Nisoish
Southeastern Loloish
EthnicityYi people, Phula people
Geographic
distribution
Southern China, Vietnam
Linguistic classificationSino-Tibetan
Subdivisions
Glottologsout3212

The Nisoish or Yi languages, which contains both the Northern Loloish (Northern Ngwi) and Southeastern Loloish (Southeastern Ngwi) branches, are a branch of the Loloish languages proposed by Lama (2012). Northern Loloish and Southeastern Loloish were established by Bradley (1997), while the Nisoish group combining Bradley's two branches was proposed by Ziwo Lama (2012). Lama (2012) refers to Northern Loloish as Nisoid or Nisu–Lope, and Southeastern Loloish as Axi–Puoid.

Classification history

In the past, Southeastern Loloish languages had variously been classified as Northern Loloish or Central Loloish, but were later recognized as forming a separate branch of Loloish by Bradley (2002).[1] Jamin Pelkey (2011:368-371) also noted that Southeastern Loloish and Northern Loloish branches are likely to be sister branches with each other. Shortly later, Ziwo Lama's (2012) computational phylogenetic analysis of the Lolo-Burmese languages gave further support to Pelkey's hypothesis. Northern Loloish and Southeastern Loloish languages were also found to constitute a single branch in Satterthwaite-Phillips' (2011) computational phylogenetic analysis of the Lolo-Burmese languages, who considers Nasu, Nosu, Nisu, and Samei as belonging to the same branch.[2]

Languages

Lama (2012)'s Nisoish branch is contains two subgroups, namely Axi–Puoid (also known as Southeastern Loloish) and Nisoid (also known as Northern Loloish). Lama (2012) gives the following internal phylogeny for the Nisoish branch.

 Nisoish 
 Axi–Puoid 
Puoid

Zuoke, Pholo (≈ Phowa)

 Axioid 

Azha

Sani (–Samei), AzheAxi

 Nisoid 
 (Nisu–Lope) 

Lope (Awu)

Nuosu (incl. Qumusu, Niesu)

Nasu (incl. Nesu, Gepo)

Nisu (Nishu)

Four of the six Yi languages (fangyan 方言) officially recognized by the Chinese government belong to Lama's Nisoish clade.

However, the remaining two of the six officially recognized Yi languages belong to Lama's Lisoish clade.

Lama (2012) lists the following changes from Proto-Loloish as innovations among various branches and languages of Nisoish.

Demographics and varieties

Wang (2003)

Yiyu Fangyan Bijiao Yanjiu (彝语方言比较研究) by Wang Chengyou (王成有) (2003)[3] gives phonological inventories for Yi (Nisoish) languages spoken in the following locations.

  1. Miyajing, Sanhe, Nanhua County 南华县三河底米丫井村[4]
  2. Zhuangke, Zhuangke, Yao'an County 姚安县庄科乡庄科村[5]
  3. Langzhe, Yunshan, Yongsheng County 永胜县云山乡朗者村[6]
  4. Lang'e, Lang'e, Yongsheng County 永胜县莨莪乡茛莪村[7]
  5. Zhijuxiao, Zhonghe, Yongren County 永仁县中和乡直苴小村[8]
  6. Hongmai, Lijiang 丽江红麦; Tanglang language 堂郎语[9]
  7. Huazhuqing, Xin'an, Mojiang County 思茅地区墨江县新安乡滑竹箐[10]
  8. Hemezha, Digengzuo, Buqi, Tanhua, Dayao County 大姚县昙华乡补期地耕作黑么鲊村
  9. Aiguo, Yangjiang, Weishan County 巍山县漾江农场爱国村[11]
  10. Sanjia, Chongfeng, Weishan County 巍山县冲锋乡三家村
  11. Lewuju, Wule, Nanjian County 南涧县五乐乡五具村[12]
  12. Yanzijiao, Guanting, Jingxing, Mojiang County 思茅地区墨江县景星乡官厅岩子脚村[13]
  13. Xiaoguangshan, Baoxiu, Shiping County 红河州石屏县宝秀乡小光山村[14]
  14. Zuoluo, Honghe County 红河州红河县座落村[15]
  15. Zhuyuan, Zhuyuan, Laochang District, Xinping County 新平县老厂区竹园乡竹园村[16]
  16. Suomili, Laowudou, Xinping County 新平县老五斗乡梭咪里村
  17. Washaozong, Tadian, Eshan County 峨山县塔甸乡瓦哨宗村[17]
  18. Suxiong, Ganluo County 凉山州甘洛县苏雄乡
  19. Laodashu, 2nd Township, Huili County 凉山州会理县第二乡老大树
  20. Lizi, Hongma, Xide County 凉山州喜德县红玛乡李子村
  21. Damaichong (upper village), Hejia, Liangshan, Yuanmou County 元谋县凉山乡何家村大麦冲上队[18]
  22. Daxingzhai, Wenshan County 文山县大兴寨; Zuoke language 坐柯
  23. Huangzhai (small village), Gaodeng, Wenshan County 文山县高登乡村公所荒寨小队;[19] Azhapu language 阿扎仆
  24. Longshu, Qiubei County 丘北县龙树村; Axi Touruo language 阿细拖若
  25. Anwang, Guangnan County 广南县安王村;[20] Flowery Lolo 花倮
  26. Long'an, Funing County 富宁县龙安;[21] White Lolo 白倮
  27. Musang, Funing County 富宁县木桑村;[22] Black Lolo 黑倮
  28. Sayingpan, Luquan, Kunming City 昆明市禄劝撒营盘[23]
  29. Banaji, Wuding County 武定县罢纳吉村
  30. Chijiabi, Biji, Xishan, Kunming City 昆明市西山区碧鸡乡赤甲碧村[24]
  31. 2nd Village, Wafei, 5th District, Zhenxiong County 镇雄县五区娃飞乡二村[25]
  32. Laolin, Yanshan District, Zhaotong County 昭通县盐山区老林乡
  33. Jingdi, Sayu, Zhaotong County 昭通县洒渔乡井底村[26]
  34. Longjie, 9th Township, Weining County 威宁县九乡龙街
  35. Dafang County 大方县
  36. Pan County 盘县
  37. De'e, Longlin County 隆林县德峨
  38. Axi 阿细: Xiaolongpu, Huakou, Xishan, Mile County 弥勒县西三镇花口村公所小龙铺村[27]
  39. Azhe 阿哲: Zhongzhai, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山中寨村[28]
  40. Gupo 古泼: Songshulin, Niupo, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山乡牛坡村公所松树林村[29]
  41. Sani 撒尼: Fengwu, Wujiepu, Luxi County 泸西县午街铺镇凤午村[30]
  42. Pula 濮拉: Wudupi, Chongmen, Mazheshao, Kaiyuan County 开远县马者哨乡冲门村委会乌都皮村[31]
  43. Nisu 尼苏: Baishengzhai (upper village), Baishengzhai, Yuanyang County 元阳县百胜寨乡百胜寨上村[32]
  44. Naisu 乃苏: Weisuo, Wushan, Mile County 弥勒县五山乡围锁村[33]

YYFC (1983)

YYFC (1983)[34] gives vocabulary lists for Yi (Nisoish) languages spoken in the following locations.

References

  1. ^ Bradley, David (2002). "The Subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman". In Beckwith, Christopher; Blezer, Henk (eds.). Medieval Tibeto-Burman Languages. Leiden: Brill. pp. 73–112.
  2. ^ Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian (2011). Phylogenetic Inference of the Tibeto-Burman Languages or on the Usefulness of Lexicostatistics (And "Megalo"-Comparison) for the Subgrouping of Tibeto-Burman (Ph.D. thesis). Stanford University.
  3. ^ Wang, Chengyou 王成有 (2003). Yíyǔ fāngyán bǐjiào yánjiū 彝语方言比较研究 (in Chinese). Chengdu: Sichuan minzu chubanshe. ISBN 7-5409-2765-8.
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  8. ^ "Yǒngrén Xiàn Zhōnghé Zhèn Zhíjū Cūnwěihuì" 永仁县中和镇直苴村委会 [Zhiju Village Committee, Zhonghe Town, Yongren County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
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  11. ^ "Wēishān Yízú Huízú Zìzhìxiàn Qīnghuá Xiāng Yàngjiāng" 巍山彝族回族自治县青华乡漾江 [Yangjiang, Qinghua Township, Weishan Yi and Hui Autonomous County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
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  18. ^ "Yuánmóu Xiàn Liángshān Xiāng Nàdí Cūnwěihuì Dàmàichōng Shàng Cūn" 元谋县凉山乡那迪村委会大麦冲上村 [Damaichong Upper Village, Nadi Village Committee, Liangshan Township, Yuanmou County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  19. ^ "Wénshān Shì Dōngshān Yízú Xiāng Huāngzhài Cūnmín Wěiyuánhuì Huāngzhài" 文山市东山彝族乡荒寨村民委员会荒寨 [Huangzhai Village Committee, Dongshan Yi Ethnic Township, Wenshan City]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  20. ^ "Guǎngnán Xiàn Nánpíng Zhèn Ānwáng Cūnwěihuì" 广南县南屏镇安王村委会 [Anwang Village Committee, Nanping Town, Guangnan County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  21. ^ "Fùníng Xiàn Mùyāng Zhèn Mùyāng Cūnwěihuì Lóngāndòng Cūn Xiǎozǔ" 富宁县木央镇木央村委会龙安洞村小组 [Longandong Village Group, Muyang Village Committee, Muyang Town, Funing County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
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  23. ^ "Archived copy". ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  46. ^ "Yǒngrén Xiàn Zhōnghé Zhèn Tādejū Cūnwěihuì Xiǎozhíjū Cūn" 永仁县中和镇他的苴村委会小直苴村 [Xiaozhiju Village, Taju Village Committee, Zhonghe Town, Yongren County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
  47. ^ "Yǒngshèng Xiàn Liùdé Lìsùzú Yízú Xiāng Liùdé Cūnwěihuì" 永胜县六德傈僳族彝族乡六德村委会 [Liude Village Committee, Lisu and Yi Ethnic Township, Liude County, Yongsheng County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
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  49. ^ "Yuánmóu Xiàn Liángshān Xiāng Nàdí Cūnwěihuì Dàmàichōng Shàng Cūn" 元谋县凉山乡那迪村委会大麦冲上村 [Damaichong Upper Village, Nadi Village Committee, Liangshan Township, Yuanmou County]. ynszxc.net (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2018-12-30. Retrieved 2018-12-30.

Further reading