The font "TH Sarabun PSK" is used on the Thai Wikipedia's current logo.

The National Fonts (Thai: ฟอนต์แห่งชาติ; RTGS[font] haeng chat)[1] are 2 sets of free and open-source computer fonts for the Thai script sponsored by the Thai government. In 2001, the first set of fonts was released by NECTEC. The 3 Thai typefaces in the set; Kinnari, Garuda and Norasi; were intended to be public alternatives to the widely used commercial typefaces.[2] Later on, Thai Linux Working Group (TLWG) released these 3 typefaces alongside 10 others.[3][4] In 2006[5], a computer font competition was held. 13 of these typefaces won the competition and later got adopted by the Government of Thailand as public and official fonts. Later in 2021, another typeface, Chulabhorn Likhit were selected as the 14th typeface in the set. Thus, the set has gained the nickname of fourteen National Fonts. The typefaces and all of their subsequently developed versions are released by the Software Industry Promotion Agency (Public Organisation), or SIPA, together with the Department of Intellectual Property through f0nt.com. Hence another nickname for the set, SIPA fonts (ฟอนต์ซิป้า).[6][7] In 2018, 13 of these typefaces from this set has been revised by a local font foundry Cadson Demak (คัดสรร ดีมาก), along with Google Fonts.[8][9]

History

Typefaces by NECTEC and Thai Linux Working Group

In 2001, The first "National Fonts" set was released by NECTEC. It contains three Thai typefaces: Kinnari, Garuda and Norasi. These typefaces were intended to be public alternatives to the widely used, yet licence-restricted, commercial typefaces that came bundled with major operating systems and applications.[2] Later on, Thai Linux Working Group (TLWG) released these 3 typefaces alongside 10 others. Aside from Waree, the other 12 typefaces were released under GPL.[3][4]

2006 competition

On 2 August 2006[5], Abhisit Vejjajiva's Council of Ministers organised a competition to replace all existing fonts the Thai Government had bought from the private sector, including Microsoft's Angsana New, Browalia New, Cordia New, and EucrosiaUPC, which were extensively used at that time, with fonts created by Thai nationals. The competition was part of the "Standard Fonts for Thai Public Sectors" Project (โครงการฟอนต์มาตรฐานราชการไทย) proposed by the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology. The Ministry was quoted as saying: "...Various fonts are now used among the public agencies, that's why the state papers have never become standard. The fonts are also from the private companies which monopolise the rights over them, so we cannot use them as much as we should...".[10][failed verification]

On 7 September 2010, the Council of Ministers officially announced the thirteen fonts as the public fonts, naming them the "national fonts". The public agencies were ordered to use these fonts, especially TH Sarabun PSK, in their state papers. They were required to cease to use the private sector's fonts by 5 December 2010, King Bhumibol Adulyadej's 83rd birthday. The legislative branch and the judicial branch were also asked for cooperation.[11]

Revision by Cadson Demak and Google Fonts

In 2018, Cadson Demak a local font foundry worked with Google Fonts to revise all existing 13 National Fonts, providing them with more hinting, a wider range of weights, and better Unicode support. There is also a new font "Thasadith" which was inspired by TH Srisakdi. All of those fonts were released under Open Font License.[8][12] Cadson Demak expected that the release of these revised National Fonts to Google Fonts would result in higher adoption of Thai looped typefaces compared to Thai loopless typefaces. [9]

Chulabhorn Likhit

On 6 July 2021, the Council of Ministers officially approved the royal font set "Chulabhorn Likhit", the 14th Thai government standard font set as proposed by the Chulabhorn Royal Academy. The font is named to celebrate Princess Chulabhorn on the occasion of her 64th birthday and her graduation from the Doctor of Philosophy program in the Visual Arts Department, Faculty of Painting, Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University.[13]

Adoption

The 'Decision of the Constitutional Court No. 12-14/2553' which is published in the Government Gazette using the font "TH Sarabun PSK"

The font "TH Sarabun PSK" has been used in the Government Gazette of Thailand (Thai: ราชกิจจานุเบกษา; RTGSRatchakitchanubeksa) since January 2011, replacing Angsana New. The Gazette's first volume using such font is volume 128, part 1 A, dated 7 January 2011, in which the "Ministerial Regulation Determining the Criteria and Procedure for Acknowledging the Aircraft Type Certificates or Supplementary Type Certificates issues by the State Parties to the Conventions governing the Application for Certificates of Airworthiness or by the States with which Thailand has adopted the similar Agreements, BE 2553 (2010)" ("กฎกระทรวงกำหนดหลักเกณฑ์และวิธีการรับรองใบรับรองแบบอากาศยานหรือใบรับรองแบบส่วนเพิ่มเติมที่ออกโดยรัฐภาคีแห่งอนุสัญญาหรือประเทศที่ได้ทำความตกลงกับประเทศไทย เพื่อขอใบสำคัญสมควรเดินอากาศ พ.ศ. 2553") was published.[14]

The font "TH Sarabun PSK" is also used on the current logo of Thai Wikipedia. This version of the logo was designed by Pratya Singto (ปรัชญา สิงห์โต), a graphic designer who runs f0nt.com, and was adopted by the Community as it won a competition in 2008.[15]

List of typefaces

Typefaces by Thai Linux Working Group

The following table list 13 typefaces published by Thai Linux Working Group; including Kinnari, Garuda and Norasi.

Name Etymology Designers External links
1. Kinnari A kinnari is a female counterpart of a kinnara, a creature from Hindu and Buddhist mythology. Copyright (C) 1999 Db Type. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright (C) 2007 National Electronics and Computer Technology Center.

Transitional serif Latin glyphs (based on Times New Roman) with looped Thai glyphs.
2. Garuda Garuda is a Hindu deity who is primarily depicted as the mount (vahana) of the Hindu god Vishnu. Generated by NECTEC for Public Domain.

Modified under GNU General Public License by TLWG.

Sans-serif Latin glyphs with looped Thai glyphs.
3. Norasi Copyright (C) 1999, The National Font Project (v.beta).

Yannis Haralambous, Virach Sornlertlamvanich and Anutara Tantraporn. All rights reserved. Modified under GNU General Public License, with creators' permission, by Thai Linux Working Group (TLWG).

Transitional serif Latin glyphs (based on Times New Roman) with looped Thai glyphs.
4. Loma "Loma" (โลมา) means "dolphin". Copyright (C) 2003, NECTEC. All rights reserved. Sans-serif Latin glyphs with looped Thai glyphs.
5. TlwgMono Copyright (C) 2003 Poonlap Veerathanabutr <poonlap@linux.thai.net> Monospace slab serif Latin glyphs (As it's based on Courier (typeface)) with looped Thai glyphs.
6. Tlwg Typewriter Copyright (C) 2003, 2004 Poonlap Veerathanabutr <poonlap@linux.thai.net>
7. Tlwg Typist based on Poonlap Veerathanabutr's Tlwg Typewriter.

Copyright (C) 2005-2014 Theppitak Karoonboonyanan.

8. Tlwg Typo
9. Purisa "Purisa" means a man. (See wiktionary:purisa) Copyright (C) 2003, 2004 Poonlap Veerathanabutr

<poonlap@linux.thai.net>, GPL license

Script sans-serif Latin glyphs with script looped Thai glyphs.
10. Sawasdee Sawasdee means "hello" (See Thai greeting) Copyright (C) 2007 Pol Udomwittayanukul <webnaipol@gmail.com>. Sans-serif Latin glyphs with loopless Thai glyphs.
11. Umpush Copyright (C) 2003 NECTEC. All rights reserved.

Copyright (c) 2007 Widhaya Trisarnwadhana <widhaya3@gmail.com>.

Sans-serif Latin glyphs with looped Thai glyphs.
12. Laksaman The name "Laksaman" is derived from Lakshmana. Copyright (c) 2014 Theppitak Karoonboonyanan. Sans-serif Latin glyphs with looped Thai glyphs. (Based on TH Sarabun New)
13. Waree The name "Waree" means "water", "river", "sea" and "ocean". Copyright (C) 2003 by Bitstream, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

TLWG changes are in public domain.

Bitstream Vera is a trademark of Bitstream, Inc.

Sans-serif Latin glyphs (based on Bitstream Vera) with looped Thai glyphs.

Fourteen National Fonts

The following table list 13 National Fonts that won the competition in 2006 along with Chulabhorn Likhit.

# Name Samples Etymology/Notes Designers External links
1. TH Sarabun PSK The name "Sarabun" (สารบรรณ, RTGSSaraban) means documentary affairs. Suppakit Chalermlarp (ศุภกิจ เฉลิมลาภ) f0nt.com
TH Sarabun New "TH Sarabun New" is a new revision of "TH Sarabun PSK", initially released on August 19, 2011. The latest version of "TH Sarabun New" is the version 1.35 which fix issues with Microsoft Office for Mac, released on November 15, 2019.[16] f0nt.com
2. TH Charmonman The name "Chamornman" (จามรมาน, RTGSChamon Man) means the heart of a rain tree, known in Thailand as the symbolic tree of Chulalongkorn University. However, the designer is an alumnus of Bangkok University, not Chulalongkorn.[17] Ekkalak Phianphanawet (เอกลักษณ์ เพียรพนาเวช) f0nt.com
3. TH Krub The font is named after a Thai particle "Krub" (ครับ, RTGSKhrap). Ekkalak Phianphanawet
4. TH Srisakdi The name "Srisakdi" (ศรีศักดิ์, RTGSSi Sak) means prestige. The font is inspired by "court style", a style of writing prominent during the Thonburi Kingdom and the early Rattanakosin Kingdom. A font family on Google Fonts by Cadson Demak, Thasadith, is based on TH Srisakdi. Aksaramethi Team (ทีมอักษราเมธี), consisting of Phairot Piamprachakphong (ไพโรจน์ เปี่ยมประจักพงษ์) Bowon Chonradon and (บวร จรดล)
5. TH Niramit AS The name "Niramit" (นิรมิต) means being invented by magic. Aksaramethi Team
6. TH Charm of AU "AU" is the abbreviation for Assumption University. Kanlayanamit Noraratphutthi (กัลยาณมิตร นรรัตน์พุทธิ)
7. TH Kodchasan The name "Kodchasan" (คชสาร, RTGSKhotchasan) means an elephant. Kansuda Piamprachakphong (กัลย์สุดา เปี่ยมประจักพงษ์)
8. TH K2D July8 The name "July8" refers to the Buddhist observance marking the beginning of Vassa, also known as Buddhist Lent. Kan Rotsawat (กานต์ รอดสวัสดิ์)
9. TH Mali Grade 6 It is the handwriting of a grade-6 girl named "Little Jasmine" or "Mali" (เด็กหญิงมะลิ), a character created by the designer. Sudarat Leotsithong (สุดารัตน์ เลิศสีทอง)
10. TH Chakra Petch The name "Chakra Petch" (จักรเพชร, RTGSChak Phet) means a crystal chakram. According to Google Font's metrics, Chakra Petch is the most popular looped Thai typeface. Thirawat Photwibunsiri (ธีรวัฒน์ พจน์วิบูลศิริ)
11. TH Bai Jamjuree CP The name "Bai Jamjuree" (ใบจามจุรี, RTGSBai Chamchuri) means 'the leaves of a rain tree'. PITA Team, consisting of Rapee Suveeranont (รพี สุวีรานนท์) and Virot Chiraphadhanakul (วิโรจน์ จิรพัฒนกุล)
12. TH KoHo "KoHo" refers to the first and last consonants of the Thai writing system, ko kai (ก ไก่) and ho nok-huk (ฮ นกฮูก). Ko-Ho Group (กลุ่ม ก-ฮ), or A-Z Group, consisting of Kham Chaturongkhakun (ขาม จาตุรงคกุล), Kanokwan Phaenthaisong (กนกวรรณ แพนไธสง) and Khanittha Sitthiyaem (ขนิษฐา สิทธิแย้ม)
13. TH Fah Kwang The name "Fah Kwang" (ฟ้ากว้าง, RTGSFa Kwang) means 'the sky is wide' or 'the wide sky'. Team Eleven (ทีมสิบเอ็ด), consisting of Kitti Sirirattanabunchai (กิตติ ศิริรัตนบุญชัย) and Niwat Phattharowat (วัฒน์ ภัทโรวาสน์)
14. Chulabhorn Likhit Named after Princess Chulabhorn. Chulabhorn Royal Academy f0nt.com cra.ac.th

Google Fonts

There are currently 1639 font families on Google Fonts. 32 of those supports Thai script. The following table list all of the 32 fonts families.

Popularity ranking Name Etymology/Notes Designers External links
1. Kanit Loopless Thai/Sans serif Cadson Demak Google Fonts
2. Prompt Loopless Thai/Sans serif Cadson Demak Google Fonts
3. Chakra Petch Based on "TH Chakra Petch" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
4. Sarabun Based on "TH Sarabun New" (which is in turn based on "TH SarabunPSK") Suppakit Chalermlarp[a] Google Fonts
5. Noto Sans Thai Loopless Thai/Sans serif Google (Noto fonts) Google Fonts
6. Mitr Cadson Demak Google Fonts
7. Taviraj Cadson Demak Google Fonts
8. Pridi Cadson Demak Google Fonts
9. Sriracha Cadson Demak Google Fonts
10. Bai Jamjuree Based on "TH Bai Jamjuree CP" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
11. Niramit Based on "TH Niramit AS" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
12. Krub Based on "TH Krub" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
13. Itim Looped Thai/semiserif Cadson Demak Google Fonts
14. Charm Based on "TH Charm of AU" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
15. Athiti Cadson Demak Google Fonts
16. Anuphan Cadson Demak Google Fonts
17. Mali Based on "TH Mali Grade 6" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
18. K2D Based on "TH K2D July8" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
19. Maitree Cadson Demak Google Fonts
20. Pattaya Cadson Demak Google Fonts
21. IBM Plex Sans Thai Mike Abbink, Bold Monday (IBM Plex) Google Fonts
22. Chonburi Cadson Demak Google Fonts
23. Trirong Cadson Demak Google Fonts
24. Noto Serif Thai Google (Noto fonts) Google Fonts
25. Fahkwang Based on "TH Fah Kwang" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
26. Thasadith Indirectly based on "TH Srisakdi" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
27. KoHo Based on "TH KoHo" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
28. Kodchasan Based on "TH Kodchasan" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
29. Charmonman Based on "TH Charmonman" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
30. Srisakdi Based on "TH Srisakdi" Cadson Demak Google Fonts
31. IBM Plex Sans Thai Looped Mike Abbink, Bold Monday (IBM Plex) Google Fonts
32. Noto Sans Thai Looped Google (Noto fonts) Google Fonts

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Suppakit Chalermlarp is now working for Cadson Demak.[18]

References

  1. ^ ไทยรัฐออนไลน์ (2011-01-20). "ซิป้า จับมือ กรมทรัพย์สินฯ ทางปัญญา ยิ้มร่าอวดโฉม 13 ฟอนต์ไทย ใช้ในหน่วยงานราชการ". Archived from the original on 2011-01-30. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
  2. ^ a b Pracha Suveeranont. "ฟอนต์แห่งชาติ". ๑๐ ตัวพิมพ์ กับ ๑๐ ยุคสังคมไทย (10 Faces of Thai Type and Thai Nation) (in Thai). Thaifaces. Retrieved 22 May 2020. Originally exhibited 18–31 October 2002 at the Jamjuree Art Gallery, Chulalongkorn University, and published in Sarakadee. 17 (211). September 2002.
  3. ^ a b Thai Linux Working Group. "Fonts-TLWG". Retrieved 2024-06-24.
  4. ^ a b Thai Linux Working Group. "tlwg/fonts-tlwg". Retrieved 2024-06-24.
  5. ^ a b "กรมทรัพย์สินทางปัญญา - โครงการประกวดผลงานสร้างสรรค์โปรแกรมคอมพิวเตอร์ฟอนต์". Archived from the original on 2011-03-18. Retrieved 2024-07-05.
  6. ^ ฟ๐นต์.คอม (2007-06-28). "13 ฟอนต์ฟรีมาตรฐาน จากสำนักงานส่งเสริมอุตสาหกรรมซอฟต์แวร์แห่งชาติ (SIPA)". Retrieved 2011-05-02.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ ไทยรัฐออนไลน์ (2010-12-13). "รัฐบาลกลัวละเมิดลิขสิทธิ์ ให้ส่วนราชการใช้ฟอนต์ไทยจากซิป้า". Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
  8. ^ a b Kosolkarn, Kamolkarn. "13+1 Thai Fonts - Cadson® Demak". cadsondemak.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2019. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  9. ^ a b Kosolkarn, Kamolkarn. "ความนิยมในภาษาไทยมีหัว - Cadson® Demak". cadsondemak.com. Archived from the original on May 5, 2019. Retrieved December 16, 2023.
  10. ^ ฟ๐นต์.คอม (2010-09-08). "สั่งราชการโละฟอนต์ต่างชาติ ใช้ฟอนต์ไทยแลนด์". Retrieved 2011-05-02.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ กรมประชาสัมพันธ์ (2010-09-07). "ครม.เห็นชอบให้ทุกหน่วยงานภาครัฐ ดำเนินการติดตั้งฟอนต์สารบรรณเพิ่ม". Archived from the original on 2010-09-12. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
  12. ^ V, Poonlap (Mar 21, 2019). "Google Thai Fonts". Medium. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  13. ^ สำนักนายกรัฐมนตรี (2021-06-07). "ครม.เห็นชอบให้ชุดแบบอักษรพระราชทาน "จุฬาภรณ์ลิขิต" เป็นชุดแบบอักษรมาตรฐานราชการไทยแบบที่ 14". Archived from the original on 2021-08-12. Retrieved 2023-12-16.
  14. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา (2011-01-07). "กฎกระทรวงกำหนดหลักเกณฑ์และวิธีการรับรองใบรับรองแบบอากาศยานหรือใบรับรองแบบส่วนเพิ่มเติมที่ออกโดยรัฐภาคีแห่งอนุสัญญาหรือประเทศที่ได้ทำความตกลงกับประเทศไทย เพื่อขอใบสำคัญสมควรเดินอากาศ พ.ศ. 2553" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 14, 2012. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
  15. ^ ฟ๐นต์.คอม (2008-06-05). "กระจู๋: อันว่าด้วยโลโก้วิกิพีเดียไทย". Retrieved 2011-05-02.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  16. ^ "ฟอนต์.คอม » ฟอนต์สารบรรณ รุ่นปรับปรุงใหม่ "Sarabun New"". 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2023-12-18.
  17. ^ "เอกลักษณ์ เพียรพนาเวช คนบ้าตัวอักษร". Who? Weekly Magazine. 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-01-28. Retrieved 2011-05-02.
  18. ^ "About Us".