ODINUS logo.svg
Logo used in a mission proposal is a combination of the astronomical symbols for the planets Uranus and Neptune.
Mission typeOrbiter
OperatorEuropean Space Agency
COSPAR ID Edit this at Wikidata
Spacecraft properties
Dry mass500-600 kg
Start of mission
Launch date2034 (proposed)
Neptune orbiter
Spacecraft componentFreyja
Uranus orbiter
Spacecraft componentFreyr

ODINUS (Origins, Dynamics, and Interiors of the Neptunian and Uranian Systems) is a space mission concept proposed to the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision programme. The ODINUS mission concept proposes to expand the Uranus orbiter and probe mission to two twin orbiters— dubbed Freyr and Freyja, the twin gods of the Norse pantheon.[1][2] Their primary mission would be to study Neptune and Uranus with one orbiter each.[3] If selected, ODINUS would launch in 2034.[4]


The following six instruments are considered essential to the mission:

The following two additional instruments are strongly desired by the mission proposers:

See also

Uranus mission proposals


  1. ^ The ODINUS Mission Concept. White paper submitted to the European Space Agency call for L2 and L3 science themes (2013). Diego Turrini, Romolo Politi, Roberto Peron, Davide Grassi, Christina Plainaki, Mauro Barbieri, David M. Lucchesi, Gianfranco Magni, Francesca Altieri, Valeria Cottini, Nicolas Gorius, Patrick Gaulme, François-Xavier Schmider, Alberto Adriani, Giuseppe Piccioni.
  2. ^ Turrini, Diego; Politi, Romolo; Peron, Roberto; Grassi, Davide; Plainaki, Christina; Barbieri, Mauro; Lucchesi, David M.; Magni, Gianfranco; Altieri, Francesca; Cottini, Valeria; Gorius, Nicolas; Gaulme, Patrick; Schmider, François-Xavier; Adriani, Alberto; Piccioni, Giuseppe (2014). "The ODINUS Mission Concept - The Scientific Case for a Mission to the Ice Giant Planets with Twin Spacecraft to Unveil the History of our Solar System". arXiv:1402.2472 [astro-ph.EP].
  3. ^ Noreika, Alius (13 February 2014). "Uranus and Neptune exploration could be the next ESA milestone". Technology.org. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  4. ^ Gilster, Paul (18 June 2014). "Return to the Ice Giants". Centauri Dreams. Retrieved 1 April 2016.