Air Force inducts new aircraft". Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  15. ^ Beech, Hannah (24 December 2021). "Worldly, Charming, and Quietly Equipping a Brutal Military". The New York Times – via
  16. ^ "Myanmar Air Force bolsters fleet with the commission of new aircraft". Retrieved 10 January 2023.
  17. ^ Beech, Anthony Davis (8 December 2022). "Myanmar Air Force inducts new FTC-2000Gs". Janes Defence – via
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  19. ^ Weinberger (Foreign Policy), Sharon (10 May 2018). "China Has Already Won the Drone Wars". Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. ((cite web)): |last= has generic name (help)
  20. ^ United Nations Human Right Office of the High Commissioner, OHCHR (August 2019). "Arms and Military Equipment Suppliers to the Tatmadaw" (PDF). United Nations. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 October 2020.
  21. ^ a b c "SIPRI Trade Register". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  22. ^ a b c d "Arms Transfers Database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  23. ^
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  26. ^ China's People, Military (4 September 2014). "外媒:中国售缅甸机动雷达 巴基斯坦评价不错". Archived from the original on 25 December 2020. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  27. ^ THE IRRAWADDY. "Junta Stations New Missile Battalion on Border". Archived from the original on 15 October 2020.
  28. ^ "မကွေးလေတပ်စခန်းက MIG 29 တိုက်လေယာဉ်ပျက်ကျ". Radio Free Asia (in Burmese). Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  29. ^ "ေလ့က်င့္ေရးတုိက္ေလယာဥ္ပ်က္က်". VOA News (in Burmese). 11 June 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  30. ^ "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 166859". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
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  32. ^ "Military helicopter crash kills 3 in Myanmar". 14 June 2016. Retrieved 18 February 2022.
  33. ^ "Myanmar military training jet crashes, pilot killed". thestatesman. 3 April 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2020.
  34. ^ Beech, Hannah; Nang, Saw (16 October 2018). "2 Myanmar Fighter Jets Crash, Killing Pilots and an 11-Year-Old". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 October 2018. Retrieved 18 October 2018.
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  40. ^ "Incident Hongdu K-8W Karakorum 3942". Retrieved 20 January 2024.
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