Old Occitan
Old Provençal
RegionLanguedoc, Provence, Dauphiné, Auvergne, Limousin, Aquitaine, Gascony
Era9th–14th centuries
Language codes
ISO 639-2pro
ISO 639-3pro

Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, Catalan: occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.[1][2] Old Occitan generally includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometimes included in Old Occitan, sometimes in Modern Occitan.[3] As the term occitanus appeared around the year 1300,[4] Old Occitan is referred to as "Romance" (Occitan: romans) or "Provençal" (Occitan: proensals) in medieval texts.


Gallo-Romance languages.
1. Current limits of the Occitan language
2. Former limits of the Occitan language before the 13th century.

Among the earliest records of Occitan are the Tomida femina, the Boecis and the Cançó de Santa Fe. Old Occitan, the language used by the troubadours, was the first Romance language with a literary corpus and had an enormous influence on the development of lyric poetry in other European languages. The interpunct was a feature of its orthography and survives today in Catalan and Gascon.

The official language of the sovereign principality of the Viscounty of Béarn was the local vernacular Bearnès dialect of Old Occitan. It was the spoken language of law courts and of business and it was the written language of customary law. Although vernacular languages were increasingly preferred to Latin in western Europe in the late Middle Ages, the status of Occitan in Béarn was unusual because its use was required by law: "lawyers will draft their petitions and pleas in the vernacular language of the present country, both in speech and in writing".[5]

Old Catalan and Old Occitan diverged between the 11th and the 14th centuries.[6] Catalan never underwent the shift from /u/ to /y/ or the shift from /o/ to /u/ (except in unstressed syllables in some dialects) and so had diverged phonologically before those changes affected Old Occitan.


Old Occitan changed and evolved somewhat during its history, but the basic sound system can be summarised as follows:[7]


Old Occitan consonants
Labial Dental/
Nasal m n ɲ
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ
Fricative f   v s   z
Affricate ts   dz  
Lateral l ʎ
Trill r
Tap ɾ




  Front Central Back
Close i   y u
Close-mid e (o)
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a

Diphthongs and triphthongs

Old Occitan diphthongs and triphthongs
IPA Example Meaning
/aj/ paire father
/aw/ autre other
/uj/ conoiser to know
/uw/ dous sweet
/ɔj/ pois then
/ɔw/ mou it moves
/ej/ vei I see
/ew/ beure to drink
/ɛj/ seis six
/ɛw/ breu short
/yj/ cuid I believe
/iw/ estiu summer
/jɛ/ miels better
/wɛ/ cuelh he receives
/wɔ/ cuolh he receives
stress always falls on middle vowel
/jɛj/ lieis her
/jɛw/ ieu I
/wɔj/ nuoit night
/wɛj/ pueis then
/wɔw/ uou egg
/wɛw/ bueu ox


Old Occitan is a non-standardised language regarding its spelling, meaning that different graphemic signs can represent one sound and vice versa. For example:


Some notable characteristics of Old Occitan:


See also


  1. ^ a b Some Iberian scholars may alternatively classify Occitan as Iberian Romance.

Further reading


  1. ^ Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-28139-3
  2. ^ Frank M. Chambers, An Introduction to Old Provençal Versification. Diane, 1985 ISBN 0-87169-167-1
  3. ^ "The Early Occitan period is generally considered to extend from c. 800 to 1000, Old Occitan from 1000 to 1350, and Middle Occitan from 1350 to 1550" in William W. Kibler, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-8240-4444-4
  4. ^ Smith and Bergin, Old Provençal Primer, p. 2
  5. ^ Paul Cohen, "Linguistic Politics on the Periphery: Louis XIII, Béarn, and the Making of French as an Official Language in Early Modern France", When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Language Competition, and Language Coexistence (Ohio State University Press, 2003), pp. 165–200.
  6. ^ Riquer, Martí de, Història de la Literatura Catalana, vol. 1. Barcelona: Edicions Ariel, 1964
  7. ^ The charts are based on phonologies given in Paden, William D., An Introduction to Old Occitan, New York 1998
  8. ^ Paden 1998: 100–102
  9. ^ Paden, William D. (1998), Introduction to Old Occitan, pp. 102–103
  10. ^ Kraller, Kathrin (2019). Sprachgeschichte als Kommunikationsgeschichte: Volkssprachliche Notarurkunden des Mittelalters in ihren Kontexten. Mit einer Analyse der okzitanischen Urkundensprache und der Graphie. Regensburg: Universität Regensburg. pp. 292–341. ISBN 978-3-88246-415-3.