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Old media, or legacy media,[1] are the mass media institutions that predominated prior to the Information Age; particularly print media, film studios, music studios, advertising agencies, radio broadcasting, and television.[2][3][4]

Old media institutions are centralized and communicate with one-way technologies to a (generally anonymous) mass audience.[4][5] New media computer technologies are interactive and comparatively decentralized; they enable people to telecommunicate with one another.[6] The defining telecommunications network of the Information Age is the Internet.

Advent of new media

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The advent of new communication technology (NCT) has brought forth a set of opportunities and challenges for conventional media.[7] The presence of new media and the Internet in particular, has posed a challenge to conventional media, especially the printed newspaper.[8] Analysts[which?] in industrial organizations and businesses are of the view that the U.S. newspaper industry is suffering through what could be its worst financial crisis since the Great Depression.[9] Advertising revenues are tumbling due to the severe economic downturn, while readership habits are changing as consumers turn to the Internet for free news and information.[citation needed] Some major newspaper chains[which?] are burdened by heavy debts. As in the past, major newspapers have declared bankruptcy as several big city papers shut down, lay off reporters and editors, impose pay reductions, cut the size of the physical newspaper, or turn to Web-only publication (Kirchhoff, 2009). The new media have also affected the way newspapers get and circulate their news. Since 1999, almost 90% of daily newspapers in the United States have been actively using online technologies to search for articles and most of them also create their own news websites to reach new markets.[10] The main phenomenons of cost-cutting are bureau closure, staff reduction, increase in freelancing, stringers, and citizen journalists, reduction of printing costs, increase in advertising space, cuts in logistics thereby changing scope of stories, cuts in resources, office closure, remote/mobile work environments, platform switch, merging and consolidation and closure. It mainly converts physical news to digital news.

Challenges faced

Some observers believe that the challenges faced by conventional media, especially newspapers, has to do with the perfect storm of the global economic crisis, dwindling readership and advertising dollars, and the inability of newspapers to monetize their online efforts.[11] Newspapers, especially in the West and the US in particular, have lost the lion's share of classified advertisement to the Internet. The situation worsened when a depressed economy forced more readers to cancel their newspaper subscriptions, and business firms to cut their advertising budget as part of the overall cost-cutting measurements. As a result, closures of newspapers, bankruptcy, job cuts and salary cuts are widespread.[12] This has made some representatives of the US newspaper industry seek some sort of bailout from the government by allowing U.S. newspapers to recoup taxes they paid on profits earlier this decade to help offset some of their current losses. This is what they put forward to the Joint Committee of Congress (The Star Online, September 2009). Accusations are being hurled at search engines giants by publishers such as Sir David Bell, who categorically accused Google and Yahoo of "stealing" the contents of newspapers. A similar allegation came from media mogul Rupert Murdoch in early April 2009. "Should we be allowing Google to steal all our copyrights?" asked the News Corp Chief.[12] Likewise, Sam Zell, owner of the Tribune Company that publishes the Chicago Tribune, the Los Angeles Times and the Baltimore Sun claimed it was the newspapers in America who allowed Google to steal their contents for nothing, but asked without the contents what would Google do, and how profitable would Google be?[12]

See also


  1. ^ Desjardins, Jeff (10 October 2016). "The slow death of legacy media". Business Insider. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  2. ^ "How Old Media Can Survive in a New World". The Wall Street Journal. 23 May 2005. Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  3. ^ Logan, Robert K. (2010). "The Changing Figure/Ground Relation with the 'New Media'". Understanding New Media: Extending Marshall McLuhan. Peter Lang. p. 8. OCLC 764542063. Retrieved 23 April 2017 – via Google Books.
  4. ^ a b Peterson, Mark Allen (2008) [2003]. "The Ethnography of Media Production". Anthropology & Mass Communication: Media and Myth in the New Millennium. Berghahn Books. p. 170. ISBN 978-1-57181-278-0. OCLC 823761828. Retrieved 23 April 2017 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Becker, Barbara; Wehner, Josef (2001). "Electronic Networks and Civil Society". In Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay (eds.). Culture, Technology, Communication: Towards an Intercultural Global Village. SUNY Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-79145-016-1. OCLC 879232423. Retrieved 23 April 2017 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ Schorr, Angela (2003). "Interactivity: The New Media Use Option—State of the Art". In Schorr, Angela; Schenk, Michael; Campbell, William (eds.). Communication Research and Media Science in Europe: Perspectives for Research and Academic Training in Europe's Changing Media Reality. Mouton de Gruyter. p. 57. OCLC 954099068. Retrieved 23 April 2017 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ Garrison, B., 1996. Successful Strategies for Computer-Assisted Reporting. Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  8. ^ Domingo, D. & A. Heinone. 2008. "Weblogs and Journalism: A Typology to Explore the Blurring Boundaries." Nordicom Review, 29 (1): 3-15. )
  9. ^ Barthelemy, S., M. Bethell, T. Christiansen, A. Jarsvall & K. Koinis. 2011. "
  10. ^ Domingo, D. & A. Heinone. 2008. "Weblogs and Journalism: A Typology to Explore the Blurring Boundaries." Nordicom Review, 29 (1): 3-15. )
  11. ^ Yap, B. 2009. "Time running out for newspapers." The Malaysian Insider. Retrieved 31 October 2010 from
  12. ^ a b c Mahmud, S. 2009. "Is the newspaper industry at death's door?" Retrieved 30 October 2009 from: Times. 22 October 2008.