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The national symbols of Myanmar (also known as Burma) are icons, symbols and other cultural expressions which are seen as representative of the Burmese people. These have been accumulated over centuries and are mainly from the Bamar majority, while other ethnic groups also maintain their own symbols.

No official codification or de jure recognition exists, but most of these symbols are seen as de facto representative of the Burmese people. The use of much of these symbols were cultivated during the Konbaung dynasty which ruled the country from 1761 to 1885.

Flora

The Burmese ascribe a flower to each of the twelve months of the traditional Burmese calendar.[1] However, two flowers are seen as national symbols.

Padauk flower.jpg
The padauk (Burmese: ပိတောက်) is referred to as the national flower of Myanmar and is associated with the Thingyan period (Burmese New Year, usually mid-April). Unfortunately, it is often mistaken with the Cassia fistula (Ngu-wah), which is the national flower of Thailand.[2]
Bulbophyllum auricomum - Curtis
The Bulbophyllum auricomum or thazin orchid (Burmese: သဇင်) is another national flower.[2] According to a Burmese poem, during the Konbaung era, the king had the right to claim the first flowering bud of thazin within the realm and any transgression was punishable by death.
Naglingam (Couroupita guianensis) flower in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 6604.jpg
The ingyin (အင်ကြင်း) is the third national flower of Myanmar.[2]

Fauna

WikiProject Myanmar peacock.svg
The green peafowl, called the 'daung' (Burmese: ဒေါင်း) or u-doung (ဥဒေါင်း) in Burmese, is one of the national animals of Myanmar. It is strongly associated with the Konbaung monarchy and the anti-colonial nationalist movements and thus is popularly seen as the symbol of the Burmese state. The dancing peacock, ka-daung (Burmese: ကဒေါင်း) was used as the symbol of the Burmese monarch and was stamped on the highest denominator coins minted by Burma's last dynasty. Upon independence, it was again featured on Burmese banknotes from 1948 til 1966. The 'dancing peacock' also appeared on certain flags of the Konbaung dynasty, British Burma and also the State of Burma which was a collaborationist Japanese client state during the Second World War.

An alternative pose, to denote struggle, is the fighting peacock, khoot-daung (Burmese: ခွပ်ဒေါင်း) as seen visibly on the party flag of Aung San Suu Kyi's de jure disbanded National League for Democracy. Due to the political connections, the peacock has been discarded in favour of the Chinthe by the military junta which ruled Burma after 1988.

Chinthe (right facing).svg
The stylized leograph of Burmese lion (Burmese: ခြင်္သေ့), found mainly in front of pagodas and temples, have been promoted by the previous military government as the symbol of state. The lion had been used as a symbol of state, mainly as a supporting figure to the peacock, after independence, but it became more prominent only after 1988 - when it began to appear on almost all denominations of Burmese banknotes and coins (1999).

The main throne of the later Konbaung dynasty was the Golden Lion Throne (Burmese: သီဟာသနပလ္လင်).

Lord White Elephant.jpg
The white elephant (Burmese: ဆင်ဖြူတော်) is another symbol of state associated with the days of the monarchy. Like in neighbouring Thailand, the white elephant is revered as a blessing towards the entire country. The importance of the white elephant to Burmese and Theravada culture can be traced to the role which white elephants play in Buddhist cosmology and the Jatakas. Hsinbyushin, the name of a Konbaung King means 'Lord of the White Elephant'.

Food

A popular saying states "A thee hma, thayet; a thar hma, wet; a ywet hma, lahpet" (အသီးမှာသရက်၊ အသားမှာဝက်၊ အရွက်မှာလက်ဖက်), translated as "of all the fruits, the mango's the best; of all the meats, the pork's the best; and of all the leaves, lahpet's (tea) the best".

IMG Mohinga.JPG
Mohinga is the de facto national dish of Myanmar.[3] It is a rice noodle dish served with thick fish broth and is generally eaten for breakfast. The main ingredients of the broth are catfish, chickpea flour, lemongrass, banana stem, garlic, onion, ginger and ngapi.
Pickled tea (lahpet).JPG
Laphet thoke is another symbolic dish of Myanmar, albeit a snack. It consists of pickled tea leaves soaked in oil eaten with an assortment of fritters including roasted groundnuts, deep fried garlic, sun dried prawns, toasted sesame and deep fried crispy beans. Laphet is served in a traditional 'oat' - a lacquer container with individual compartments for each ingredients. Lahpet was an ancient symbolic peace offering between warring kingdoms in the history of Myanmar, and is exchanged and consumed after settling a dispute.

Sport

Chinlon hkadaung kyaik.JPG
Chinlone is the national sport of Myanmar.[4] A non-competitive sport, the game focuses on players attempting to exhibit moves designed to prevent the ball from touching the ground, without using their hands. Mandalay is a major centre for playing and learning chinlone.

Musical instruments

Saung Mandalay.jpg
The saung or Burmese harp, is the national musical instrument of Myanmar.[5] Although not used much in modern music, it is seen as the epitome of Burmese culture. It is the only surviving harp in Asia.[6]
Burmese Hne.jpg
The hne is a Burmese oboe and also another national instrument.

See also

References

  1. ^ Flowers of Myanmar
  2. ^ a b c "NLD criticise government's choices for national symbols". Democratic Voice of Burma. DVB Multimedia Group. 5 March 2009. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  3. ^ Withaya Huanok (November 2009). "Mohinga Memories". The Irrawaddy. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  4. ^ Aung-Thwin, Maitrii (2012). "Towards a national culture: chinlone and the construction of sport in post-colonial Myanmar". Sport in Society: Cultures, Commerce, Media, Politics. 15 (10): 1341–1352. doi:10.1080/17430437.2012.744206.
  5. ^ "Saùng-gauk (Arched Harp), Burma (Myanmar), ca. 1960". National Music Museum. The University of South Dakota. 21 September 2010. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  6. ^ Miller, Terry E. and Sean Williams. The Garland handbook of Southeast Asian music. Routledge, 2008. ISBN 0-415-96075-4