Nagaoka
長岡市
Nagaoka Matsuri and Fireworks
Echigo Hillside ParkTeradomari Fish Market
Yukyuzan ParkChosei BridgeNishiki Koi
Location of Nagaoka in Niigata
Nagaoka
Nagaoka
 
Coordinates: 37°26′46.3″N 138°51′4.5″E / 37.446194°N 138.851250°E / 37.446194; 138.851250Coordinates: 37°26′46.3″N 138°51′4.5″E / 37.446194°N 138.851250°E / 37.446194; 138.851250
CountryJapan
RegionChūbu (Kōshin'etsu) (Hokuriku)
PrefectureNiigata
Founded1616
City establishedApril 1, 1906
Government
 • MayorTatsunobu Isoda
Area
 • Total891.06 km2 (344.04 sq mi)
Population
 (December 2020)
 • Total266,539
 • Density300/km2 (770/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
Symbols 
• TreeZelkova serrata
• FlowerAzalea
• FishNishiki koi
Phone number0258-35-1122
Address1-4-10 Otedori, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata-ken 940-8501
WebsiteOfficial website

Nagaoka (長岡市, Nagaoka-shi) is a city located in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. It is the second largest city in the prefecture, after the capital city of Niigata. As of 4 August 2021, the city had an estimated population of 264,611 in 109,283 households[1] and a population density of 300 inhabitants per square kilometre (780/sq mi). The total area of the city was 891.06 square kilometres (344.04 sq mi).[2]

Geography

Nagaoka in winter from the sky
Nagaoka in winter from the sky

Nagaoka is in the center of Niigata prefecture and the surrounding Chūetsu region of Japan, between longitude 138°E and latitude 37°N. It is 80 minutes from Tokyo by way of the Joetsu Shinkansen or three hours on the Kan-Etsu Expressway and is considered a strategic traffic point in the region. Nagaoka was an inland city until January 1, 2006, when the city merged with four municipalities; two were touching the Sea of Japan. The Shinano River flows through the city from south to north and industrial development is on both banks of the river. The Higashiyama mountain range lies to the east.

Surrounding municipalities

From the north, following Nagaoka's border counterclockwise: Niigata Prefecture

Sado Island is connected by sea and air routes.

Climate

Nagaoka has a humid climate (Köppen Cfa) characterized by warm, wet summers and cold winters with heavy snowfall. The average annual temperature in Nagaoka is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F). The average annual rainfall is 2,336 mm (92.0 in) with September as the wettest month. The temperatures are highest on average in August, at around 26.0 °C (78.8 °F), and lowest in January, at around 0.3 °C (32.5 °F).[3]

Climate data for Nagaoka, Niigata (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
4.7
(40.5)
8.7
(47.7)
16.4
(61.5)
21.6
(70.9)
25.3
(77.5)
28.6
(83.5)
30.8
(87.4)
26.2
(79.2)
20.1
(68.2)
13.7
(56.7)
7.7
(45.9)
17.3
(63.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.3
(34.3)
1.4
(34.5)
4.3
(39.7)
10.8
(51.4)
16.3
(61.3)
20.5
(68.9)
24.2
(75.6)
26.0
(78.8)
21.5
(70.7)
15.3
(59.5)
9.3
(48.7)
4.2
(39.6)
12.9
(55.3)
Average low °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.7
(33.3)
5.8
(42.4)
11.6
(52.9)
16.6
(61.9)
20.7
(69.3)
22.1
(71.8)
17.9
(64.2)
11.4
(52.5)
5.6
(42.1)
1.3
(34.3)
9.3
(48.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 299.7
(11.80)
168.8
(6.65)
144.4
(5.69)
96.8
(3.81)
109.0
(4.29)
132.2
(5.20)
225.5
(8.88)
148.4
(5.84)
173.8
(6.84)
194.5
(7.66)
291.7
(11.48)
340.1
(13.39)
2,324.9
(91.53)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 236
(93)
189
(74)
80
(31)
4
(1.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2
(0.8)
89
(35)
600
(235.4)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47.3 65.8 109.0 166.2 184.7 144.7 143.7 192.4 131.3 129.7 89.2 57.7 1,461.7
Source: [4]

Demographics

Per Japanese census data,[5] the population of Nagaoka peaked at around 1995 and has declined steadily since.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1960 284,026—    
1970 279,395−1.6%
1980 289,234+3.5%
1990 290,923+0.6%
2000 292,887+0.7%
2010 282,674−3.5%

History

Picture of annual event of the Nagaoka castle – Going into the castle for New Year greeting
Picture of annual event of the Nagaoka castle – Going into the castle for New Year greeting
Ukiyo-e of the Battle of Hokuetsu (Boshin War) by Utagawa Kuniteru II
Ukiyo-e of the Battle of Hokuetsu (Boshin War) by Utagawa Kuniteru II

The area of present-day Nagaoka was part of ancient Echigo Province. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, a castle town was constructed by Hori Naoyori lord of Nagaoka Domain in 1616. However, as the initial castle was located in an area prone to flooding by the Shinano River, a new castle was built at the site of present-day Nagaoka Station in 1617. Nagaoka flourished as under the reign of the 13 generations of the Makino clan during the Edo period. In the Boshin War of 1868 during the Meiji Restoration, Nagaoka Domain was a member of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei against the imperial forces, and the city was reduced to rubble during the Battle of Hokuetsu. A gift of one hundred sacks of rice from a neighboring province was sold to finance a new school during the reconstruction of Nagaoka, from which the anecdote of Kome Hyappyo was born.[citation needed]

With the Meiji period creation of the modern municipalities system on April 1, 1889, the towns of Nagaoka and Nagaoka-honmachi were established. The two towns were merged on November 1, 1901 with the towns of Senju, Kusouzu, Ara, and village of Ouchi to form the modern town of Nagaoka, which was then raised to city status on April 1, 1906.

Municipal timeline

[6]

Government

Nagaoka City Hall
Nagaoka City Hall

Nagaoka has a mayor-council form of government with a directly elected mayor and a unicameral city legislature of 34 members. The city contributes six members to the Niigata Prefectural Assembly. In terms of national politics, the city is part of Niigata 5th district of the lower house of the Diet of Japan.

Economy

Industry

The manufacturing industry prospered in Nagaoka following World War II, due in part to favorable location and good transportation infrastructure. Current industrial production includes precision instruments and machine tools.

Education

Universities and colleges

Primary and secondary education

The city of Nagaoka operates 61 public elementary schools and 27 public middle schools. There is also one public middle school operated by the national government. Nagaoka also has nine public high schools operated by the Niigata Prefectural Board of Education and three private high schools. The prefecture also operates three special education schools in the city.

Transportation

Nagaoka Station
Nagaoka Station

Railway

East Japan Railway Company (JR East) – Joetsu Shinkansen

JR EastJoetsu Line

JR EastShin'etsu Main Line

JR EastEchigo Line

JR EastIiyama Line

Bus

Local bus service in Nagaoka is managed by Echigo Kotsu. The bus terminal located at the east entrance of Nagaoka Station serves as the hub for the route network. Service extends to all parts of the city as well as many outlying suburban areas and villages. A bus service connecting Nagaoka Station to Niigata, Niigata Station runs at intervals of approximately 30 minutes. Additionally, long-distance bus services are available to all major cities in the prefecture as well as Tokyo.

Road

Expressway

Nagaoka JCT is a strategic interchange which connects two expressways, Hokuriku Expressway and Kan-Etsu Expressway.

Japan National Route

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan

Nagaoka is twinned with:[7]

Friendship city

Local attractions

Places of interest

National Historic Sites

Festivals

Video: 100 shots of shakudama (12 inches shell) fireworks at the Nagaoka Festival Fireworks 2015
Video: 100 shots of shakudama (12 inches shell) fireworks at the Nagaoka Festival Fireworks 2015

Notable people from Nagaoka

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References

  1. ^ "人口と世帯数 (Population and number of households)". Nagaoka City Website (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  2. ^ "プロフイール (Profile)". Nagaoka City Website. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Nagaoka climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Nagaoka weather averages". en.climate-data.org. Archived from the original on 30 August 2020.
  4. ^ "長岡 平年値(年・月ごとの値) 主な要素". Japan Meteorological Agency (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 26 July 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Japan: Niigata Prefecture, Cities, Towns and Villages". City Population. Archived from the original on 12 July 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  6. ^ https://www.yomiuri.co.jp/dy/national/20100402TDY03T01.htm[dead link]
  7. ^ "Sister Cities and Friendship City". niea.or.jp. Nagaoka International Exchange Association. Retrieved 2020-04-07.