|Enlarged kidney (anatomy)|
|Types||Glomerulonephritis and Interstitial nephritis|
|Diagnostic method||Ultrasound, X-ray|
|Treatment||Depends on type(See type)|
Nephritis is inflammation of the kidneys and may involve the glomeruli, tubules, or interstitial tissue surrounding the glomeruli and tubules. It is one of several different types of nephropathy.
Nephritis is often caused by infections, and toxins, but is most commonly caused by autoimmune disorders that affect the major organs like kidneys.
Nephritis can produce glomerular injury, by disturbing the glomerular structure with inflammatory cell proliferation. This can lead to reduced glomerular blood flow, leading to reduced urine output (oliguria) and retention of waste products (uremia). As a result, red blood cells may leak out of damaged glomeruli, causing blood to appear in the urine (hematuria).
Low renal blood flow activates the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), causing fluid retention and mild hypertension. As the kidneys inflame, they begin to excrete needed protein from the affected individual's body into the urine stream. This condition is called proteinuria.
Loss of necessary protein due to nephritis can result in several life-threatening symptoms. The most serious complication of nephritis can occur if there is significant loss of the proteins that keep blood from clotting excessively. Loss of these proteins can result in blood clots, causing sudden stroke.
The diagnosis depends on the cause of the nephritis, and in the case of lupus nephritis, blood tests, X-rays and an ultrasound can help ascertain if the individual has the condition.
Treatment (or management) of nephritis depends on what has provoked the inflammation of the kidney(s). In the case of lupus nephritis, hydroxychloroquine could be used.
Nephritis represents the ninth most common cause of death among all women in the US (and the fifth leading cause among non-Hispanic black women).
Worldwide, the highest rates[clarification needed] of nephritis are 50-55% for African or Asian descent followed by Hispanic at 43% and Caucasian at 17%.
The average age of an individual diagnosed with kidney inflammation (in this case, lupus nephritis) is 28.4 years old.
((cite journal)): Cite journal requires