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Northwest Papuan
Northwest New Guinea
(proposed)
Geographic
distribution
northern New Guinea
Subdivisions
GlottologNone

The Northwest Papuan languages are a proposed language family of Papuan languages.

Many of the constituent branches of Northwest Papuan were first proposed to be related by H.K.J. Cowan in the 1950s. Voorhoeve (1971) connected the Border and Tor families. Using only pronouns as a diagnostic, Malcolm Ross linked most of the western (Foja Range) branch of the family, which is now fairly secure. The current form of the proposal was worked out by Timothy Usher under the name "North(west) New Guinea"[1] (not to be confused with the proposed North New Guinea branch of the Austronesian language family). It is not yet certain, however, that the similarities in vocabulary between Foja Range and the other constituent families are due to inheritance rather than borrowing.

Languages

The western branch, Foja Range, is equivalent to Ross's Tor–Kwerba family with the addition of Nimboran.

Søren Wichmann (2013)[2] considers Nimboran, Kapauri (under Kwerbic above), Border, and possibly also Elseng (under Border above) to form a unified language family.

Lexical comparison

The lexical data below is from the Trans-New Guinea database[3] and Usher (2020),[4] unless noted otherwise.

Body parts
family language head hair ear eye nose tooth tongue leg blood bone skin breast
Trans-New Guinea Proto-Trans-New Guinea *kobutu; *kV(mb,p)utu; *mUtUna; *mVtVna *iti; *(nd,s)umu(n,t)[V]; *zumun *ka(nd,t)(i,e)C; *kat(i,e)C; *tVmV(d) *g(a,u)mu; *ŋg(a,u)mu; *(ŋg,k)iti [maŋgV]; *nVpV *mundu; *mutu *magata; *maŋgat[a]; *titi *balaŋ; *mbilaŋ; *me(l,n)e; *me(n,l)e *kani(n); *k(a,o)ond(a,o)C; *kitu *ke(ñj,s)a; *kesa *kondaC; *kwata(l,n) *gatapu; *(ŋg,k)a(nd,t)apu *amu
Tor-Kwerba Proto-Orya-Tor River[4] *nəbaɾ *aɾ[ɛ/a][n/ŋ] *nVwɛ *masɛ *mapəɾ[Vm] *ta[g]əna *mo̝m
Massep Massep[5] emǐbake embar sanyabe irmouibe nobe indice wanabe satoribe tenebe kumobe koke maike absibe sababra
Mawes Mawes defar tere nonsom wan ija werei tuan dukunen
Nimboran Proto-Grime River[4] *jaŋkaMBʉ *ndɜp *kam[a/ɔ]; *kəni[n/ŋ] *namuɔ *səɺiŋ; *wasəɺa[ŋ] *anəmbəɺ[i/ɛ]ŋ; *mambəɺ[ɜ/ɔ]p *masi *kin *ndɜn *asu[p/k] *min
Sentani Sowari tuniyiŋgan pioupiə kariŋgewa itini nəmbia owar ari yow yim
Sentani Sentani faləm uma i joko face itəha oro oki po wa nimə
Kapauri Proto-Kapauri-Sause[4] *baːɽ *t[o̝/u]waro̝ *w₂ano̝ *mɛn₂o̝ *ko̝mo̝ *aːᵘC *mɵ̝N
Kaure-Kosare Proto-Nawa River[4] *haⁱ *hwɔkɽuC *hwe̝N *pakaⁱ *ki *muN
Kosare Proto-Kosare[4] *pɔtɔ *m[o̞]ɽo̞ *pɛɽɛ *ti[p/b]e̞ *kako̞
Kosare Kosare potɔ´ potɔi 'kɔro ĩsɛrit moro 'kakò pɛki pɛrɛ´ ña 'kákò kó kakò
Kaure Kaure kasera; pleŋ; pɔklai hai; hat goklu; huaglüt gewe; hwai; hwew gopo; hapu sbeje; səbokai sremu; sɾumu due; duɛ hi; katesa; katsa era; laq; loa aguli; arohei; axlit mu; muq
Elseng Elseng walambiap nimbias mo; uskŋs naf sənpokep an mɔs; mɔsən pokəs wətwən ok son; sɔn pan
Molof Molof emi ela ou lom toŋga te ai fu mat antai kant mu
Usku Usku flekle flekle-kunda beikli nifi neŋkle bra nafu kla; mise kla; mi ninje; ninye kiombra
Namla-Tofanma Tofanma kemble kemble -na; kemble-na kemb lelu jei; yei məniti geme goŋgogok wanta leki nta jefake; yefake mo
West Pauwasi Tebi məndini məndini-teke; məndini- teke faʔa ei; i məndi kle klemalbo puŋwa teri; təri gwane; gwano ser mamu
West Pauwasi Towei mindimna mindi-teke ei kəreser popnoa edefi pana ser
East Pauwasi Proto-East Pauwasi[4] *mɛ *mbVwaⁱ *wVpi *ji *mɛⁱ *jɔ *mɜtaɺVp *mbu *mɜp *ŋgVɺ *apV, *jipi *mɵ̝m
Yetfa Yetfa fran; ᵽr᷈an fra may; ᵽʌřamai i; ʔiʔ ndor ɔřa; rwa moR᷈ ndwal fan tol; toR᷈
Lepki-Murkim Lepki[6] bwi yɛmon kal braw yiri kɔw nom
Lepki-Murkim Murkim[6] bwi amol kal prouk mal kok mam
Kembra Kembra[6] yi pa nili ka
Kimki Kimki[6] bwa luː albak afupla kwal mua
Senagi Dera (Amgotro dialect) boda nanada kumbo- keda kumba- kwada gutubu jabo-gemda tabu kodoa gemda kueda toto
Border Awyi naŋger; naŋgər jento; ta keato najo; nayo nubru ka marie malke keane sakər fəker mə̃
Border Waris ku tea; tɛa aŋku nop lomus lelo minde moŋgola towol kəi; kəl towol tɛt
Kwomtari Pyu uǏiʔ; wiri Ǐɩsiʔ; lisi kweɛ bəmeʔ; pɛmɛʔɛ tɛpʌǏi rəne asaguʔ ɛmiʔ; kami bəli; bɩǏiʔ kagole; kʌkʌǏɛʔ ib̶iʔ
Sko Skou röbe; rö́e ta luto; lutɔ̀ ha tãe hi ee nö re; nö rɔ̀
Nature
family language louse dog pig bird egg tree sun moon water fire stone path
Trans-New Guinea Proto-Trans-New Guinea *niman *n(e,i); *n(e)i; *n[e]i; *yak; *yaka[i]; *yanem *maŋgV; *munaka; *mun(a,u)ka *ida; *inda ~ *iñja *kamali; *kamuli; *ketana *kal(a,i)m; *kamali; *takVn; *takVn[V] *nok; *(n)ok; *ok(u); *ok[V] *inda; *k(a,e)dap; *k(a,e)(n,d)ap; *kambu; *k(a,o)nd(a,u)p *kamb(a,u)na; *(na)muna; *[na]muna
Tor-Kwerba Proto-Orya-Tor River *nɛna *gʷəɾa *gʷas *dzu *s[u]w[e̝] *te̝ *p[ɛⁱ]n *pɔ *nVɾ
Massep Massep sinome onobe iyi yabenayi inyane sinye warane sobe mandoma ɛware yase sirimakatiri sane
Mawes Mawes wede was ikinin siwin deŋkin esar bo kani feyt
Nimboran Proto-Grime River *səna[ŋ] *unduɔ *inəmbuɔ *jʉ *səwip[i] *ndi *wɔj *mbanu *mbu *kip; *kɜj *ndəmuɔ *tap
Sentani Sowari ami aweŋgen nifie ey kuku ya-yeŋgan omar yarim payn kara
Sentani Sentani mi yoku obo aye do no hu bu i duka
Kapauri Proto-Kapauri-Sause *hɛno̝ *unu *ɽe̝Cne̝N *huwini *nisiki (?) *bɛ[N/nV] *bo̝C *nawaɽo̝
Kaure-Kosare Proto-Nawa River *miN *se̝ *pî *ho̝C *tɛⁱC *h[æ/a]niC *paka *mi[jɛ] *sa(-[n/ɽ]ɛN) ɭitɪ
Kosare Proto-Kosare *se̞ *ho̞ *sɛɽi *e̞ne̞ *mijɛ
Kosare Kosare mi pi o ho's̪ɛri tĩⁿdi ɛnɛ´ⸯ paka biɛ 'naka kɛmɔrɔ´
Kaure Kaure mi; mĩ se pi hou; hu; ku hore; te; wale te; tei; teija hafei; haɾi; harei gaka; poka bi; biq; gomesi sa; saʔ; sareŋ təsi; tɛsi; tisi selu
Elseng Elseng ku wəs wo bisjas; bisyas suŋun sək ninaf mɔm wətel; wətəl bot; bɔt səpat mul
Molof Molof lem au le woar nei ar jat; yat tombe le mef
Usku Usku nimi lokwe kle weli nei meŋgerne ei jo; yo pane tra
Namla-Tofanma Tofanma bli jetai; yetai taili kili jaku; yaku menti-gaku basu we klo meka
West Pauwasi Tebi mi lumu; olmu alani; membi wejalgi; weyalgi maʔa wuluma ai we kwola fiaʔa
West Pauwasi Towei yemu jek wemu yimap eye we mafi
East Pauwasi Proto-East Pauwasi *jəmVɺ *pVɺ *and *jVn *naɺV, *waɺ *jəmaɺ *juŋg *Vnd *jaᵘ *mbVɺi *mVwaⁱ
Yetfa Yetfa ni:m; yim say mbaR᷈; mualə rawi řonǏa yau; yo; yɔ məlel kel; kɛr᷈ yaʋ; yau təkoup; tɩkɔᵽ miaA
Lepki-Murkim Lepki afai haiden ya mom roɣivei kel yaɣala sauf
Lepki-Murkim Murkim afi nel yamul kayakalo kaya(bi) kel yo oːn
Kembra Kembra tra traləl ya ota er ya isi
Kimki Kimki ã im maul bwakaya lokaya kamop kwil
Senagi Dera (Amgotro dialect) manə jabodo wadə du dogomda namo; nomo kəbu amana kue kai nəmai bakoda
Border Awyi tu eəl; wŋl wot noj; noy suŋul ti mentao kuŋgəru wobia; wobio tao ser məŋgir
Border Waris ku unde mi tuawa suul ti okumba wɛs po sue hon muna
Kwomtari Pyu ni; niʔ naguʔ; nakwu we; wɛʔ maǏuǏiʔ; maru Ǐio taʔ; taʔ ga; ka agwiʔ ʔiʔ; yi kamie; kʌmæ siri; sɩliʔ ʔonæ; ʔonɛ
Sko Skou fi nake; nakɛ́ pale; pálɛ tåå; tãŋã tã ko; tã kò ri rãã; rãã́ ke pa ra hũ; wũ
Miscellaneous
family language man woman name eat one two
Trans-New Guinea Proto-Trans-New Guinea *abV; *ambi *panV; *pan(V) *ibi; *imbi; *wani *na; *na- *ta(l,t)(a,e)
Tor-Kwerba Proto-Orya-Tor River *kʷe̝ *bo̝s[ɛ/a] *apa *nawɛt
Massep Massep kine okabe mnika nabini
Mawes Mawes ke dimane nano mendakai yakenew
Nimboran Proto-Grime River *səɺu *kambuŋ; *ki *sʉ *ndam *kapəɺaj[a] *namuan
Sentani Sowari watuga aror emaŋo upu pugwai
Sentani Sentani do do anəi-ko əmbai be
Kapauri Proto-Kapauri-Sause *na[N/nV] *nɛbɽe̝[na]
Kaure-Kosare Proto-Nawa River *naⁱ *naⁱ *sɔɽɔtɔC
Kosare Proto-Kosare *m[ɔ]ɽɔ *ne̞ *ko̞ɽapɛ
Kosare Kosare ḑɩmɔ'kasia morɔ kɛnɛ´ kora'ɸɛ tau
Kaure Kaure debla; dido dae bəre; blɛ; nokomne ganasi; kadi; kandɛ gogotia; kauxjaʔ; kaxotia tɾapli; təravərei; trapi
Elseng Elseng sisɛu; sisew saɔ to
Molof Molof lomo anale ti ne kwasekak ateti
Usku Usku mekenja; mekenya jomia kepo kisifaini narna
Namla-Tofanma Tofanma lame ale emi sembe kenano neni
West Pauwasi Tebi toŋkwar keke kini ne kərowali kre
West Pauwasi Towei tokwar ken nembra giona krana
East Pauwasi Proto-East Pauwasi *jɵ̝pɛ *VɺVm[i] *ɛⁱ *pɜɺ *aŋgVtamb *anVŋg
Yetfa Yetfa nam namiyaA ŋa; ntɛřᵽI kəsa; kɛsa ndyesel; tesyɛnsaR᷈
Lepki-Murkim Lepki rawil konan gye ɲis kutuɣap kaisi
Lepki-Murkim Murkim frawil wonak ka ~ kako ɲẽlo hel kais
Kembra Kembra ratera kia ɲəm kutina kais
Kimki Kimki ap kiam aip ~ mi auko amatri alas
Senagi Dera (Amgotro dialect) jani- ndia kuadedebo tato- mano; ŋguadu imbu
Border Awyi kir kuru anɛ; na maŋgua naŋger
Border Waris tənda ŋguabe nabae ne muŋasəl sambla
Kwomtari Pyu tali; taliʔ Ǐomæʔ waŋgɛʔ tefiye; tɛᵽiɛʔ kasi
Sko Skou ba; keba; kébanè; teba pemɛ̀ kã; pã; tã ali; alì hĩto; hĩ́to

References

  1. ^ Northwest New Guinea
  2. ^ Wichmann, Søren. 2013. A classification of Papuan languages. In: Hammarström, Harald and Wilco van den Heuvel (eds.), History, contact and classification of Papuan languages (Language and Linguistics in Melanesia, Special Issue 2012), 313-386. Port Moresby: Linguistic Society of Papua New Guinea.
  3. ^ Greenhill, Simon (2016). "TransNewGuinea.org - database of the languages of New Guinea". Retrieved 2020-11-05.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Usher, Timothy (2020). "New Guinea World". Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  5. ^ Hurd, Fred. 1979. Massep. Unpublished word list, m.s. SIL International.
  6. ^ a b c d Foley, William A. (2018). "The languages of Northwest New Guinea". In Palmer, Bill (ed.). The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area: A Comprehensive Guide. The World of Linguistics. Vol. 4. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton. pp. 433–568. ISBN 978-3-11-028642-7.