Country of originIndia
ApplicationsOceanographic studies
Launch mass~1,000 kg (2,200 lb)
EquipmentOcean Colour Monitor
Pencil beam scatterometer
Microwave radiometer
Radio Occultation Sounder for Atmosphere
Launched4 (including 1 continuity support mission)
Operational3 (including 1 continuity support mission)
Maiden launchOceansat-1 (1999)
Last launchOceansat-3 (2022)

Oceansat is a series of Earth observation satellites built, launched, and operated by Indian Space Research Organisation, and dedicated to oceanography and atmospheric studies. Oceansat satellites facilitate a range of applications including documenting chlorophyll concentration, phytoplankton blooms, atmospheric aerosols and particulate matter[1] as well as marine weather forecast to predict cyclones.[2]



Main article: Oceansat-1

OceanSat-1 was the first Indian satellite built specifically for oceanographic applications. The satellite carried an Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) and a multi-frequency scanning microwave radiometer.[3] Oceansat-1 was launched on board a PSLV rocket on 26 May 1999.[4]

It was capable of detecting eight spectrums ranging from 400 nm to 885 nm, all in the visible or near infrared spectrums.[5] The second, the Multi-frequency Scanning Microwave Radiometer, collects data by measuring microwave radiation passing through the atmosphere over the ocean.[6] This offers information including sea surface temperature, wind speed, cloud water content, and water vapour content.[1][6]

Although initially launched with a lifespan of 5 years, Oceansat-1 completed its mission on August 8, 2010, after serving for 11 years and 2 months.


Main article: Oceansat-2

Oceansat-2 is designed to provide service continuity for operational users of the Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) instrument on Oceansat-1 and enhance the potential of applications in other areas.[7]

A swath width of 1420 km is provided. An along-track instrument tilt capability of ±20º is provided to avoid sun glint.[8]

Satellite was launched aboard a PSLV-CA on 23 September 2009.[9]


Main article: SCATSAT-1

SCATSAT-1 was launched in 2016[10] after SCAT (Scanning scatterometer) on Oceansat-2 became dysfunctional after its life span of four-and-a-half years. SCATSAT carries a Ku-band scatterometer similar to the one on Oceansat-2.[11]


Main article: Oceansat-3

Oceansat-3 was launched on 26 November 2022,[12] Oceansat-3 will provide continuity to operators of OCM and enhanced ability in other applications by way of simultaneous Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements.[13][14] As of March 2021, ISRO and CNES completed interface control document to accommodate Argos in Oceansat-3.[15]

List of Oceansat Satellites

Designation COSPAR ID NORAD ID Power Launch date, Time (UTC) Launch mass Launch vehicle Launch site Status Remarks
Oceansat-1/IRS-P4 1999-029C 25758 750 W 26 May 1999, 06:22:00 1,036 kg (2,284 lb) PSLV-G C2 FLP, SDSC Retired Completed a life a span more than double of planned.
Oceansat-2 2009-051A 35931 23 September 2009, 06:21 960 kg (2,120 lb) PSLV-CA C14 SLP, SDSC Operational Tilt ability up to 20 degrees
SCATSAT-1 2016-059H 41790 26 September 2016, 03:42 371 kg (818 lb) PSLV-G C35 FLP, SDSC Retired Continuity mission after SCAT on Oceansat-2 got dysfunctional
Oceansat-3/EOS-06 2022-158A 54361 26 November 2022, 06:26 1,117 kg (2,463 lb) PSLV-XL C54 FLP, SDSC Operational
Oceansat-3A 2025 PSLV-XL SDSC Planned

See also


  1. ^ a b "IRS-P4 - Gunter's Space Page". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  2. ^ "To predict cyclone, ISRO to build advanced satellite". The Indian Express. 27 May 2015. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  3. ^ "Oceansat(IRS-P4)". Indian Space Research Organisation. 26 May 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  4. ^ "PSLV-C2/IRS-P4". Indian Space Research Organisation. 26 May 1999. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  5. ^ Recent Advances In Environmental Science. Discovery Publishing House. 1 January 2003. p. 350. ISBN 978-81-7141-679-0.
  6. ^ a b Sastry, Hari Ram Subrahmanya; Ebenezer, D. D.; Sundaram, T. V. S. (2002). Proceedings of theInternational conference on SonarSensors of Systems, Vol. 2. Allied Publishers. p. 635. ISBN 978-81-7764-382-4.
  7. ^ "Oceansat-2)". Indian Space Research Organisation. 23 September 2009. Archived from the original on 11 December 2019. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Oceansat 2". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  9. ^ "PSLV-C14 / OCEANSAT-2". Indian Space Research Organisation. 23 September 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  10. ^ "PSLV-C35 / SCATSAT-1". Indian Space Research Organisation. 26 September 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  11. ^ "SCATSAT-1". Indian Space Research Organisation. 26 September 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  12. ^ Chethan Kumar (6 April 2022). "gaganyaan: 2 Gaganyaan abort tests in August, December; relay satellites next year | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  13. ^ "Oceansat 3, 3A". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 9 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Isro aims for 7 more launches from India in 2021". Times of India. 12 March 2021.
  15. ^ "India, France Working On 3rd Joint Space Mission, Says ISRO Chairman". NDTV. 20 March 2021. Retrieved 21 March 2021.