National Research and Innovation Agency (BRIN)
Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional
Logo of BRIN

Alternative logo and Flag of BRIN
Agency overview
Formed24 October 2019
28 April 2021 (as independent agency)
Preceding agency
  • see Preceding Agencies
JurisdictionIndonesia Indonesia
Employees+11,000
Annual budget736,396,346.27 USD (Rp 10.51 trillions)
Agency executives
Websitehttps://brin.go.id

The National Research and Innovation Agency (Indonesian: Badan Riset dan Inovasi Nasional, BRIN) is a cabinet-level government agency formed by the Indonesian government in 2019. Originally a new agency attached to the Ministry of Research and Technology and leading to the formation of the Ministry of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, the agency was controversially[by whom?] separated and established as a new non-ministerial government agency directly under the President of Indonesia on 28 April 2021. On 24 August 2021 the agency gained official cabinet level status through enactment of Presidential Decree No. 78/2021. Under the new presidential regulation, the agency became the sole national research agency of Indonesia.

The agency has been characterized as a "scientific merger company" for its controversial strategy of fusing many pre-existing scientific agencies into its own body. Asvi Warman Adam [id], an Indonesian scholar and historian, noted that BRIN is a form of "holding research institution".[1] Laksana Tri Handoko, claimed that the agency he currently lead is a "Research Mothership" housing all state research activities of Indonesia.[2]

In September 2021, BRIN became a member of the International Science Council.[3]

History

Formation

On 17 April 2018, Presidential Decree No. 38/2018 on National Research Main Framework of 2017–2045 was signed by President Joko Widodo. The decree is intended to provide the Main Framework outlining the national research policies and priorities for comprehensive sustainable development.[4]

Before BRIN existed, government research and development activities were scattered across various ministries and government institutes and were mostly pursuing short term outcomes.[5] Not only that, research and development management was considered far from effective. The Corruption Eradication Commission reported in 2018, that from the national government research funding around 24.92 trillion rupiahs allocated for research (0.25% of Indonesia Bruto domestic product), in which only 43.74% spent on Research and Development (RnD) activities, while others spent for operational costs (30.68%), service costs (13.17%), capital expenditure (6.65%), and education and training (5.77%). Not only that, fictitious researches, overlapping researches, and various misuse and mismanagement of funding was also reported.[6][7] BRIN formed with intention to fix the problems in Indonesia research ecosystem.

BRIN formation was not apart from the figure of Megawati Soekarnoputri, former fifth President of Indonesia and Leader of Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle. The BRIN formation was suggested by her during her political speech during 46th anniversary party event in January 2019. In her speech, she suggested to the current sitting president, Joko Widodo, to form of a national-centered research and innovation agency to direct and support national research ecosystem, promoting nationality, and promoting national self-sufficiency.[8][9]

On 13 August 2019, Widodo signed Law No. 11 of 2019 on National System of Sciences and Technology. Article 48 of the law laying foundation of future BRIN.[10] After winning the election, on 23 October 2019, he signed Presidential Decision No. 113/P/2019 on formation of his cabinet and the ministers. As the Presidential Decision written, the agency attached to Ministry of Research and Technology.[11] On 24 October 2019, BRIN temporary constituting document, Presidential Decree No. 74/2019 signed by him. The constituting document specify that the organizational system of BRIN must be fixed in three months after the signing of the temporary document.[12]

Uncertainty

However, Bambang Brodjonegoro, the Minister of Research and Technology somehow failed to finished it and meet the deadline. In response, Joko Widodo issued a temporary extension through Presidential Decree No. 95/2019 on 31 December 2019, enabling the process to be extended until 31 April 2020.[13] However, until the time past, the process was still not finished. The situation made Indonesian researchers becoming worried that something went wrong.[14]

The uncertainty problem arose due to conflicts between the three ministries: Ministry of Research and Technology, Ministry of Law and Human Rights, and Ministry of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform. People's Representative Council requested Joko Widodo to warn the ministries to work properly and consolidating.[15]

In an interview on 11 April 2021, Bambang Brodjonegoro accused that there is a "political power" in government that attempted to make BRIN an autonomous body.[16]

Separation

On 30 March 2021, Joko Widodo submitted a Presidential Letter No. R-14/Pres/03/2021 to the People's Representative Council (DPR) contained a proposal for major change his cabinet. In his Presidential Letter, Ministry of Research and Technology and Ministry of Education and Culture will be fused into one ministry named Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology. While a new ministry, Ministry of Investment, will be spin off from current Coordinating Ministry for Maritime and Investments Affairs to be independent ministry on its own, but still under its coordination. BRIN will be separated as a new non-ministerial agency.[17]

On 9 April 2021, DPR approved the changes.[18] On 13 April 2021, Ali Mochtar Ngabalin, a senior staff at the Executive Office of the President of the Republic of Indonesia, announced that the second reshuffle will take place on second week of April 2021.[19] However, due to many reasons, the second reshuffle finally announced at 28 April 2021. Unusual for reshuffle happened in Indonesia, this reshuffle was the first of its kind which not only reshuffled the ministers, but also disbanding ministry institutions during the mid-term of presidency. In this reshuffle, Laksana Tri Handoko, former Chief of Indonesian Institute of Sciences appointed as the second holder of Chairman of BRIN, but first holder of chairman since its independence.[20] All appointed officials inaugurated and their respective new offices were established with Presidential Decision No. 72/P/2021.[21] However, the chairman inaugurated separately with different Presidential Decision, No. 19/M/2021.[22]

Establishment as Indonesia' Sole National Research Agency

On 5 May 2021, Joko Widodo signed Presidential Decree No. 33/2021, effectively establishing BRIN as sole national research agency. The decree decreed that all Indonesian national research agency such as Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesian: Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, LIPI), Agency for the Assessment and Application of Technology (Indonesian: Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi, BPPT), National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (Indonesian: Badan Tenaga Nuklir Nasional, BATAN), and National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (Indonesian: Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional, LAPAN) fused into BRIN. As expected, BRIN position no longer as regulatory body, as its regulation function remains in the ministry.[23] Despite being signed on that day, the decree, which backdated on 28 April 2021, was not yet published on government's law official channel, Documentation Legal Information Network (Indonesian: Jaringan Dokumentasi Informasi Hukum) but mass media, which make it not yet become officially in force.[24] It finally published on 29 May 2021.[25]

The initial organizational structure of BRIN also greatly expanded with this decree. BRIN now divided into 2 parts, Steering Committee and Executives. The Steering Committee, which is, controversially, ex-officio office hold by members of Steering Committee of Pancasila Ideology Development Agency (Indonesian: Badan Pembina Ideologi Pancasila, abbreviated as BPIP) Steering Committee. The Chairman of BRIN Steering Committee is also The chairman of BPIP Steering Committee. The Executives headed with Chairman of BRIN, executing research and day-to-day activities, as directed by the Steering Committee.[23]

The decree also granted local government in each province and city to upgrade their Research and Development Department in their respective province and city into Regional Research and Innovation Agency (Indonesian: Badan Riset dan Inovasi Daerah, abbreviated as BRIDA). While the BRIDA office responsible to their own respective area and local government, BRIN also have power to monitor, control, and evaluate each BRIDA office research performance.[23] The decree mandated to every province and regencies and townships government must formed their own BRIDA office in 2 years after the decree become effective. With currently there are 34 provinces, 416 regencies, and 98 township in Indonesia, 548 BRIDA offices are expected to be formed at least until 2023.[26][27]

As the initial capital for BRIN as independent agency, Government approved to allocate Rp 6.6 trillions for Fiscal Year 2022.[28] The initial capital later finally expanded to Rp 10.51 trillions for Fiscal Year 2022 on 27 September 2021.[29]

On 20 September 2021, it is revealed that more than 11,000 employees of the former Ministry of Research and Technology, LIPI, BPPT, LAPAN, and BATAN being moved from their original institutions to BRIN in the transitional period.[30]

BRIN's Research and Development Consolidation Plans

On 9 June 2021, Chairman of BRIN, Laksana Tri Handoko announced the plan that BRIN will be expanded more with integration of ministerial Research and Development divisions.[31] The plan actually not something new, as the issue already exist in 2018, since the Bill of the Law of National System of Sciences and Technology discussed in the parliament.[32] Back in April 2021, Joko Widodo intended that in the future, ministerial Research and Development divisions relinquished to the BRIN so the national research activities consolidated to BRIN only and no more overlapping research performed.[33] In the announcement of this plan, BRIN, together with Ministry of Finance, and Ministry of National Development Planning, prepared 3 options: (1) full integration of those research and development division from the respective ministry to BRIN, so each ministry required to relinquished their research and development division to the BRIN fully, but this plan is the most exhaustive, because structural change may involve the research and development division's originator ministry and Ministry of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform (2) program transition, which only relinquish some of ministerial research programs, its funding and execution to BRIN, or (3) partial transition, in which, only part of the research arm within the ministerial research and development division relinquished to BRIN, but the human resources retained their status from its originating ministry.[31] The third option probably made due to, in some ministries, its research and development division combined with human resources development, such as in Ministry of Religious Affairs' Research, Development, Education, and Training Agency.[32]

To strengthen BRIN existence to coordinate all research matters in national levels to the regional/local levels, Ministry of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform issued Circular No. B/295/M.SM.02.03/2021 on reformation and transformation of research resources on 22 July 2021.[34] The circular addressed to all state-owned research institutions and regional/local research and development departments. The circular mandated to the addressed institutes to be arranged their research and development arm under coordination of BRIN, and pushing formation of BRIDA offices as late as 31 December 2022.[34] On 12 August 2021, the Ministry of Home Affairs' Research and Development Agency, cooperated with Ministry of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform, BRIN, National Civil Service Agency, and National Institute of Public Administration held symposium on Research Institution Reformation. On the symposium, many issues relating research coordination under BRIN discussed. Addressed issues are: (1) human resource transfer from the institutions that due to be fused into BRIN, and (2) on the difficulties of BRIDA formation. On the BRIDA formation matter, the Ministry of Home Affairs offered the assistance to the local and regional government to assist the formation of BRIDA office on their respective area.[35][36][37]

On 28 August 2021, BRIN, announced plan to cut off and dismantle redundant state research institutions and centers of excellence (COEs) in Indonesia for efficiency in funding. BRIN also developed means to prevent formation and replication of these institutions in future, so in future, formations of the institutions prohibited and avoided research redundancies deemed wasteful and burdening taxpayers' money.[38]

On 22 September 2021, Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology, a long time subordinate of Ministry of Research and Technology, officially become the subordinate of the BRIN rather the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology. It is announced that the status become "research unit under the BRIN".[39][40] The name of Eijkman Institute later changed to Eijkman Molecular Biology Research Center, under the Life Sciences Research Organization of National Research and Innovation Agency.[41] This was first BRIN organization capture after the consolidation.

On 24 January 2022, BRIN announced that finally 919 state research units from 74 ministries and non-ministerial research arms will be consolidated under BRIN umbrella. These units will be consolidated to 104 research centers scattered across 18 Research Organizations of BRIN. 12 Research organizations will be inaugurated on 1 February 2022 for first batch of 2022 consolidation.[42]

Attempt to challenge BRIN status

Two researchers, Eko Noer Kristianto and Heru Susetyo, submitted a judicial review to Constitutional Court to challenge the government decision. The researchers claimed that there is "potentially raised uncertainties" of Indonesia scientific community due to BRIN existence and requesting clearance on "integration" in laws regulating sciences in Indonesia.[43] The submission of the case submitted as Submission Deed No. 34/PUU/PAN.MK/AP3/08/2021 to the Constitutional Court. The deed later registered as Case No. 46/PUU-XIX/2021 on 7 September 2021. The first meeting of the review was held at 21 September 2021.[44][45] On 15 December 2021, the Constitutional Court decided to dismissed the case.[46]

Structural Revision

Presidential Decree No. 33/2021 proved clashed with existing laws, and call for revision of the constituting document are voiced by scientists and lawmakers. The biggest issues are clashes between Law No. 10/1997 (Nuclear Power) and Law No. 21/2013 (Law of Space) in which BATAN and LAPAN, respectively made based on the said laws, not thru Presidential Decrees like LIPI, BPPT, and other agencies.[47] On 7 July 2021, Government announced future replacement of current BRIN temporary constituting document, Presidential Decree No. 33/2021.The replacement document intended to change the way BRIN will be operated, and changing the organization's structure. The replacement document still under construction during the time of announcement. The announcement also giving some glimpses of future BRIN will be. On the announcement, there are 5 major points of revisions: (1) Revisions on the presidential decree's articles which conflicted with preexisting laws, (2) Clarification on the integration mechanisms, (3) Harmonization between BRIN and other scientific and scientific regulatory agencies, (4) Fixing inter agencies coordination issues, (5) There will be 10 to 11 Technical Implementing Organizations under BRIN. What are the Technical Implementing Organizations subordinated under BRIN were unknown at that time, but there are some demotion of currently preexisting organizations, and some others are split of preexisting organizations.[48][49] The revision also somehow defending BATAN and LAPAN status for being dismantled and left out from BRIN, although however, some parts of the institutions will joined BRIN. Despite that, the said revision plan yet to cover the clear difference between BRIN and Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology in regulating science in Indonesia and the coordination between these two institutions on research matters with the DPR are yet to be clear. As the result, currently for consultation on research matters split between two different commissions in DPR.[47][50]

As part of the bargain and deal made by preexisting agencies with BRIN, agencies fused into BRIN still able to carry their old name when they do their business as the name already used for decades and some active projects, contracts, and cooperations still retained the old name. For example, in case of LAPAN after its disbandment it will be changed into an organization called Aeronautics and Space Research Organization (Indonesian: Organisasi Riset Penerbangan dan Antariksa, ORPA). Despite LAPAN now known as ORPA, ORPA can still use LAPAN as their name on their preexisting active projects, contracts, and cooperations.[51]

On 30 July 2021, Joko Widodo issued Presidential Decree No. 62/2021, the permanent constituting document of Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology, to the government's law official channel, Documentation Legal Information Network.[52][53] The decree further cemented the ministry regulatory functions over science, research, and technology in Indonesia thru formation of the General Directorate of Higher Education, Research, and Technology, miniaturized version of Ministry of Research and Technology, within the ministry body, not BRIN. While it make clear that BRIN do not have regulatory functions anymore and vested the regulatory functions in the ministry, the document still not yet made clear the coordination between the ministry and the BRIN. Nadiem Makarim himself asserted that BRIN is a partner of the ministry in performing researches, not the subordinate of the ministry.[54]

On 10 August 2021, as part of leaving the past and legacy of Ristek era, BRIN introduced new logo. The change of the logo announced at the same time of 26th National Technology Awakening Day celebration. The logo was drawn by Triawan Munaf [id], former Chief of Creative Economy Agency of Jokowi's previous Working Cabinet. The new logo consisted with stylized, integration of previous logos of LIPI, BPPT, LAPAN, and BATAN.[55][56][57] At the ceremony, Laksana Tri Handoko announced the finalization of upcoming draft of BRIN line up.[58]

On 24 August 2021, the new BRIN temporary constitutional document, Presidential Decree No. 78/2021 signed as the replacement of Presidential Decree No. 33/2021, and published on 1 September 2021. Based on the new decree, BRIN Steering Committee and deputies overhauled and restructured, the Technical Implementing Organizations (now termed simply as Research Organizations) in BRIN expanded, and integration mechanism cleared.[59] The new decree did not spare BATAN and LAPAN from disbandment, however, BATAN and LAPAN relinquished their power and rights granted by laws, Law No. 10/1997 (Nuclear Power) and Law No. 21/2013 (Law of Space) respectively, to the BRIN as sole inheritor.[59] It also provide mechanisms to local and regional government to form BRIDA offices. In the old constituting document, BRIDA is solely formed by their respective local and regional government. In the new constituting document, BRIDA formation is jointly provided by local/regional government and BRIN, with BRIN providing consideration of the formation of BRIDA to the local government. The BRIDAs can be attached to the Local/Regional Government Research and Development Department, not too burdening to local/regional government as before.[59] It also make clear between BRIN and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology. BRIN inherited much of the former Ministry of Research and Technology, except some works and responsibilities that need to left to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology.[59] The decree also reconfigure the office of the Steering Committee, from solely from BPIP steering committee members to become mixed between BPIP, Ministry of Finance, and Ministry of National Development Planning, academicians, and professionals.[60] The decree also uplifted status of BRIN to not only behaved just like common research and development agency which just only performing researches. The decree officially turned BRIN to has power and enjoyed status like ministerial office and become cabinet-level agency (termed as Lembaga Setingkat Kementerian). However, BRIN activities much controlled under supervision of BRIN Steering Committee directions, inputs, evaluations, approvals, or policy recommendations due to increased power of BRIN Steering Committee granted by the decree. The BRIN Steering Committee also had reserved rights to form Executive Assistance Task Forces to effectively assist BRIN executive under "special circumstances" if needed.[60] BRIN also required to report its institutional performance biannually to the Steering Committee, and annually reported to the president.[59] On 2 September 2021, acting executive officers of the Research Organizations inaugurated. With the inauguration of officers, LIPI, BPPT, LAPAN, and BATAN come to the end, but their integration process still on the way and pushed to one year after the enactment of Presidential Decree No.78/2021.[59][61][62][63][64]

On 3 September 2021, BRIN announced that will be held position filling process gradually in September 2021, December 2021, and March 2022 due to the organization size.[65] The real size of BRIN was not yet known to public and yet to be disclosed. On 6 September 2021, it is revealed from the disclosure that the organization structure of BRIN is actually very big, and it will housed 16 Research Organizations under its umbrella.[66]

On 13 October 2021, Megawati Soekarnoputri and other Steering Committee members inaugurated as BRIN Steering Committee by Joko Widodo. The inauguration done after a period of controversy over the Office of the BRIN Steering Committee brewed since May 2021.[67][68][69] On the ceremony, Megawati inaugurated together with Sri Mulyani, Suharso Monoarfa, Sudhamek Agung Waspodo Sunyoto, Emil Salim, I Gede Wenten, Bambang Kesowo, Adi Utarini, Marsudi Wahyu Kisworo, Tri Mumpuni.

Liquidation of State Research and Development Agencies into BRIN

In attempt of consolidation of state research activities under BRIN, Indonesian Government changed several ministries affected with the reform. Some ministries, which do not wanted to their R&D institutions being liquidated into BRIN due to being vital for decision making were opted to rescale their R&D operation, while also contributing part of their unit and resources to be relinquished to BRIN. Most ministries are no longer perform national scale or large scale research, except for policy making purposes. The reform also changed BRIN to able to perform national or large scale researches, no longer the ministry.[70]

The first affected was the Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology. After the issue of Presidential Decree No.62/2021, the Ministry issued Ministry of Education, Culture, Research, and Technology Decree No. 28/2021, which confirmed the relinquishment of its National Archaeology Research Institute to BRIN.[71]

On 25 October 2021, Presidential Decree No. 97/2021 issued in which affecting the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, the decree ordered relinquishment both of the Ministry's Geological Agency the Ministry's Energy and Mineral Resources Research and Development Agency to BRIN.[72]

Some exception of the transfer also happened. For example, was Ministry of Communication and Information Technology Human Resources Research and Development Agency due to the agency very specialized research in communication monitoring and policy making and does not contain any research which falls into innovative research. More over the agency focus largely in education and training purposes.[73] On 24 November 2021 the agency only relinquished 30 researchers, 2 research programs, and its funding to BRIN to be positioned in BRIN preexisting research agencies.[74]

On 30 November 2021, BRIN announced that Health and Nutrition Research Organization and Agriculture and Food and Agriculture Research Organization, transformation of the previously from National Institute of Health Research and Development of Ministry of Health and Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development of Ministry of Agriculture will activated and operated soon.[75][76]

On 15 December 2021, BRIN announced that human resource integration process to be consolidated to BRIN already 95%, and relinquishment of human resources from their original ministries and institutions will done at 16 December 2021.[77] On 16 December 2021, 28 of 34 ministerial research and development agencies officially liquidated to BRIN, while another 6 is ongoing.[78][79][80]

Preceding Agencies

BRIN, as sole Indonesia's National Research Agency, projected as sole inheritor and continuation of various Indonesia's state research agencies. As on 30 November 2021, 7 agencies already liquidated into BRIN's body, and 2 additional Research Organization will become active in future. On 16 December 2021, 28 of 34 ministerial research and development agencies officially liquidated to BRIN in Batch 1 Liquidation.[78] The excerpt of the liquidation letters containing a list of liquidated agencies made available on 21 December 2021, although their placement in BRIN still unknown.[81]

# Preceding Agency Original Parent Organization Original Founding Date Date Acquired by BRIN Acquirement Mode
1 Ministry of Research and Technology N/A 16 March 1962 1 September 2021 Full integration
2 National Research and Innovation Agency

(First Incarnation)

N/A 24 October 2019 1 September 2021 Full integration
3 Indonesian Institute of Sciences N/A 23 July 1967 1 September 2021 Full integration
4 Technology Assessment and Application Agency N/A 21 August 1978 1 September 2021 Full integration
5 National Nuclear Energy Agency N/A 5 December 1958 1 September 2021 Full integration
6 National Institute of Aeronautics and Space N/A 27 November 1963 1 September 2021 Full integration
7 Eijkman Institute for Molecular Biology Ministry of Research and Technology 31 July 1992 22 September 2021 Full integration
8 National Institute of Health Research and Development Ministry of Health 12 December 1975 16 December 2021
9 Agency for Marine and Fisheries Research and Human Resources Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries 15 December 2000 16 December 2021
10 Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development Ministry of Agriculture 26 August 1974 TBA
11 National Archaeology Research Institute Ministry of Education, Culture, Research and Technology 14 June 1913 16 December 2021 Full integration
12 Research, Development, and Innovation Agency Ministry of Environment and Forestry 16 May 1913 TBA Full integration
13 Environment and Forestry Instrumentation Standardization Agency 14 September 2020 TBA Partial integration
14 Research, Development, Education, and Training Agency Ministry of Religious Affairs 1 April 1975[82] 16 December 2021
15 Lajnah Pentahsihan Mushaf Al-Qur'an (Bureau for Checking Copies of the Quran)[83] 24 January 2007 16 December 2021 Full Integration
16 Agency for Research and Development and Book Affairs Ministry of Education and Culture 18 October 1969 16 December 2021 Partial Integration
17 Agency for Law and Human Rights Research and Development Ministry of Law and Human Rights c. May 2001 16 December 2021
18 Bureau for Supports for Human Rights Enforcement National Commission on Human Rights 7 July 1993 TBA
19 Archival System Research and Development Center National Archives of Indonesia 28 January 1892 16 December 2021
20 Geospatial Information Agency 17 October 1969 16 December 2021
21 Central Bureau of Statistics 26 September 1960 16 December 2021
22 Center for Research and Human Resource Development National Standardization Agency 26 March 1998 16 December 2021
23 Center for Research and Development National Population and Family Planning Agency 29 June 1970 16 December 2021
24 Center for Assessment of State Civil Servants Management State Civil Service 16 December 2021
25 Center of Assessment of Radiation Facilities and Radioactives Monitoring System and Technology Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency 4 January 1999 16 December 2021
26 Center of Assessment of Nuclear Installations and Nuclear Materials Monitoring System and Technology
27 Center for Development and Standardization of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning Policies Ministry of Agrarian Affairs and Spatial Planning/National Land Agency 26 August 1974 16 December 2021
28 Research and Development Agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Home Affairs 26 August 1974 16 December 2021
29 Agency for Development and Information of Villages, Development of Disadvantaged Regions, and Transmigration Ministry of Villages, Development of Disadvantaged Regions and Transmigration 10 August 2020 16 December 2021
30 Agency for Planning and Development Ministry of Manpower 26 August 1974 16 December 2021
31 Fiscal Policies Agency Ministry of Finance c. 1975 16 December 2021
32 Human Resources Research and Development Agency Ministry of Communication and Information Technology 26 August 1974 16 December 2021 Partial Integration, Human Resource only
33 Assistant Deputy-ship of Cooperatives and Small & Medium Enterprises Research and Development Ministry of Cooperatives and Small & Medium Enterprises 19 October 2015 16 December 2021
34 Deputy of Strategic Policies Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy/Tourism and Creative Economy Agency 30 January 2020 16 December 2021 Partial Integration, Human Resource only
35 Trade Policy Analysis and Development Agency Minister of Trade 29 April 2015 16 December 2021
36 Transportation Research and Development Agency Minister of Transportation 22 April 1980 16 December 2021
37 Defense Research and Development Agency Minister of Defence 24 August 1967 16 December 2021
38 Agency for Social Education, Research, and Extension Minister of Social Affairs 26 August 1974 16 December 2021
39 State Administration Institute 16 December 2021
40 Agency for Research and Development, and Education and Training of Law and Justice Supreme Court of Indonesia 25 October 1994 16 December 2021
41 General Secretariat of People's Consultative Assembly People's Consultative Assembly 27 May 1999 16 December 2021 Partial Integration
42 General Secretariat of Regional Representative Council Regional Representative Council 3 August 2005 16 December 2021 Partial Integration
43 General Secretariat of People's Representative Council People's Representative Council 12 May 1984 16 December 2021 Partial Integration

Organizations

With the structural revision thru Presidential Decree No. 78/2021, the decree overhauled the structure of BRIN and expanded BRIN structure. The decree altered BRIN Steering Committee structures and Research Organizations of BRIN from original 4 into 7, less than 11 originally planned. The Deputies structures also altered to not based on the fields of expertise as before.[64][59] On 6 September 2021, full structure of BRIN disclosed. The disclosure cited Presidential Decree No. 78/2021 and Chairman of BRIN Decree No. 1/2021. From the disclosure, it is revealed that those 7 Research Organizations actually part of more than dozens Research Organizations that will be placed under BRIN.[66]

On 24 September 2021, Chairman of BRIN Regulation No. 1/2021 fully published. The regulation outlined the executive offices and deputies under BRIN.[84]

The number of research organizations formed by BRIN are still fluid and seems always changing, although it was said it will be "on range of dozens".[85] It is revealed by the Chairman of BRIN Regulation No. 4/2021 granted the power to the Office of the Chairman of BRIN itself to form Research Organizations as the chairman deems needed and its formation can be approved with approval of the Ministry of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform.[86] It is announced on 24 January 2022 that 12 approved research organizations from the planned 18 BRIN research organizations will be finalized on 1 February 2022.[42]

The full structure of BRIN is as follows:

  1. Office of BRIN Steering Committee
    1. Office of Chairman of BRIN Steering Committee (ex-officio office filled with the BPIP Chairman of Steering Committee)
    2. Office of Vice Chairmen of BRIN Steering Committee (ex-officio office filled with the Minister of Finance and Ministry of National Development Planning)
    3. Secretary
    4. Steering Committees
    5. Executive Assistance Task Forces
  2. Executives
    1. Office of Chairman of BRIN
    2. Office of Vice Chairman of BRIN
    3. Executive Secretariat
      1. Bureau of Planning and Finance
      2. Bureau of Law Affairs and Cooperation
      3. Bureau of Organization Affairs and Human Resources
      4. Bureau of State Properties Management Affairs and Procurement
      5. Bureau of Public Communication, General Affairs, and Secretariat
      6. Section of Household Affairs
      7. Section of Secretariat Affairs
    4. Deputy I (Development Policies)
      1. Office of the Deputy I
      2. Office of the Deputy I Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Policy on Human Development, Population and Cultural Affairs
      4. Directorate of Policy on Political, Law, Defense, and Security Affairs
      5. Directorate of Policy on Economy, Manpower, and Regional Development Affairs
      6. Directorate of Policy on Environment, Maritime, Natural Resource, and Nuclear Power Affairs
    5. Deputy II (Research and Innovation Policies)
      1. Office of the Deputy II
      2. Office of the Deputy II Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Research, Technology, and Innovation Policy Formulation
      4. Directorate of Research, Technology, and Innovation Measurements and Indicators
      5. Directorate of Evaluation of Research, Technology, and Innovation Policies
    6. Deputy III (Human Resources, Sciences, and Technology)
      1. Office of the Deputy III
      2. Office of the Deputy III Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Competency Development
      4. Directorate of Functionaries Guidance and Professional Development
      5. Directorate of Talent Management
    7. Deputy IV (Research and Innovation Infrastructure)
      1. Office of the Deputy IV
      2. Office of the Deputy IV Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Scientific Collection Management
      4. Directorate of Research Fleets Management
      5. Directorate of Laboratories, Research Facilities, and Science and Technology Areas Management
      6. Directorate of Nuclear Facilities Management
      7. Directorate of Research and Innovation Infrastructure Strengthening and Partnership
    8. Deputy V (Research and Innovation Facilitation)
      1. Office of the Deputy V
      2. Office of the Deputy V Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Research and Innovation Licensing, Governance, and Scientific Authority
      4. Directorate of Intellectual Property Management
      5. Directorate of Repositories, Multimedia and Scientific Publishing Affairs
      6. Directorate of Research and Innovation Funding
    9. Deputy VI (Research and Innovation Utilization)
      1. Office of the Deputy VI
      2. Office of the Deputy VI Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Technology Transfer and Audit System
      4. Directorate of Utilization of Research and Innovation in Industries
      5. Directorate of Utilization of Research and Innovation in Ministries/Institutions, Community, and Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises
      6. Directorate of Research and Innovation Partnership
    10. Deputy VII (Local/Regional Research and Innovation)
      1. Office of the Deputy VII
      2. Office of the Deputy VII Secretariat
      3. Directorate of Local/Regional Research and Innovation Policies
      4. Directorate of Local/Regional Research and Innovation Facilitation and Monitoring
      5. Directorate of Local/Regional Research and Innovation Dissemination and Utilization
    11. Office of General Inspectorate
      1. Office of Main Inspectorate
      2. Bureau of General Affairs and Reporting
      3. Inspectorate I (Internal Supervision of Main Secretariat, Research Organizations, and Centers)
      4. Inspectorate II (Internal Supervision of Deputy I, II, III, and VII)
      5. Inspectorate III (Internal Supervision of Deputy IV, V, and VI)
    12. Research Organizations (as disclosed on 24 January 2022)[42]
      1. Earth Sciences and Maritime Research Organization
      2. Life Sciences and Environment Research Organization
      3. Food and Agriculture Research Organization
      4. Health Research Organization
      5. Archaeology, Language, and Letters Research Organization
      6. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Organization
      7. Nuclear Power Research Organization
      8. Government Administration, Economy, and Public Welfare Research Organization
      9. Energy and Manufacture Research Organization
      10. Nanotechnology and Material Research Organization
      11. Electronics and Informatics Research Organization
      12. Aeronautics and Space Research Organization
    13. Centers
      1. Center of Data, Technology, and Information (attached to Main Secretariat)
      2. Center of Technology Services (attached to Main Secretariat)
      3. Indonesian Nuclear Technology Polytechnic

Aside of these offices, Local and Regional BRIDA offices coordinated, synchronized, controlled, and monitored under Deputy VII.

Responses

BRIN formation is welcomed by many scientists,[6][7][87] and politicians.[88] It separation to become a fully independent agency reporting directly to the president also praised.

However, there is some fears that BRIN might become a political tool which leading to a source of potential conflict of interest. Largely, because BRIN existence is not separated from the role of Megawati and there is a rumor that Megawati wanted to be placed in BRIN "Directorial Committee".[89] The rumor become true with the issue of Presidential Decree No. 33/2021, as establishment of Steering Committee is realized and Megawati automatically become the Chairman of the office due to being an ex-officio office.[23]

To prevent BRIN become political tool, Indonesian Young Scientists Academy (Indonesian: Akademi Ilmuwan Muda Indonesia, ALMI) issued three stances: (1) government must keeping science and technology as base for policy making and decision, (2) instrumentation of science and technology and preventing BRIN, science and technology institute and research centers, and universities to become state corporations which follows the governing regime's political will and capitalism market to ensure their neutrality and independence, (3) ensuring the clear BRIN role as executor, not as the regulator to prevent overlapping role with ministries, and clearing form of BRIN as either independent agency on his own, or combining the existing government research and development agencies into BRIN umbrella.[90][91]

Criticisms

Potential of Conflict of Interest

While its existence was desired by Indonesia's scientific community, formation of BRIN was criticized due to being coordinated with and sharing the same Steering Committee with BPIP. Critics are afraid that in doing so, BRIN becomes politicized and received government intervention, threatening scientific freedom from political interest. This controversy arise largely because Megawati, a member of the steering committee for BRIN, is also a political party leader.[92] An opposition party, Prosperous Justice Party also lamented the decision, because the Steering Committee office did not have lawful basis, and was not mandated in Bill No. 11/2019. The law basis actually came from a bill, Bill of Pancasila Ideology Direction, which supposedly become the law basis for BPIP to grasp power to direct everything to the Pancasila, but the bill already dropped and died out.[93][94] The party also criticized the fusion of older state scientific institutes like LIPI, LAPAN, BPPT, and BATAN, because not only erasing the historical Indonesia scientific institutions and landmarks, the fusion also clashed with existing laws primarily Law No. 10/1997 (Nuclear Power) and Law No. 21/2013 (Law of Space).[95][96] The Chairman, Laksana Tri Handoko, however, supported that the "Steering Committee - Executive" system between BPIP and BRIN is necessary for building "responsible science-based policy making" to guide national research programs following national interests and protecting from irresponsible researches which may potentially conflicted with national ideology, interests, and wisdoms.[97] The ruling party, Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle, supported the decision, largely due to Megawati contribution to Indonesian scientific community, and as the party claimed, one of people that advocating larger scientific funding for Indonesia research agencies.[98] Yanuar Nugroho, political scientist and research advisor of Centre for Innovation Policy and Governance think-tank based in Jakarta, commented that if the steering committee exist for organizational purpose, it is not become problem as their job just steering the organization and its policies. However, if the steering committee exist to control the direction of the growth and advancement of sciences, it may become the problem as it will be translated the attempt of the government, whoever is ruling, to monopolize the sciences to establish righteousness based on government' point of view. Because Indonesia now just have BRIN only, BRIN expected to be "right and righteous" first before fully operating.[99]

Criticism over Liquidation Strategy

Current BRIN status and its expansion by "eating" older existing research agencies also criticized. Azyumardi Azra, Indonesian Islam scholar lamented the decision, because such invasive merging strategy used by the agency to build his own, and the merger process itself expected to be happened in very short time. Such process is very risky and even if it is succeeded, the resulting organization become so massive and very large.[100][101] The merger strategy used by BRIN also cost the National System of Sciences and Technology lined out by the Law No. 11/2019 itself, which the law mandated the independence of each the scientific organizations and co-operation, and synergy between the scientific organizations. If many scientific organizations all fused into BRIN, practically BRIN will monopolize the research performed by the state.[102] Not only that, with the status just as research and development agency, not a ministry as before, the bargaining power of BRIN also weak.[103] The issues resolved with the issuance of the new temporary BRIN constituting document, Presidential Decree No. 78/2021.[60]

Criticism on BRIDA Formation

Not only the BRIN formation, formation of BRIDA offices across Indonesia also quite difficult. Largely because local and regional research and development agency under local and regional government had been so long neglected, underpowered, underperformed, lacking the resources and instruments, lacking proper and capable human resources, and mostly their researches limited only in local and regional policy making and lack of innovation.[104]

Controversy over Balitbangtan Liquidation

During the hearing with Commission IV of People's Representative Council on 25 August 2021, Syahrul Yasin Limpo, Minister of Agriculture expressed his concern about the future BRIN plan of liquidation of ministerial research agencies and turning the agency to become part of BRIN.[105] The Ministry of Agriculture's Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (Indonesian: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Balitbangtan) is one of ministerial research agencies targeted to be liquidated and fused into BRIN. While the agency performances largely not known at large and publicly known as other research agencies, Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development is a much larger research agencies with established networks of state agriculture research institutes responsible with state agricultural research activities with more than 707.4 million hectares under their responsibility, and possessed large manpower powering it even larger than all Indonesian Institute of Science manpower totalled.[1][105] Endang S. Thohari, former Ministry of Agriculture scientist and one of founder of Balitbangtan who currently Gerindra politician sitting in Commission IV also lamented the government decision to liquidate the agency she founded with Indonesian agricultural scientists.[106] In the hearing, Limpo asked the support to the Commission IV to spare Balitbangtan from the liquidation, or if even it liquidated only part of basic researches divisions that relinquished to BRIN, while specialized agricultural researches still performed by Balitbangtan.[106] Earlier on 20 August 2021, Research Professor Communication Forum of Balitbangtan also voiced the same concern. Tahlim Sudaryanto, Agriculture professor and Head of Research Professor Communication Forum of Balitbangtan submitted the report compiled by the forum to the Ministry of State Apparatus Utilization and Bureaucratic Reform and Ministry of State Secretariat. In the report, the forum performed analysis and concluded that it is very hard to fused such large Balitbangtan to BRIN body in smooth without disturbance. The forum offered two options that possible: (1) soft integration, and (2) partial integration. If soft integration chosen, BRIN will lack power to control Balitbangtan, as Balitbangtan still attached to the Ministry of Agriculture but Balitbangtan programs and funding controlled and supervised by BRIN. While the option not advantaged to BRIN, the option is strengthening BRIN and Balitbangtan in collaboration to succeeding National Plan of National Research Priorities of 2020 - 2024 period. If partial integration chose, part of Balitbangtan relinquished to BRIN, and what remained with Balitbangtan will reformed into a non-research institution under Ministry of Agriculture with tasks assignments to be determined in the future. While this option advantaging BRIN, the execution of the option must be not be rushed and pushed into fixed 31 December 2022 deadline as mandated in the Circular No. B/295/M.SM.02.03/2021. The report also urged the government to change their deadline on liquidation if the second option chosen.[34]

On 21 September 2021, Ministry of Agriculture set up plans to disband their own Balitbangtan despite previous ministry reluctance to disband it and relinquished all the units from Balitbangtan to BRIN. As replacement of Balitbangtan, the ministry set up the Agricultural Standardization and System Agency (Indonesian: Badan Standardisasi dan Sistem Pertanian, BSSP), a regulatory and standardization agency. Along with Balitbangtan disbandment, part of the Ministry' Food Security Agency also relinquished to BRIN, while other part expected to become an embryo of another agency, National Food Agency.[107][108]

Continuous Political Attacks from Prosperous Justice Party

BRIN existence unwelcomed by Indonesian Islamist groups. The Islamist groups, led by the current Islamist opposition party sitting in the parliament, Prosperous Justice Party (PKS), continuously attacked BRIN existence, largely because the party dislike towards Megawati figure and Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P). Numerous political attacks, self-claimed by the party as "criticisms" had been launched by the party towards the new institution since the beginning of the separation of BRIN from the Ministry of Research and technology. The party also played Islamic themed populist narration in attempt to delegitimize BRIN existence and claimed that BRIN existence as "de-Habibie-nization project" and accused Joko Widodo administration to "remove landmarks left by Habibie and other Islamic scholars and scientists in building Indonesia research ecosystem" and favoring "secular model of scientific development" rather the "religious-based model of scientific development".[109][110][111] In the Indonesian political history, Habibie was Islamic scholar and first president during Reformasi era and during his era Islamic puritanism and Islamic conservatism was given the "living breath" and opportunities and relationship between Habibie and Indonesian Islamists and right-wing activists was very well.[112][113][114] For his role, Habibie was set by the PKS party was set as the party's patron back in 2016 and for PKS Habibie is "scholar and democrat".[115][116][117]

List of BRIN Core Leadership

List of Steering Committee Members

# # Image Member Position Concurrent Post Political Party Took Office Left Office Years in office Cabinet
C 1
Megawati Soekarnoputri Chairwoman of BRIN Steering Committee Chairwoman of BPIP Steering Committee Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle
5 May 2021
Incumbent
285 days
Onward Indonesia Cabinet
V 2
Sri Mulyani First Vice Chairwoman of BRIN Steering Committee[118] Minister of Finance Independent
1 September 2021
Incumbent
166 days
Suharso Monoarfa Second Vice Chairman of BRIN Steering Committee[118] Minister of National Development Planning United Development Party
S 3
Sudhamek Agung Waspodo Sunyoto Secretary of BRIN Steering Committee Member of BPIP Steering Committee Independent
13 October 2021
Incumbent
124 days
M
Emil Salim Member None (Independent) Independent
I Gede Wenten Member Professor, and Chemical Engineer from Bandung Institute of Technology Independent
Bambang Kesowo Member None (Independent) Independent
Adi Utarini Member Professor, and Public Health Researcher from Gadjah Mada University Independent
Marsudi Wahyu Kisworo Member Professor of Information System from Perbanas Institute Independent
Tri Mumpuni Member Social entrepreneur, philanthropist, social activist, and micro-hydropower inventor Independent

List of Chairmen

# Image Chairman Took Office Left Office Years in office Cabinet
1
Bambang Brodjonegoro
23 October 2019
28 April 2021
1 year, 187 days
Onward Indonesia Cabinet
2
Laksana Tri Handoko
28 April 2021
Incumbent
292 days

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