Nawab of Awadh
Flag of Nawab of Awadh Nawab of Oudh
Map of Oudh state in 1856
Map of Oudh state in 1856
Common languagesUrdu (official), Awadhi, Hindi
Shia Islam (official), Hinduism (majority), Sunni Islam, Jainism, Buddhism, Christianity
• 1722
Saadat Ali Khan I (first)
• 1858
Birjis Qadr (last)
• Established
• Disestablished
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mughal Empire
British East India Company
North Western Provinces

The Nawab of Awadh or the Nawab of Oudh /ˈd/ was the title of the rulers who governed the state of Awadh (anglicised as Oudh) in north India during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Nawabs of Awadh belonged to an Iranian dynasty[1][2][3] of Sayyid origin[4][5] from Nishapur, Iran. In 1724, Nawab Sa'adat Khan established the Oudh State with their capital in Faizabad and Lucknow.


See also: Oudh State

The Nawabs of Awadh were semi-autonomous rulers within the fragmented polities of Mughal India after the death in 1707 of Aurangzeb. They fought wars with the Peshwa, the Battle of Bhopal (1737) against the Maratha Confederacy (which was opposed to the Mughal Empire), and the Battle of Karnal (1739) as courtiers of the "Great Moghul".[6]

The Nawabs of Awadh, along with many other Nawabs, were regarded as members of the nobility of the greater Mughal Empire. They joined Ahmad Shah Durrani during the Third Battle of Panipat (1761) and restored Shah Alam II (r. 1760–1788 and 1788–1806) to the imperial throne. The Nawab of Awadh also fought the Battle of Buxar (1764) preserving the interests of the Moghul. Oudh State eventually declared itself independent from the rule of the "Great Moghul" in 1818.[7]

List of rulers

All of these rulers used the title of Nawab from 1722 to 1856:

Portrait Titular Name Personal Name Birth Reign Death
Saadat Ali Khan I.jpg
Burhan ul Mulk Sa'adat Khan
برہان الملک سعادت خان
Saadat Ali Khan I 1680 Nishapur, Khurasan, Safavid dynasty, Persia 1722 – 19 March 1739 1739
Safdarjung, second Nawab of Awadh, Mughal dynasty. India. early 18th century.jpg
Abul-Mansur Khan Safdar Jung
ابو المنصور خان صفدرجنگ
Muhammad Muqim 1708 1739 – 5 October 1754 1754
अवध के नवाब शुजाउद्दौला.jpg
شجاع الدولہ
Jalal-ud-din Haider Abul-Mansur Khan 1732 1754 – 26 January 1775 1775
Asifportrait2 - Asuf ud Daula.jpg
آصف الدولہ
Muhammad Yahya Mirza Amani 1748 26 January 1775 – 20 April 1797 1798
Asif Jah Mirza Wazir Ali Khan
وزیر علی خان
1780 21 September 1797 – 21 January 1798 1817
Saadat Ali Khan II.jpg
Yamin-ud-Daula Saadat Ali Khan II
سعادت علی خان
1752 21 January 1798 – 11 July 1814 1814
Ghazi-ud-Din Haider Robert Home 1820.jpg
Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah
Ghazi-ud-Din Haidar Shah
غازی الدیں حیدر شاہ
1769 11 July 1814 – 19 October 1827 1827
Nasir ud din haidar.jpg
Abul- Mansur Qutub-ud-din Sulaiman jah Nasir-ud-Din Haidar Shah
ناصر الدیں حیدر شاہ
1803 19 October 1827 – 7 July 1837 1837
Abul Fateh Moin-ud-din Muhammad Ali Shah
محمّد علی شاہ
1777 7 July 1837 – 7 May 1842 1842
Najm-ud-Daula Abul-Muzaffar Musleh-ud-din Amjad Ali Shah
امجد علی شاہ
1801 7 May 1842 – 13 February 1847 1847
Vajid Ali Shah.jpg
Abul-Mansur Mirza Wajid Ali Shah
واجد علی شاہ
1822 13 February 1847 – 11 February 1856 1 September 1887
Begum hazrat mahal.jpg
Mohammadi Khanum Begum Hazrat Mahal
بیگم حضرت محل
1820 11 February 1856 – 5 July1857
Wife of Wajid Ali Shah and mother of Birjis Qadra (in rebellion)
7 April 1879
Birjis Qadra.jpg
Ramzan Ali
رمضان علی
Birjis Qadr
بر جیس قدر
1845 5 July 1857 – 3 March 1858
(in rebellion)
14 August 1893


See also


  1. ^ Sacred space and holy war: the politics, culture and history of Shi'ite Islam By Juan Ricardo Cole
  2. ^ Encyclopædia Iranica, [1], R. B. Barnett
  3. ^ Art and culture: endeavours in interpretation by Ahsan Jan Qaisar, Som Prakash Verma, Mohammad Habib
  4. ^ Davies, C. Collin (1960–2005). "Awadh". The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition (12 vols.). Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  5. ^ Srivastava 1954, p. 1.
  6. ^ King Wajid Ali Shah of Awadh. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  7. ^ "As children, we wanted revenge on the British". The Times of India. 30 September 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2019.

Further reading