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A national intranet is an Internet protocol-based walled garden network maintained by a nation state as a national substitute for the global Internet, with the aim of controlling and monitoring the communications of its inhabitants, as well as restricting their access to outside media.[1] Other names have been used, such as the use of the term "halal internet" in Islamic countries.

Such networks generally come with access to state-controlled media and national alternatives to foreign-run Internet services: search engines, web-based email, and so forth.[2]

List of countries with national intranets

Myanmar

Burma before 2011 used to have a separate intranet for domestic use called Myanmar Wide Web.[3]

Cuba

Cuba has its own state controlled intranet called national web.[4][5][6][7]

North Korea

See also: Internet censorship in North Korea and Kwangmyong (network)

North Korea's Kwangmyong network, dating back to 2000, is the best-known of this type of network. Cuba and Myanmar also use a similar network system that is separated from the rest of the Internet.[8] The network uses domain names under the .kp top level domain that are not accessible from the global Internet.[9] As of 2016 the network uses IPv4 addresses reserved for private networks in the 10.0.0.0/8 range.[9]

Russia

In 2020 Russia tested internal internet known as RuNet (Internet in Russian Federation territory).[10]

China

See also: Internet censorship in China and Great Firewall

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A primary insight flows from our research and it pertains to the stability of China’s internet: the internet in China is a walled garden in terms of structure yet at the same time dependent upon Western Europe and the United States for foreign connectivity.[11][12][13] Put plainly, in terms of resilience, China could effectively withdraw from the global public internet and maintain domestic connectivity (essentially having an intranet).[14][15][16] This means the rest of the world could be restricted from connecting into China, and vice versa for external connections for Chinese businesses/users.[17][18][19]

Iran

See also: Internet censorship in Iran and National Information Network

The National Information Network of Iran works like the Great Firewall of China.[20][21][22] In April 2011, a senior Iranian official, Ali Agha-Mohammadi announced government plans to launch its own "halal internet", which would conform to Islamic values and provide "appropriate" services.[23] Creating such a network, similar to the North Korean example, would prevent unwanted information from outside Iran getting into the closed system.[8] The Iranian walled garden would have its own localized email service and search engine.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ "The Great Firewall of China". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  2. ^ "Putin brings China's Great Firewall to Russia in cybersecurity pact". the Guardian. 2016-11-29. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  3. ^ Deibert, Ronald; Palfrey, John; Rohozinski, Rafal; Zittrain, Jonathan (2008-01-25). Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering. MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-29072-2.
  4. ^ Scola, Nancy. "Wait, Cuba has its own Internet?". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  5. ^ "Cuba - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  6. ^ "More Cubans have local intranet, mobile phones". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  7. ^ Harrison Jacobs (Sep 6, 2018). "Is there internet in Cuba?". Business Insider. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  8. ^ a b Christopher Rhoads and Farnaz Fassihi (May 28, 2011). "Iran Vows to Unplug Internet". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
  9. ^ a b Mäkeläinen, Mika (14 May 2016). "Yle Pohjois-Koreassa: Kurkista suljetun maan omaan tietoverkkoon" [Yle in North Korea: Peek into the Network of the Closed Country] (in Finnish). Yle. Retrieved 15 May 2016.
  10. ^ "Russia Takes a Big Step Toward Internet Isolation". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  11. ^ Denyer, Simon (2016-05-23). "China's scary lesson to the world: Censoring the Internet works". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  12. ^ Chao, Loretta (2010-12-21). "'Father' of China's Great Firewall Shouted Off Own Microblog". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  13. ^ Martina, Paul Carsten, Michael (2016-04-08). "U.S. says China internet censorship a burden for businesses". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  14. ^ "How China's Internet Police Control Speech on the Internet". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  15. ^ Siegel, Rachel. "Search result not found: China bans Wikipedia in all languages". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  16. ^ "TLS certificate blunder revisited – whither China Internet Network Information Center?". Naked Security. 2015-04-14. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  17. ^ Dave Allen (July 19, 2019). "Analysis by Oracle Internet Intelligence Highlights China's Unique Approach to Connecting to the Global Internet". Oracle. Retrieved 2020-07-30.
  18. ^ Mozur, Paul (2015-09-14). "Baidu and CloudFlare Boost Users Over China's Great Firewall (Published 2015)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  19. ^ "How China's social media users created a new language to beat censorship on COVID-19". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  20. ^ "Iran To Work With China To Create National Internet System". www.rferl.org. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  21. ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Freedom on the Net 2018 - Iran". Refworld. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  22. ^ "What You Need to Know about Internet Censorship in Iran". Centre for International Governance Innovation. Retrieved 2021-02-21.
  23. ^ "Iran clamps down on Internet use", Saeed Kamali Dehghan, The Guardian, 5 January 2012
  24. ^ Ryan Paul (April 10, 2012). "Iran moving ahead with plans for national intranet". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2012-09-24.