The Agence Nationale de Renseignements (ANR) is a government intelligence agency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The role of the agency is to ensure "internal security and external security" of the state. The agency was strongly criticized for the disrespect of human rights by several organisations.[1][2][3][4] Inzun Kakiak has led the agency since 2019.[5]



In 1993 the administrative director of the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) was Admiral Mavua Mudima, who became defense minister in the 1996-1997 Kengo wa Dondo government.[6] In November 1993 Admiral Mavua was replaced by his assistant, Goga wa Dondo, a half-brother of prime minister Kengo wa Dondo. Goga wa Dondo was replaced in November 1995 by his assistant, Atundu.[7]

On February 13, 1996, Zaire handed to the Rwandan government rusting artillery pieces, troop carriers, arms and ammunition seized from fleeing Hutu former Rwandan government troops at the end of Rwanda's 1994 genocide.[8] Zairean Defence Minister Admiral Mavua Mudima handed over the weapons in a ceremony near the northwestern Rwandan border with Zaire. The weapons included two 105 mm howitzers, one without its barrel, four anti-aircraft guns and six dusty French-made armoured personnel carriers with flat tyres and smashed windows.

Historically, the intelligence organisation in the DRCongo or Zaire from 1960 to 1997 was named:

Formation and early years

The ANR was created in the beginning of 1997 as an intelligence service of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo (AFDL). In May 1997, the agency integrated the premises of the former Service national d'intelligence et de protection (SNIP), which had been renamed Direction générale de la sûreté nationale (DGSN) in 1996. On 16 April 1997 Mudima accompanied by General Baramoto Kpama fled the collapsing Mobutu regime, flying to South Africa aboard Baramoto's private jet.[9]

On 13 December 1997, three former senior Mobutu officers (Admiral Mavua Mudima accompanied by Baramoto Kpama, and Nzimbi Nzale) were briefly detained in South Africa after returning from Kahemba, an area still controlled by UNITA forces and awash with ex-FAZ and Hutu militiamen.[10] Their arrest may have pre-empted a coup attempt.

In October 2002, Georges Leta Mangasa, the chairman of ANR, was sentenced to death with other persons in the course of Laurent-Désiré Kabila's assassination. Before this, in 2001, the interim president, Joseph Kabila, appointed Kazadi Nyembwe for the chair of the ANR.

Human rights violations accusations

The agency has come under criticism under the tenure of Kalev Mutond (Mutondo). Human Rights Watch has accused it of being "instrument of political repression against opposition leaders and human rights and pro-democracy activists during the country's protracted political crisis."[2] Specifically they accuse Mutondo of using the organization to repress political dissent in 2016 around the time that then president Joseph Kabila was remaining in office beyond his constitutional limit. Accusations include those of harassment and torture.[2][4][3]


The National Intelligence Agency is headed by a General Manager (Administrateur Général), who directly depends on the president. He is assisted in his task by a Deputy General Manager and senior administrators. He was also under the chairmanship of Laurent-Désiré Kabila, right member of the State Security Committee (Comité de sécurité d'État).[11]

The general manager coordinates all the activities of the ANR in accordance with laws and regulations. As such, it:

Parenthetically, the General Manager shall act with decision and also has a cabinet. The Deputy General Manager assists the General Manager in coordinating all activities of the ANR, in accordance with laws and regulations. He assumes the interim in case of absence or incapacity of the managing director.[11]


The ANR is organize as following:[11]

The central and provincial directorates are divided into divisions, offices, branches and territorial posts as appropriate. The management and the station are run by a part of the ANR coated at least the deputy administrator grade, and named and, if necessary, removed from office by the President of the Republic, on a proposal from the deputy head. Divisions and offices are headed respectively by heads of division and bureau chiefs, appointed and, if necessary, removed from office by the President of the Republic on the proposal of the chief executive. The organic part of the ANR including the deputy head of cabinet is fixed by decree of the President of the Republic.[11]


The ANR has 11,931 employees and is organized into three departments, sub-divided into directorates, divisions, sections and offices. Each department has at its head, a Principal Administrator (PA). It has a budget of 31,684,000,512 Franc Congolais ~ US $34,252,973 in 2015.[11][6]

The Department for External Security (ANR/DSE) is responsible for foreign intelligence:[11]

The Department of Homeland Security (ANR/DSI) is responsible for internal intelligence and state security and is working with the relevant prosecution services and the national police; the department is organized in provincial directorates and specialized departments, like the Special Branch Investigations and Research (DSIR), unit suspected of involvement in the arrests of journalists and opposition politiques:[11]

The Support Department (ANR/DA) is the general services of the ANR and is mainly responsible for logistics support services "devolved" in the provinces:[11]

List of general managers

Notes and references

  1. ^ Responses to information requests: Democratic Republic of the Congo (RDC38748.FE) Archived 2007-05-20 at, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 25 March 2002.
  2. ^ a b c d "DR Congo: Investigate Ex-Intelligence Officials". Human Rights Watch. 2019-03-22. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
  3. ^ a b Lardner, Richard (2016-08-04). "American accuses Congo officials of unlawful arrest, torture". AP NEWS. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
  4. ^ a b Macdonald, Fleur. "As DRC election nears, 'tortured' dissidents in exile speak out". Retrieved 2019-03-23.
  5. ^ a b "RDC : Inzun Kakiak nouveau patron de l'ANR". 2019-03-21. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
  6. ^ a b "Refworld - Zaire: Information on the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) from 1993 to present, including its activities, the type of personnel recruited". Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  7. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Zaire: Information on the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) from 1993 to present, including its activities, the type of personnel recruited". Refworld. Retrieved 2023-08-10.
  8. ^ "Jisc MediaHub - RWANDA: ZAIRE HANDS MILITARY EQUIPMENT SEIZED FROM HUTUS BACK TO THE RWANDAN GOVERNMENT". Archived from the original on 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  9. ^ Prunier, From Genocide to Continental War, 136.
  10. ^ Southern Africa Report, May 1998. Mudima was only formally retired from the FARDC in July 2013.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i "11 janvier 2003. – DÉCRET-LOI 003-2003 portant création et organisation de l'Agence nationale de renseignements". (in French). Rome, Italy. Retrieved 2023-08-10.
  12. ^ "Nendaka contre-attaque". 4 July 2001.
  13. ^ "Seti Yale s'est éteint – Le Soft international".
  14. ^ "Une messe du souvenir sous le signe de l'intimité à Rabat, quinze ans après la mort de Mobutu". 9 September 2012.
  15. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-26. Retrieved 2016-07-19.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  16. ^ a b c "Refworld – Zaire: Information on the Service national d'identification et de protection (SNIP) from 1993 to present, including its activities, the type of personnel recruited".
  17. ^ "Hebdomadaire d'informations generales". Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  18. ^ a b Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld – République démocratique du Congo (RDC) : information indiquant si Mbuyu, directeur général de l'Agence nationale des renseignements (ANR) et de la sécurité extérieure, a été, en mars 2000, remplacé par Ismael Panieto".
  19. ^ "Partners –". Archived from the original on 2016-08-29. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  20. ^ "Didier Kazadi Nyembwe: "Personne n'a mieux géré les services de renseignement comme je l'ai fait"". 20 June 2011.
  21. ^ [1] [dead link]
  22. ^ [2] [dead link]
  23. ^ "JP Daruwezi pour une collaboration mutuelle entre... | la Référence". Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
  24. ^ "Intelligence économique en Afrique".
  25. ^ Baudouin Amba Wetshi. "A quoi sert l'Agence nationale de renseignements ? [What is the purpose of the National Intelligence Agency?]". Retrieved 10 August 2018.