New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police
Shield of the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police
Common nameNYPD Auxiliary
MottoFidelis ad Mortem
Faithful to Death
Agency overview
Formed1950
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdictionNew York, New York, U.S.
Map of New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police's jurisdiction
Size468.9 square miles (1,214.4 km2)
Population8,274,527
Legal jurisdictionNew York City
Operational structure
HeadquartersAuxiliary Police Section
120-55 Queens Boulevard
Kew Gardens, NY 11424
Auxiliary Police Officers4,500+
Police Commissioner responsible
Agency executive
  • Deputy Inspector Emmanuel Gonzalez, Commanding Officer
Parent agencyNew York City Police Department
Units
List
  • Precinct Patrol
  • Transit Bureau
  • Housing Bureau
  • Highway Patrol
  • Harbor
  • Undercover Vice Ops
Boroughs
List
  • Manhattan North
  • Manhattan South
  • Brooklyn North
  • Brooklyn South
  • Queens North
  • Queens South
  • Bronx
  • Staten Island
Facilities
Commands77 Precincts

12 Transit Districts

9 Housing Police Service Areas
Police car/vans120
Police boats2
Website
Official Site

The New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police is a volunteer reserve police force which is a subdivision of the Patrol Services Bureau of the New York City Police Department. Auxiliary Police Officers assist the NYPD with uniformed patrols, providing traffic control, crowd control, and other services during major events.

Over 4,500 Auxiliary Police officers contribute over one million hours of service each year. The NYPD Auxiliary Police program is the largest Auxiliary Police program in the United States.[1]

Ranks

There are seven titles (referred to as ranks) in the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police:[2]

Title Insignia Shield Uniform Shirt Color
Auxiliary Deputy Chief
White
Auxiliary Inspector
White
Auxiliary Deputy Inspector
White
Auxiliary Captain
White
Auxiliary Lieutenant
White
Auxiliary Sergeant
Dark Blue
Auxiliary Police Officer
Dark Blue

History

The precursors to the Auxiliary Police were organized primarily during times of war when police officers were drafted into service, leaving the city with a diminished police force.

The Home Defense League was established in New York City in 1916 under Police Commissioner Arthur Woods to supplement the police force.[3] Many police officers had joined the armed forces as the war in Europe progressed. Citizens volunteered to enroll in the Home Defense League to aid police in patrolling duties and be on hand in case of emergencies.[4] In a matter of months, 22,000 people had volunteered for the Home Defense League. They were required to attend trainings on handling prisoners, protecting themselves, and using weapons. They received no pay. If the need arose (as it did in 1917 when armed forces were mobilized), they could be called into service to guard armories, subway stations, and other areas of the city.[5]

In 1918, the Home Defense League changed its name to the New York Reserve Police Force, as proposed by Commissioner Richard Enright, in addition to undergoing higher-caliber training under Special Deputy Police Commissioner Lewis Rodman Wanamaker.[6] Over 3,000 women joined the Police Reserve, serving under Captain Mary Noonan, primarily to provide eyes and ears for the police, look out for children's safety, and give first aid if necessary.[7][8] Governor Alfred E. Smith signed a new state law in 1920 that established the permanency of a reserve force as an adjunct of the police department.[9] By the mid-1920s, however, the Police Reserve had gradually stopped functioning as an active part of the Police Department, due to political disputes in a high-crime period. The Reserve was formally disbanded in 1934.[10]

During World War II, the need for a reserve force briefly returned. The City Patrol Corps was organized in 1942 to assist police in patrol work; over 4,500 men and women volunteered. By war's end in 1945, the corps was disbanded, but the city continued to maintain a volunteer police unit.[9]

In 1950, the 81st Congress of the United States of America passed the Public Law #920, entitled "The Civil Defense Act of 1950," authorizing a Federal Civil Defense Program. In 1951, the New York State Legislature enacted the "Defense Emergency Act" requiring New York City to recruit, train, and equip volunteer Civil Defense wardens, who would provide traffic and crowd control and other assistance to police officers in the event of an emergency or natural disaster.

The New York Penal Law provided peace officer status for the Civil Defense wardens during the event of an actual natural or man-made disaster or attack or during training drills. In 1967, a Mayoral Executive Order closed the Civil Defense Headquarters and placed full responsibility of the Civil Defense wardens with the NYPD. The NYPD retitled the division Auxiliary Police, changed the uniform to reflect police officer uniforms, and revised the duties of Auxiliary Police. During the 1960s when crime was on the rise, uniformed Auxiliary Police patrols were one means to deter crime.

On March 20, 2020, the NYPD suspended the Auxiliary Police unit due to concerns regarding the COVID-19 pandemic.[11]

Training and authority

Auxiliary Police recruits must pass an 18-week, 140 hour "Auxiliary Police Basic Training Course".

Auxiliary recruits are required by the New York State Municipal Police Training Council to undergo and pass this training course before they become Auxiliary Police officers. The training given in this course includes training in penal law, police science, discipline, radio use, defensive tactics, unarmed self-defense, self-defense with a straight wood baton, physical training, chemical training, first aid, handcuffing techniques, and arrest procedures.

In 2008, the NYPD revised the training course to include training in location and use of pressure points, dealing with domestic violence situations, firearm safety, and terrorism awareness. A written and physical exam is given at the end of training.

Upon the completion of the Basic Training Course, the physical exam, and the written exam, probationary Auxiliary Police officers are issued their shield and police identification card along with their baton and initial uniform allowance voucher. Probationary Auxiliary Police officers must patrol with a field training officer.

All Auxiliary Police officers are required by New York State to pass an annual refresher course in the use of force with the straight baton, arrest procedures, and law in order to maintain their status.

Auxiliary Police officers are neither Police Officers nor Peace Officers (except during an emergency under 2.20 Criminal Procedure Law)

Although volunteers, Auxiliary Police officers are city employees while on duty and may be eligible for Workers' Compensation in the event of injury while on duty.

Auxiliary Police officers must purchase and maintain equipment at their own expense. Officers who work the minimum required hours per fiscal year receive an annual uniform allowance check to help pay for new and replacement equipment and uniforms.

Laws

A NYPD Auxiliary RMP.
A NYPD Auxiliary RMP.

Duties

Auxiliary Police officers duties fall into four broad categories:[12]

  1. Daily patrol of assigned sectors within their respective precinct, transit district, housing area or specialized unit coverage area.
  2. Provide additional uniform police presence at parks, playgrounds, pools, street fairs, flea markets, block parties, shopping areas, subway entrances and exits, and school/church crossings.
  3. Assist with vehicular and pedestrian traffic at parades, marathons, concerts, intersections with broken traffic lights, accident scenes, and fire scenes.
  4. Assist in Precinct Identification Programs, Combat Auto Theft Program, Bicycle ID Program, Operation ID Program, Kid Care Program, and VIN Etching Program.

Auxiliary Police officers increase the public's perception of police "omnipresence" by patrolling in police cars, on foot and on bicycle. The police cars, known in the NYPD as Radio Motor Patrols (or simply "RMPs"), are white with blue decals, the same as regular NYPD police cars. The word "AUXILIARY" is placed on the trunk, hood, and front and rear side panels of the vehicles with a red underline. Auxiliary Police Officers are equipped with straight wood batons, ASP batons, bullet resistant vests, police radios directly linked to the Central Dispatcher, flashlights; whistles, handcuffs, notebooks, and reflective traffic vests. With the exception of their badges, which are seven-point stars, in contrast to the sheild worn by regular Police Officers, Auxiliary Police officers wear virtually the same uniform as regular officers.[13] Additionally, Auxiliary Police Officers wear the regular NYPD patch on both shoulders with a scroll saying "AUXILIARY" on top.

Auxiliary Police officers in New York City are not permitted to carry a sidearm at any time on duty, even if independently licensed to carry a firearm. In other jurisdictions within New York State, some police departments do allow their Auxiliary Police Officers to carry a firearm.

Auxiliary Police Officers provide patrol presence, observations and reporting of incidents requiring regular police response. Auxiliary Police Officers may be involved in life or death situations like a full police officer but do not have the option of the use of a firearm.

Role of the Auxiliary Police officer

Auxiliary Police officers can:

Auxiliary Police officers cannot:

Standard Auxiliary Police units

Precinct Patrol: Officers patrol their respective precinct. When performing foot patrol, the area of the precinct that the officer patrols is called a Patrol Area, which are divided into "Foot Posts". RMP and bike patrol are also performed. Officers under age 18 cannot perform patrol.[15]

Housing Bureau: Officers patrol their respective Housing (Police Service Area) precinct, mainly being a uniformed presence within the NYC housing projects. When performing foot patrol, the area of the precinct that the officer patrols is called Patrol Areas, which are divided into "Foot Posts". RMP and bike patrol are also performed.[15]

Transit Bureau: Officers patrol their respective Transit District precinct. When performing foot patrol, the area of the precinct that the officer patrols is called a Patrol Area, which are divided into "Foot Posts". RMP patrol is also performed.[15]

Transit Auxiliary Police Officers

Main article: New York City Transit Police

Two weeks after the 2005 London bombings, a new directive stated that New York City would institute a citywide transit Auxiliary program with the intent of reducing crime and fighting terrorism in the city's transit system. Transit Auxiliary officers work out of Transit Bureau precincts known as Districts and carry Transit portable radios. Unlike a precinct, the transit districts cover miles of underground subway. Transit Auxiliary Police officers go through additional training by the Transit Bureau Vandals Squad as well as the Counter-Terrorism Division to build vandalism and terrorism awareness within the Transit System. Transit Auxiliary officers are paired with either a regular police officer or Auxiliary police officer. Transit Auxiliary Police periodically perform inspections of the subway station(s) and platforms which they are assigned to, taking note of any suspicious occurrences, and set up a fixed post at the subway turnstiles, token booths, mezzanines, or platforms. Transit Auxiliary officers also conduct subway train inspections as well as train runs to/from stations that which assignment is given. Due to the common medical emergency calls in Transit, if medically qualified, Transit Auxiliary Police officers can respond to medical emergencies if they are near to the transit location. The main function of the NYPD Transit Auxiliary Police, like the NYPD Transit Police, is to primarily remain within the subway system.[16] [17][18][19]

Specialized Auxiliary Police units

Highway Patrol: Officers patrol highways, parkways, and main thoroughfares throughout the City of New York. Auxiliary Highway Patrol officers wear the same uniform as regular Highway Patrol officers and patrol in regular officers RMPs in Auxiliary Police Highway Patrol RMPs with AUXILIARY decals on each side. All applicants to this unit are required to have a minimum of five years experience as a patrol officer with the NYPD Auxiliary Police, must be mature, and have exceptional discipline and service records. Officers will be required to attend an Advanced Vehicle Operation Course before they may operate a Highway Patrol Vehicle. See article: New York City Police Department Highway Patrol[20]

Harbor Unit: Officers patrol New York City's waterways. A marine background such as one obtained through the U.S. Coast Guard, military, or other marine background is required.[20]

Citywide Traffic Task Force (CTTF): Officers patrol in areas all over the city that need special attention and extra patrol. However, more typical of this unit is performing duty during special events such as concerts, marathons, parades, etc. to increase the police presence. They are involved in both vehicular and pedestrian traffic control. They do not confine themselves to one location or precinct.[21]

Undercover Vice Ops: Officers that have not reached the age of 21 years old (18-20 1/2) can be utilized to assist the NYPD Vice Unit Narcotics Division for "Quality of Life enforcement" stings which address illegal alcohol, knife, and spray paint sales. Other than this exception, NYPD Auxiliary Police officers are never undercover (*unless authorized by the Police Commissioner or Commanding Officer of the Auxiliary Police) and always patrol in uniform. Officers who have received the necessary "Vice Training" may be used by their command in surveillance operations.

Ceremonial Unit: The Auxiliary Police also has a ceremonial unit made up of a small group of Auxiliary officers.[22]

Auxiliary Patrol and police vehicles

A New York City Police Department Highway Patrol Auxiliary RMP.

Patrol is one of the most important duties Auxiliary officers can perform. Various types of patrols are possible within different precincts. Almost all precincts perform foot patrol. Other types of patrol include:

In most cases, Auxiliary Police vehicles are retired vehicles that were once used by regular officers. Once the vehicle attains a certain amount of mileage, it is taken out of service and is either redecaled and given to a command for the Auxiliary Police, or is sold. Auxiliary Highway Patrol RMPs are retired RMPs previously used by regular Highway Patrol officers. Most commands only have one Auxiliary vehicle, but some have 2 or more. The number of Auxiliary vehicles per command is based on how many Auxiliary officers are working there and how many extra vehicles the NYPD has available. It should also be noted that older Auxiliary vehicles are painted either dark blue or black with white decals in contrast to the vehicles used by regular officers, which are white with light blue decals. In 2008, the NYPD changed the paint and decal color of Auxiliary vehicles to white with light blue decals in order to look like vehicles used by regular officers and as an economy measure to save money by not having to repaint the vehicles.[24]

Officers wishing to operate a bicycle, RMP, or van need special training before they are allowed to operate them. Training is done by the Police Academy Driver Training Unit (PADT) which is located at Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn. The golf cart, which is special to the Central Park Precinct, also requires special training to operate.[25]

Equipment

Auxiliary Police officers are not issued, and are not permitted to carry firearms while on duty, even if otherwise authorized/licensed to carry when off-duty.

Risks are involved and seven officers have been killed in the line of duty. On March 14, 2007, two Auxiliary Police officers—Eugene Marshalik and Nicholas Pekearo—were killed in a shootout in Greenwich Village.[26]

Up until March 26, 2007, the NYPD did not issue or subsidize ballistic vests to Auxiliary officers. But after the shootings of Pekearo and Marshalik, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg and Commissioner Raymond W. Kelly asked the New York City Council to earmark more than 3.3 million dollars to provide all Auxiliary Police officers with Level IIIA Vests, the same used by full-time officers. On March 27, 2007, the City Council approved this bill, which had all Auxiliary officers equipped with vests. Since then, in 2010, funding for vest for Auxiliary Police Officers has run out of the NYPD City Budget. Every Police Precinct, Housing Police Service Area and Transit District has a pool of "loaner" vest for new Auxiliary Police Officers to use while on patrol. Afterwards, they are returned and secured by the Auxiliary Coordinator.[27]

Representation

New York City Auxiliary Police Officers of all ranks have been represented since 1965 by the Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York (APBA).[28] While Auxiliary Police Officers are not full-time employees of the NYPD, they face many of the issues regular Police Officers face regarding working conditions, including safety, disciplinary actions, and uniform allowance reimbursement. Membership is voluntary.

Line-of-duty deaths

Since the establishment of the New York City Police Department Auxiliary Police, seven officers have died in the line of duty.[29]

Officer's name End of watch Cause of death
Auxiliary Sergeant David Freed [30] Sunday, August 31, 1975 Assault
Auxiliary Sergeant Noel R. T. Faide [31] Sunday, January 29, 1989 Vehicular Assault
Auxiliary Sergeant Larry L. Cohen [32] Sunday, January 29, 1989 Vehicular Assault
Auxiliary Police Officer Armando Rosario [33] Wednesday, March 25, 1992 Gunfire
Auxiliary Police Officer Milton S. Clarke [34] Wednesday, December 1, 1993 Gunfire
Auxiliary Police Officer Nicholas T. Pekearo [35] Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Gunfire
Auxiliary Police Officer Yevgeniy (Eugene) Marshalik [36] Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Gunfire

Controversy

Awards and decorations

Medal of Honor

Main article: New York City Police Department Medal of Honor

(Solid green bar speckled tiny gold stars) is awarded for:

American Flag Breast Bar

World Trade Center Breast Bar

Award of Valor

Award of Commendation

Award of Merit

Unit Citation

Community Service Award (3000 Hours)

500 Hours Award

Auxiliary Police 50th Anniversary

See also

References

  1. ^ "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 1" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  2. ^ "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 3" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  3. ^ "8,000 Join Emergency Police: Commissioner Hopes to Have 25,000 Men Ready Soon for Any Extraordinary Call". New York Times. 27 April 1916. p. 8. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Limit Home Guard to 22,000 Members: Enlistment in Defense League Makes Rapid Progress and Quota Is Nearly Full". New York Times. 6 July 1916. p. 9. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  5. ^ "State Forces Ready Today: Mobilization of Land and Naval Units Starts at Once. GUARDS DOUBLED AT FORTS Police Posted on Bridges and Home Defense League Ordered to Prepare for Duty". New York Times. 4 Feb 1917. p. 1.
  6. ^ "League Gives Way to Police Reserve: Home Defense Officers Agree to Plan Proposed by Commissioner Enright". New York Times. 20 February 1918. p. 7. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  7. ^ "Women's Auxiliary For Police Reserve: City's Moral Tone to be Lifted by Having Members on Duty in Every Block". New York Times. 10 May 1918. p. 11. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  8. ^ "First Police Unit Formed By Women". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 29 May 1918. p. 18. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  9. ^ a b Greenberg, Martin Alan (2001). The Evolution of Volunteer Police in America (Doctoral Dissertation). City University of New York.
  10. ^ "Police Reserve to Be Disbanded April 9; Served During War as Home Defense League". New York Times. 31 March 1934. p. 13.
  11. ^ Edelman, Susan; McCarthy, Craig (March 20, 2020). "NYPD suspends auxiliary policing unit amid coronavirus outbreak". New York Post. NYP Holdings, Inc. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
  12. ^ "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 4 and 6" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  13. ^ Auxiliary Police Badge
  14. ^ Authorized by case law: "THE PEOPLE &C., RESPONDENT, v. WILFREDO ROSARIO, APPELLANT"
  15. ^ a b c "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 4 and 9" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  16. ^ http://www.nycapba.org/(Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association)
  17. ^ Volunteer Rail Patrols(New York Post Archives) Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ New York City Auxiliary Police PBA, A.P.S. DIRECTIVE # 7; 2005. Retrieved August 29, 2007.
  19. ^ "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 9" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  20. ^ a b "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  21. ^ cttfauxiliary.com. cttfauxiliary.com. Retrieved on 2013-08-16.
  22. ^ "Auxiliary Police Overview" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  23. ^ APS Operations Order #13
  24. ^ Another reason for the new white auxiliary cars is to promote a police presence. The same action is being done with traffic and school safety.Auxiliary Police Overview Page 10 Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ "Auxiliary Police Overview Page 8" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-12.
  26. ^ Two auxiliary officers killed in Village shootout Archived 2007-03-21 at the Wayback Machine (ABC 7)
  27. ^ Vests on way for auxiliaries (Daily News)
  28. ^ "Auxiliary Police Benevolent Association of the City of New York". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
  29. ^ Officer Down Memorial Page - New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section
  30. ^ Auxiliary Sergeant David Freed, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  31. ^ Auxiliary Sergeant Noel R. T. Faide, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  32. ^ Auxiliary Sergeant Larry L. Cohen, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  33. ^ Auxiliary Police Officer Armando Rosario, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  34. ^ Auxiliary Police Officer Milton S. Clarke, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  35. ^ Auxiliary Police Officer Nicholas T. Pekearo, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  36. ^ Auxiliary Police Officer Yevgeniy (Eugene) Borisovitch Marshalik, New York City Police Department - Auxiliary Police Section, New York
  37. ^ Feds admit mistake, change course on death benefits for auxiliary cop heroes
  38. ^ "Ex-auxiliary cop says NYPD bosses pressured her for sex in police van". New York Post. 2018-01-02. Retrieved 2018-05-01.