neurotensin receptor 1 (high affinity)
Identifiers
SymbolNTSR1
Alt. symbolsNTR
NCBI gene4923
HGNC8039
OMIM162651
RefSeqNM_002531
UniProtP30989
Other data
LocusChr. 20 q13-20q13
neurotensin receptor 2
Identifiers
SymbolNTSR2
Alt. symbolsNTR2
NCBI gene23620
HGNC8040
OMIM605538
RefSeqNM_012344
UniProtO95665
Other data
LocusChr. 2 p25.1
sortilin 1
Identifiers
SymbolSORT1
Alt. symbolsGp95, NT3
NCBI gene6272
HGNC11186
OMIM602458
RefSeqNM_002959
UniProtQ99523
Other data
LocusChr. 1 p21.3-1p13.1

Neurotensin receptors are transmembrane receptors that bind the neurotransmitter neurotensin.[1][2] Two of the receptors encoded by the NTSR1 and NTSR2 genes contain seven transmembrane helices and are G protein coupled. Numerous crystal structures have been reported for the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1).[3] The third receptor has a single transmembrane domain and is encoded by the SORT1 gene.

Ligands

Agonists

Peptide
Non-peptide

Antagonists

Biophysical Investigation

Unusually for GPCRs, NTS1 can be expressed in an active form in the bacteria E. coli.[8] It can be purified and analysed in vitro and has been analysed by a number of biophysical techniques such as surface plasmon resonance,[9] FRET[10] and cryo-electron microscopy.[11] Furthermore, high-resolution crystal structures have been determined for NTS1 in complex with the peptide full agonist NT8-13, non-peptide full agonist SRI-9829, partial agonist RTI-3a, antagonists / inverse agonists SR-48692 and SR-142948, as well as in the ligand-free state [3]

References

  1. ^ Vincent JP, Mazella J, Kitabgi P (1999). "Neurotensin and neurotensin receptors". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 20 (7): 302–309. doi:10.1016/S0165-6147(99)01357-7. PMID 10390649.
  2. ^ Pelaprat D (2006). "Interactions between neurotensin receptors and G proteins". Peptides. 27 (10): 2476–2487. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2006.04.027. PMID 16919370. S2CID 21730838.
  3. ^ a b c Deluigi M, Klipp A, Klenk C, Merklinger L, Eberle SA, Morstein L, Heine P, Mittl PR, Ernst P, Kamenecka TM, He Y, Vacca S, Egloff P, Honegger A, Plückthun A (January 2021). "Complexes of the neurotensin receptor 1 with small-molecule ligands reveal structural determinants of full, partial, and inverse agonism". Science Advances. 7 (5): eabe5504. doi:10.1126/sciadv.abe5504. PMC 7840143. PMID 33571132.
  4. ^ Yamauchi R, Usui H, Yunden J, Takenaka Y, Tani F, Yoshikawa M (April 2003). "Characterization of beta-lactotensin, a bioactive peptide derived from bovine beta-lactoglobulin, as a neurotensin agonist". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 67 (4): 940–3. doi:10.1271/bbb.67.940. PMID 12784648. S2CID 83609327.
  5. ^ Thomas JB, Navarro H, Warner KR, Gilmour B (March 2009). "The identification of nonpeptide neurotensin receptor partial agonists from the potent antagonist SR48692 using a calcium mobilization assay". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 19 (5): 1438–1441. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.01.024. PMC 4418176. PMID 19195889.
  6. ^ Bredeloux P, Costentin J, Dubuc I (December 2006). "Interactions between NTS2 neurotensin and opioid receptors on two nociceptive responses assessed on the hot plate test in mice". Behavioural Brain Research. 175 (2): 399–407. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2006.09.016. PMID 17074405. S2CID 24790151.
  7. ^ Ferraro L, Tomasini MC, Mazza R, Fuxe K, Fournier J, Tanganelli S, Antonelli T (August 2008). "Neurotensin receptors as modulators of glutamatergic transmission". Brain Research Reviews. 58 (2): 365–373. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2007.11.001. PMID 18096238. S2CID 25434443.
  8. ^ Attrill H, Harding PJ, Smith E, Ross S, Watts A (2009). "Improved yield of a ligand-binding GPCR expressed in E. coli for structural studies". Protein Expr Purif. 64 (1): 32–38. doi:10.1016/j.pep.2008.10.001. PMID 18976711.
  9. ^ Harding PJ, Hadingham TC, McDonnell JM, Watts A (2006). "Direct analysis of a GPCR-agonist interaction by surface plasmon resonance". Eur Biophys J. 35 (8): 709–712. doi:10.1007/s00249-006-0070-x. PMID 16708210. S2CID 7844675.
  10. ^ Harding PJ, Attrill H, Boehringer J, Ross S, Wadhams GH, Smith E, Armitage JP, Watts A (2009). "Constitutive dimerization of the G-protein coupled receptor, neurotensin receptor 1, reconstituted into phospholipid bilayers". Biophys. J. 96 (3): 964–973. Bibcode:2009BpJ....96..964H. doi:10.1016/j.bpj.2008.09.054. PMC 2716571. PMID 19186134.
  11. ^ Selmi DN, Adamson RJ, Attrill H, Goddard AD, Gilbert RJ, Watts A, Turberfield AJ (2011). "DNA-templated protein arrays for single-molecule imaging". Nano Lett. 11 (2): 657–660. Bibcode:2011NanoL..11..657S. doi:10.1021/nl1037769. PMID 21218848.