National War Memorial
 India
National War Memorial on the 21st anniversary of Kargil Vijay Diwas, 2020.jpg
National War Memorial, Tyag Chakra, Circle of Sacrifice, Ajay Ahuja.jpg
National War Memorial India, Param Vir Chakra section, Major Somnath Sharma.jpg
Clockwise from top: The Stambh (obelisk) houses the immortal flame, A section of the Tyag Chakra, View of a bust at the Param Vir Chakra section
For Indian military dead of all wars
EstablishedJanuary 2019
Unveiled25 February 2019
Location28°36′46″N 77°13′59″E / 28.612772°N 77.233053°E / 28.612772; 77.233053Coordinates: 28°36′46″N 77°13′59″E / 28.612772°N 77.233053°E / 28.612772; 77.233053
C Hexagon, India Gate Circle, New Delhi, India
Designed byYogesh Chandrahasan, WeBe Design Lab, Chennai[1]
Inscription
National war memorial text at bottom of pillar (cropped).jpg
अमर जवान
शहीदों की चिताओं पर जुड़ेंगे हर बरस मेले
वतन पर मिटने वालों का यही बाकी निशाँ होगा
Immortal soldier
Fairs will be held everyyear on the pyres of martyrs, this will be the mark of those who martyr on their homeland [2][3]
Statistics source: Official government website

The National War Memorial (Hindi: राष्ट्रीय समर स्मारक, IAST: Rāṣṭrīya Samar Smārak) in India is a national monument built to honour and remember soldiers of the Indian military who fought in armed conflicts of independent India. The names of armed forces personnel killed during the armed conflicts with Pakistan and China as well as the 1961 War in Goa, Operation Pawan, and other operations such as Operation Rakshak are inscribed on the memorial walls in golden letters.[4]

This monument is spread over 40 acres of land and was built by the Government of India around the existing chhatri (canopy), near India Gate, New Delhi.[5] The memorial wall is flushed with the ground and in harmony with existing aesthetics.[6] It was completed in January 2019 and unveiled on 25 February 2019 in an inauguration ceremony held at the monument where Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi in the presence of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) of India, and the three Chief of Staffs of the Indian Armed Forces, ignited the eternal flame of the Amar Jawan Jyoti (Flames of Eternal Soldiers) at the Amar Chakra under the main obelisk of the monument.[7]

The old Amar Jawan Jyoti, located at India Gate, previously served as the national war memorial. It was constructed in a short time frame following the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 as per Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's wishes, so that it could be inaugurated on 26 January 1972 as a mark of respect to the martyrs of the war.[8][9][10] The flame from here was merged with the flame at the new National War Memorial on 21 January 2022 by Integrated Defence Staff chief Air Marshal Balabhadhra Radha Krishna.[11]

Architecture and design

National War Memorial

National War Memorial (NWM) complex and India Gate within the C-Hexagon, with Amar Jawan Jyoti and Netaji hologram statue. The rings of the NWM form a chakravyūha.

A global design competition was conducted and the result was announced in early April 2017. A Chennai-based architectural firm WeBe Design Lab's proposal was declared the winner and was accordingly chosen for the conceptualization of the architectural design and for coordinating the construction of the project.[12][1] The chief architect, Yogesh Chandrahasan, of WeBe Design Lab, was inspired by the thought of creating a memorial to celebrate and honour sacrifices as compared to a place to mourn them.[13]

The National War Memorial and Museum was designated as a Special Project, and the task of its "timely execution" was allocated to a Special Projects Division under the Chief Administrative Officer (Ministry of Defence), and the Military Engineer Services.[14]

Concept

The Memorial has four concentric circles and a central obelisk, at the bottom of which burns an 'eternal flame' representing the immortal soldier (amar jawan).[5][15] The concentric circles are designed as a Chakravyuh, an ancient Indian war formation.[16] are called as follows (from innermost to outermost) :

The Param Yodha Sthal houses the busts of all the 21 recipients of the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest military honour.[5]

Busts at the Param Yodha Sthal (Param Vir Chakra section).
(counterclockwise from top) Captain GS Salaria, Lance Naik Karam Singh, Major Dhan Singh Thapa, Naib Subedar Bana Singh, Major Somnath Sharma

National War Museum

A National War Museum will be constructed in the adjoining Princess Park area and will be connected to the memorial through an underground tunnel. The Princess Park is a 14-acres large area north of India Gate, with barrack-like accommodations built during World War II. Since 1947, it has served as family accommodation for mid-level armed forces officers posted in the Service Headquarters in New Delhi.[18] The proposed National War Museum will be connected by metro. The construction of the War Memorial and Museum is expected to cost ₹500 crore (US$70 million).

In July 2020, the Central Public Works Department opened the tender for the selection of a consultant for the National War Museum in an area of around 10 acre. Two firms have been shortlisted, CP Kukreja Architects and Suresh Goel & Associates.[19]

Significance and celebrations

Starting of a new custom

Since 1972, every-year on 26 January, Republic Day, it had been customary for the Prime Minister, Chief of the Air Staff, Chief of the Naval Staff, Chief of the Army Staff and dignitaries to place wreath at Amar Jawan Jyoti under India Gate.[8] Other occasions were also marked such as Vijay Divas on 16 December, Independence Day on 15 August, service days such as Navy Day, and related anniversaries such as that of the National Cadet Corps.[20]

On the occasion of 73rd Independence Day, the President of India, Ram Nath Kovind placed a wreath and observed 2 minutes silence to pay tribute to the soldiers on for the first time at newly inaugurated National War Memorial instead of the old Amar Jawan Jyoti under India Gate.[21] And this way started a new custom to honour the soldiers fallen for the country after Independence.

Following the custom set by the President, the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi, for the first time placed a wreath at National War Memorial instead of India Gate on the occasion of Republic Day. Starting a new custom taking place at new Amar Jawan Jyoti under National War Memorial accompanied by the Chief of Defence Staff, along with the service chiefs.[22]

The Prime Minister at the dedication ceremony of the National War Memorial on 25 February 2019 along with senior officials and military chiefs.
The Prime Minister at the dedication ceremony of the National War Memorial on 25 February 2019 along with senior officials and military chiefs.

Remembrances, observations and celebrations

Timeline

Pre Construction

Post Construction

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Vijaykumar, Vaishali (7 March 2019). "Meet WeBe Design Lab: The architecture team behind National War Memorial". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 7 November 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  2. ^ "National War Memorial". nationalwarmemorial.gov.in. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2021.
  3. ^ "शहीदों के सम्मान पर 1916 में लिखी यह कविता आज भी मौजूं है". Aaj Tak आज तक (in Hindi). 15 February 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  4. ^ a b c d Pandit, Rajat (1 January 2019). "Delhi: War memorial ready, 60 years after it was first proposed". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Baruah, Sukrita (26 February 2019). "Explained: India's National War Memorial". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  6. ^ Gokhale, Nitin A. (11 July 2014). "Fulfilling a sacred contract with the soldier". News Warrior. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  7. ^ "PM Modi inaugurates National War Memorial in New Delhi". The Hindu. PTI. 25 February 2019. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 14 December 2020.((cite news)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  8. ^ a b Chhina, Last Post. Indian War Memorials Around the World (2014), pp. 161.
  9. ^ Anand, Col Rohan (January 2016). "National War Memorial, At Last". Sainik Samachar. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  10. ^ Anand, Col Rohan (May 2015). "India Gate. An Indian Legacy". Sainik Samachar. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  11. ^ Bose, Joydeep (21 January 2022). "In historic move, Amar Jawan Jyoti merged with National War Memorial flame". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 23 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  12. ^ Bhatnagar, Gaurav Vivek (21 April 2018). "National War Memorial Takes Shape Six Decades After Being Conceived". The Wire. Retrieved 7 November 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  13. ^ Gupta, Moushumi Das (28 April 2018). "War memorial near India Gate to be completed by Independence Day". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 March 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ "Charter of Duties". Ministry of Defence. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
  15. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (25 February 2019). "National War Memorial: India's tribute to her war heroes, see stunning pics". The Financial Express. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  16. ^ Yadav, Namrata (3 March 2019). "Are you looking for someone you lost, Ma'am? They asked my mother at National War Memorial". The Print. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  17. ^ a b c d "National War Memorial". www.nationalwarmemorial.gov.in. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  18. ^ Pandit, Rajat (10 July 2014). "Budget 2014: India to finally get a national war memorial, Modi govt allocates Rs 100cr". The Times of India. Retrieved 25 February 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  19. ^ a b Dutta, Anisha (11 August 2020). "Centre shortlists consultants for National War Museum". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  20. ^ "Search results for "Amar Jawan Jyoti"". Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  21. ^ a b "Independence Day 2019 highlights: Pinarayi Vijayan, E Palaniswami, Jagan Mohan Reddy hoist tricolour in celebration of 73rd Independence Day". Firstpost. 15 August 2019. Retrieved 14 December 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ a b "Not Amar Jawan Jyoti, Republic Day wreath-laying ceremony at National War Memorial from this year". India Today. 23 January 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.
  23. ^ a b "Not Amar Jawan Jyoti, PM To Pay Homage At War Memorial On Republic Day". NDTV. PTI. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: others (link) CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  24. ^ a b Nitin Gokhale (16 December 2012). "National war memorial - an unrealised dream". NDTV. Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  25. ^ P Sharma, Aruna (5 December 2006). "Ministry seeks new war memorial". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  26. ^ "In a first, nation pays homage to martyrs of 1962 Indo-China war". Firstpost. PTI. 20 October 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2014.
  27. ^ a b Bhatnagar, Gaurav Vivek (21 April 2018). "National War Memorial Takes Shape Six Decades After Being Conceived". The Wire. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  28. ^ Joseph, Josy (7 October 2015). "Cabinet clears Rs. 500 crore for National War Memorial". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 November 2021.
  29. ^ "Site for construction of National War Memorial and National War Museum - Press Information Bureau". Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  30. ^ "Global Design Competition for National War Memorial and Museum". Press Information Bureau, Government of India, Ministry of Defence. 30 August 2016. Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Global Architectural Competition for Indian National War Museum". MyGov.in. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  32. ^ "Global Design Competition for National War Memorial". MyGov.in. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  33. ^ Alex Philip, Snehesh (7 January 2019). "National War Memorial to honour 22,600 soldiers set for R-Day eve inauguration". The Print. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  34. ^ Pandit, Rajat (3 February 2019). "National War Memorial to be finally inaugurated this month". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 3 February 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  35. ^ "Ahead of oath-taking ceremony, PM Modi visits National War Memorial". WION. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  36. ^ "Kargil Vijay Diwas Live Updates: Enemy perched atop heights was defeated by brave soldiers, says PM Modi". The Indian Express. 26 July 2020. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  37. ^ Mehrotra, Vani (16 December 2020). "Vijay Diwas: PM Modi lights 'Swarnim Vijay Mashaal' at National War Memorial". www.indiatvnews.com. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  38. ^ Bose, Joydeep (21 January 2022). "In historic move, Amar Jawan Jyoti merged with National War Memorial flame". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 23 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Bibliography